3.3.7: Individual Choices - Biology

3.3.7: Individual Choices - Biology

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Many of the strategies for preserving biodiversity operate at the level of whole governments or large organizations; however, your choices as an individual also play a role in conservation.

The products you purchase have differing impacts on biodiversity. Educating yourself on the origin of products and food that you purchase and choosing the sustainable options can help preserve biodiveristy. For example, arabica coffee can be grown in the shade, meaning there is no need to fully clear rainforest vegetation when growing this species (figure (PageIndex{a})). However, robusta coffee requires full sun, and cultivating it has a greater impact or rainforest biodiversity. Monterey Bay Aquarium provides a sustainable seafood guide, which identifies seafood choices that have a lower environmental impact. Choosing local products reduces the amount of fossil fuels that were burned to transport them to you, thus reducing carbon emissions that contribute to climate change.

Figure (PageIndex{a}): Shade-grown coffee at a Columbian farm. Image by Brian Smith/American Bird Conservancy/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Northeast Region (CC-BY).

Some products have special certifications that indicate their impact on biodiversity. For example, certified organic products must be cultivated without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which pollute the surrounding areas. Additionally, they cannot contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which have both positive and negative environmental implications. If you cannot afford to buy all organic produce, see the Environmental Working Group's lists of the Clean Fifteen™ (for which pesticide use is already limited) and Dirty Dozen™ (which are high priority to purchase organic or avoid due to high pesticide residues). The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certifies oil palm plantations that follow standards such as avoiding deforestation and using fire to clear land. Additionally, RSPO-certified business must follow guidelines to compensate their employees sufficiently. Fair Trade Certified™ goods must meet social and environmental standards that support the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.

Resource conservation is individual choice that can promote biodiversity. In this case, conservation refers to limiting one's use of resources, such as water, electricity, and gasoline. Landscaping with drought-tolerant plants to limit the need for irrigation or using a low-flow shower head are examples of water conservation. Because much electricity is generated from burning fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas, conserving electricity reduces carbon emissions associated with climate change. Turning off lights and appliances when not in use and insulating one's home to reduce electricity spent on heating and cooling save money and benefit the environment. Similarly, transportation choices such as carpooling, biking, or taking public transportation can limit carbon emissions. Reusing items or not purchasing unnecessary ones also conserves the energy needed to produce and transport these goods and reduces plastic waste, which is particularly harmful to aquatic ecosystems. See chapters about Water Resources, Renewable Energy, and Solid Waste Management for more about resource conservation.

Guide to Planting a Pollinator Garden

Whether you have a few feet on your apartment balcony or several acres, you can promote populations of native bees, butterflies, and other pollinators by building a pollinator garden (figure (PageIndex{b})). The first step is to choose a location. While flowering plants can grow in both shady and sunny locations, consider your audience. Butterflies and other pollinators like to bask in the sun and some of their favorite wildflowers grow best in full or partial sun with some protection from the wind. The next step is to identify your soil type. Take a look at your soil - is it sandy and well-drained or more clay-like and wet? You can turn over a test patch or check out a soil mapper to learn more. Your soil type and the amount of sunlight it gets will help determine the kinds of plants you can grow.

Figure (PageIndex{b}): A diversity of plant species support native pollinators in this pollinator garden. Image by Sara "Asher" Morris (CC-BY-NC).

Next, research which varieties of milkweed and wildflowers are native to your area and do well in your soil and sunlight conditions. Native plants, those that have historically occurred in the area, are the ideal choice, because they require less maintenance and tend to be heartier. Find a nursery that specializes in native plants near you - they’ll be familiar with plants that are meant to thrive in your region. Some examples of pollinator-friendly plants native to California, include the California poppy, California lilac, milkweed, and foothill penstemon. The California Native Plant Society and UC Berkeley Urban Bee Lab have additional plant suggestions. It’s essential to choose plants that have not been treated with pesticides. Choosing perennials will ensure your plants come back each year, reducing the need for maintenance.

Remember to think about more than just the summer growing season. Pollinators need nectar early in the spring, throughout the summer and even into the fall. Choosing plants that bloom at different times will help you create a bright and colorful garden that both you and pollinators will love for months!

Some native bee species use bare soil for nesting. While applying mulch can help control weeds, leaves some bare soil if possible. Some native pollinators also nest in tiny cavities, which may already occur naturally in or near your garden or can be provided with bee boxes.

Make sure to weed and water your garden to keep it healthy. It may take some time, but you will eventually see butterflies and other pollinators enjoying your garden.

Modified by Melissa Ha from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (public domain).

Finally, citizen science provides the opportunity to be directly involved in biological conservation efforts. For some opportunities like Globe at Night, which assess light pollution, or the Lost Ladybug Project, data can be collected independently and submitted online. Others, like bird banding, are scheduled events in which experts train a group of volunteers to complete fieldwork (figure (PageIndex{c})). The federal government's citizen science database lists many such opportunities.

Figure (PageIndex{c}): A volunteer releases a bird after banding. The bird now has an identification band on its leg for future data collection. Image by Alaska Region U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (public domain).

Vodacom Durban July 2021 – Final Field Unveiled

With no surprises in the final field of 18 plus 2 reserve runners, the tension will now build into the big race in ten day’s time, with the official public gallops scheduled for 07h00 at Hollywoodbets Greyville on Thursday.

Snaith 6yo Do It Again – bidding for his third July victory (Pic – Candiese Lenferna)

Justin Snaith goes for his fourth consecutive Vodacom Durban July success armed with a four horse attack, with solid back-up from first reserve runner Silver Host, a good winner of Saturday’s Gr3 Track & Ball Derby.

And the debate over what would be Richard Fourie’s choice in the Snaith arsenal has been answered, with the West Coaster, going for a personal July hat-trick, engaged on dual winner Do It Again, who ran third behind Belgarion in this race last year.

The son of Twice Over has been sparingly campaigned this term, but broke a class record at the course in May, and comes in as one of two 6yo’s with the red-hot Rainbow Bridge.

S’manga Khumalo won the July in 2013 on Heavy Metal for Sean Tarry, and partners defending champion Belgarion.

Only Justin Snaith, Sean Tarry and Candice Bass-Robinson have tasted past success, with the balance of ten trainers looking for their first July trophy.

One man who will be keen to bury a memory is Tyrone Zackey, who will hope that Johnny hero can atone for Smanjemanje’s whisker defeat in 2012.

The provincial representation is highlighted by a trio from the home province, where Tony Rivalland, Alyson Wright and Gareth van Zyl will bid to hold off nine Cape flagbearers, and a sextet from Gauteng, headed by Joey Soma’s bomb, Got The Greenlight.

Vaughan Marshall has a double handed 3yo attack and the veteran must fancy his chances of winning his first July with top-class Linebacker and the dark horse, Rascallion.

She’s A Keeper – done nothing wrong! (Pic – Candiese Lenferna)

There are only two fairer sex gallopers in the field, with rising star Gareth van Zyl and veteran Rob Knuppe looking to realise a lifetime dream with the lightly tried 4yo, She’s A Keeper.

Fanie Bronkhorst has his first July runner with the course specialist Brave Tin Soldier mare Running Brave who will be looking to put in another big-hearted performance.

Notes on Math, Science, and Language Arts

Charlotte Mason used manipulatives to teach math. She emphasized the importance of “things” before “symbols.” She also wanted the children to have a good understanding of why they would perform a certain math function, not just how to perform it. The book Mathematics: An Instrument for Living Teaching will give you all the details on how Charlotte approached math. You can also see live demonstrations of her methods for elementary arithmetic on the 2-DVD set, Charlotte Mason’s Living Math: A Guided Journey.

So choose a math curriculum that uses manipulatives and includes the Why behind the How. Word problems are a great way to explore the Why. Keep lessons short you can do two shorter lessons at separate times throughout the day if you need to.

Not all children need advanced mathematics, such as Calculus. If your child finds math fascinating and wants to pursue it, feel free to do the advanced math courses. If your child is not math-inclined and doesn’t need an advanced course for college requirements, do the Stewardship course and give him practical experience as the family bookkeeper.


Grades 1–3: You can combine your students in grades 1–3 for science if you would like to. The grade-level suggestions give recommendations for living science courses that will help you do that.

Grades 4–6: You can combine your students in grades 4–6 for science if you would like to. The grade-level suggestions give recommendations for living science courses that will help you do that.

Grades 7–12: We recommend that students in the upper grades use the conversational science textbooks listed in the grade-level suggestions. While living books might be more interesting, at this level of study it is difficult to find such books that present current, accurate information. We have also found that many living science books on the advanced science topics teach about the science rather than teaching the science itself. So we list one optional living science book per course as a supplemental read to the conversational textbook. If your child is planning to take college courses, we recommend he or she complete the high school Apologia science courses listed.

Language Arts

Language Arts includes everything you do to help your student hear, speak, read, and write. Many educators break down those four areas into lots of individual skills however, Charlotte Mason combined and integrated many of the skills in her wonderful, language-rich methods. For example, she did not teach vocabulary as a separate subject, but the children’s vocabulary was enlarged as they heard and read quality living books. Other components that are normally classified as Language Arts are included in the Family Enrichment studies and the History studies (poetry, literature, Shakespeare, narration/composition material). You’ll find all the details in the book Hearing and Reading, Telling and Writing: A Charlotte Mason Language Arts Handbook.

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction
To purchase this material click below link
For more classes visit
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results?

• What would happen to an organism if either process stopped?
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results?

• What would happen to an organism if either process stopped?

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction
To purchase this material click below link
For more classes visit
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to action: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmenn (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). New York: Springer.

Ajzen, I. (1989). Attitude structure and behavior. In S. J. Breckler & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude, structure and function (pp. 241–284). New York: Springer.

Ardichvili, A., & Jondle, D. (2009). Ethical business cultures: A literature review and implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 8(2), 223–244. doi:10.1177/1534484309334098.

Armstrong, R. W., Williams, R. J., & Barrett, J. D. (2004). The impact of banality, risky shift and escalating commitment on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 365–370. doi:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000043491.10007.9a.

Awasthi, V. N. (2008). Managerial decision-making on moral issues and the effects of teaching ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 78, 207–223. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9328-6.

Bampton, R., & Maclagan, P. (2009). Does a ‘care orientation’ explain gender differences in ethical decision making? A critical analysis and fresh findings. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(2), 179–191. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2009.01556.x.

Bartels, K. K., Harrick, E., Martell, K., & Strickland, D. (1998). The relationship between ethical climate and ethical problems within human resource management. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(7), 799–804. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9332-x.

Beekun, R. I., Hamdy, R., Westerman, J. W., & HassabElnaby, H. R. (2008). An exploration of ethical decision-making processes in the United States and Egypt. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 587–605. doi:10.1007/s1055-0079578-y.

Beekun, R. I., Stedham, Y., Westerman, J. W., & Yamamura, J. (2010). Effects of justice and utilitarianism on ethical decision making: a cross-cultural examination of gender similarities and differences. Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(4), 309–325. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2010.01600.x.

Bierly, P. E., Kolodinsky, R. W., & Charette, B. J. (2009). Understanding the complex relationship between creativity and ethical ideologies. Journal of Business Ethics, 86, 101–112. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9837-6.

Brown, T. A., Sautter, J. A., Littvay, L., Sautter, A. C., & Bearnes, B. (2010). Ethics and personality: Empathy and narcissism as moderators of ethical decision making in business students. Journal of Education for Business, 85, 203–208. doi:10.1080/08832320903449501.

Brunton, M., & Eweje, G. (2010). The influence of culture on ethical perception held by business students in a New Zealand university. Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(4), 349–362. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2010.01604.x.

Buchan, H. F. (2005). Ethical decision-making in the public accounting profession: An extension of Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 165–181. doi:10.1007/s10551-005-0277-2.

Burnaz, S., Atakan, M. G. S., Topcu, Y. I., & Singhapakdi, A. (2009). An exploratory cross-cultural analysis of marketing ethics: The case of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 371–382. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0422-4.

Cagle, J. A. B., & Baucus, M. S. (2006). Case studies of ethics scandals: Effects on ethical perceptions of finance students. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 213–229. doi:10.1007/s10551-005-8503-5.

Callanan, G. A., Rotenberry, P. F., Perri, D. F., & Oehlers, P. (2010). Contextual factors as moderators of the effect of employee ethical ideology on ethical decision-making. International Journal of Management, 27(1), 52–75.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Wadsworth, L. L. (2009). The impact of moral intensity dimensions on ethical decision-making: Assessing the relevance of orientation. Journal of Managerial Issues, XXI(4), 534–551.

Chan, S. Y. S., & Leung, P. (2006). The effects of accounting students’ ethical reasoning and personal factors on their ethical sensitivity. Managerial Auditing Journal, 21(4), 436–457. doi:10.1108/02686900610661432.

Chang, C. J., & Yen, S. (2007). The effects of moral development and adverse selection conditions on managers’ project continuance decisions: A study in the Pacific-Rim region. Journal of Business Ethics, 76, 347–360. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9286-z.

Chavez, G. A., Wiggins, R. A., & Yolas, M. (2001). The impact of membership in the ethics officer association. Journal of Business Ethics, 34, 39–56. doi:10.1023/A:1011968010131.

Church, B., Gaa, J. C., Khalid Nainar, S. M., & Shehata, M. M. (2005). Experimental evidence relating to the person–situation interactionist model of ethical decision making. Business Ethics Quarterly, 15(3), 363–383.

Connelly, S., Helton-Fauth, W., & Mumford, M. D. (2004). A managerial in-basket study of the impact of trait emotions on ethical choice. Journal of Business Ethics, 51, 245–267. doi:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000032494.51162.d3.

Cullinan, C., Bline, D., Farrar, R., & Lowe, D. (2008). Organization-harm vs. organization-gain ethical issues: An exploratory examination of the effects of organizational commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 225–235. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9414-4.

Curtis, M. B. (2006). Are audit-related ethical decisions dependent upon mood? Journal of Business Ethics, 68, 191–209. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9066-9.

Deshpande, S. P. (2009). A study of ethical decision making by physicians and nurses in hospitals. Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 387–397. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0049-5.

Elango, B., Paul, K., Kundu, S. K., & Paudel, S. K. (2010). Organizational ethics, individual ethics, and ethical intentions in international decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 97, 543–561. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0524-z.

Ethics Resource Center. (2005). Federal sentencing guidelines. Retrieved from

Eweje, G., & Brunton, M. (2010). Ethical perceptions of business students in a New Zealand university: Do gender, age and work experience matter? Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(1), 95–111. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2009.01581.x.

Fernando, M., & Chowdhury, R. M. M. I. (2010). The relationship between spiritual well-being and ethical orientations in decision making: An empirical study with business executives in Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 211–225. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0355-y.

Flaming, L., Agacer, G., & Uddin, N. (2010). Ethical decision-making differences between Philippines and United States students. Ethics and Behavior, 20(1), 65–79. doi:10.1080/10508420903482624.

Flynn, F. J., & Wiltermuth, S. S. (2010). Who’s with me? False consensus, brokerage, and ethical decision-makingin organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1074–1089. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2010.54533202.

Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (1994). Ethical decision-making: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 205–221. doi:10.1007/BF02074820.

Forsyth, D. R. (1980). A taxonomy of ethical ideologies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(1), 175–184. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.39.1.175.

Forte, A. (2004). Business ethics: A study of the moral reasoning of selected business managers and the influence of organizational ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 51, 167–173. doi:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000033610.35181.ef.

Fraedrich, J., Thorne, D. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (1994). Assessing the application of cognitive moral development theory in business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 829–838. doi:10.1007/BF00876263.

Fritzsche, D. J., & Oz, E. (2007). Personal values’ influence on the ethical dimension of decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 75, 335–343. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9256-5.

Gebler, D. (2006). Is your culture a risk factor? Business and Society Review, 111, 337–362. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8594.2006.00276.x.

Gillian, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Graham, J. W. (1986). Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 1–52.

Greenfeld, A. C., Norman, C. S., & Wier, B. (2008). The effect of ethical orientation and professional commitment on earnings management behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 83, 419–434. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9629-4.

Groves, C. M., Vance, K. S., & Paik, Y. (2007). Linking linear/nonlinear thinking style balance and managerial ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 305–325. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9422-4.

Guidice, R. M., Alder, G. S., & Phelan, S. E. (2008). Competitive bluffing: An examination of a common practice and its relationship with performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 535–553. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9957-z.

Haines, R., Street, M. D., & Haines, D. (2008). The influence of perceived importance of an ethical issue on moral judgment, moral obligation, and moral intent. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 387–399. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9502-5.

Hayibor, S., & Wasieleski, D. M. (2009). Effects of the use of availability heuristic on ethical decision-making in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 84, 151–165. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9690-7.

Herington, C., & Weaven, S. (2008). Improving consistency for DIT results using cluster analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 499–514. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9451-z.

Ho, J. A. (2010). Ethical perception: Are differences between ethnic groups situation dependent? Business Ethics: A European Review, 19(2), 154–182. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2010.01583.x.

Hofstede, G. H. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hopkins, W. E., Hopkins, S. A., & Mitchell, B. C. (2008). Ethical consistency in managerial decisions. Ethics and Behavior, 18(1), 26–43. doi:10.1080/10508420701519544.

Hwang, D., Staley, B., Chen, Y. T., & Lan, J. (2008). Confucian culture and whistle-blowing by professional accountants: An exploratory study. Managerial Auditing Journal, 23(5), 504–526. doi:10.1108/02686900810875316.

Jeffrey, C., Dilla, W., & Weatherholt, N. (2004). The impact of ethical development and cultural constructs on auditor judgments: A study of auditors in Taiwan. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(3), 553–579.

Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision-making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 366–395. doi:10.5465/AMR.1991.4278958.

Karacaer, S., Gohar, R., Aygün, M., & Sayin, C. (2009). Effects of personal values on auditor’s ethical decisions: A comparison of Pakistani and Turkish professional auditors. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 53–64. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0102-4.

Kohlberg, L. (1981). Essays in moral development: The philosophy of moral development (Vol. 1). New York: Harper and Row.

Krambia-Kapardis, M., & Zopiatis, A. A. (2008). Unchartered territory: Investigating individual business ethics in Cyprus. Business Ethics: A European Review, 17(2), 138–148. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2008.00527.x.

Kurpis, L. V., Beqiri, M. S., & Helgeson, J. G. (2008). The effects of commitment to moral self-improvement and religiosity on ethics of business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 80, 447–463. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9430-4.

Leitsch, D. L. (2004). Differences in the perceptions of moral intensity in the moral decision process: An empirical examination of accounting students. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 313–323. doi:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000039378.74446.df.

Leitsch, D. L. (2006). Using dimensions of moral intensity to predict ethical decision-making in accounting. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 15(2), 135–149. doi:10.108/06939280600609151.

Loe, T. W., Ferrell, L., & Mansfield, P. (2000). A review of empirical studies assessing ethical decision-making in business. Journal of Business Ethics, 25, 185–204. doi:10.1023/A:1006083612239.

Longenecker, J. G., Moore, C. W., Petty, J. W., Palich, L. E., & McKinney, J. A. (2006). Ethical attitudes in small businesses and large corporations: Theory and empirical findings from a tracking study spanning three decades. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(2), 167–183. doi:10.1111/j.1540-627X.2006.00162.x.

Marquardt, N. (2010). Implicit mental processes in ethical management behavior. Ethics and Behavior, 20(2), 128–148. doi:10.1080/10508421003595950.

Marquardt, N., & Hoeger, R. (2009). The effect of implicit moral attitudes on managerial decision-making: An implicit social cognition approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 157–171. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9754-8.

Marques, P. A., & Azevedo-Pereira, J. (2009). Ethical ideology and ethical judgments in the Portuguese accounting profession. Journal of Business Ethics, 86, 227–242. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9845-6.

Marta, J., Singhapakdi, A., & Kraft, K. (2008). Personal characteristics underlying ethical decisions in marketing situations: A survey of small business managers. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(4), 589–606. doi:10.1111/j.1540-627X.2008.00258.x.

McCullough, P. M., & Faught, S. (2005). Rational moralists and moral rationalists value-based management: Model, criterion and validation. Journal of Business Ethics, 60, 195–205. doi:10.1007/s10551-004-8317-x.

McKinney, J. A., Emerson, T. L., & Neubert, M. J. (2010). The effects of ethical codes on ethical perceptions of actions toward stakeholders. Journal of Business Ethics, 97, 505–516. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0521-2.

McMahon, J. M., & Harvey, R. J. (2006). An analysis of the factor structure of Jones’ moral intensity construct. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 381–404. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-0006-5.

McMahon, J. M., & Harvey, R. J. (2007). The effect of moral intensity on ethical judgment. Journal of Business Ethics, 72, 335–357. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9174-6.

Mencl, J., & May, D. R. (2009). The effects of proximity and empathy on ethical decision-making: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 201–226. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9765-5.

Moberg, D., & Caldwell, D. F. (2006). An exploratory investigation of the effect of ethical culture in activating moral imagination. Journal of Business Ethics, 73, 193–204. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9190-6.

Nguyen, N. T., Basuray, M. T., Smith, W. P., Kopka, D., & McCulloh, D. N. (2008a). Ethics perception: Does teaching make a difference? Journal of Education for Business, November/December, 66–75. doi:10.3200/JOEB.84.2.66-75.

Nguyen, N. T., Basuray, M. T., Smith, W. P., Kopka, D., & McCulloh, D. N. (2008b). Moral issues and gender differences in ethical judgment using Reidenbach and Robin’s (1990) multidimensional ethics scale: Implications in teaching business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 417–430. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9357-9.

O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 1996–2003. Journal of Business Ethics, 59, 375–413. doi:10.1007/s10551-005-2929-7.

O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2011). Moral differentiation: Exploring boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 102, 379–399. doi:10-1007/s10551-0820-2.

O’Leary, C., & Stewart, J. (2007). Governance factors affecting internal auditors’ ethical decision-making: An exploratory study. Managerial Auditing Journal, 22(8), 787–808. doi:10.1108/02686900710819643.

O’Leary, C., & Pangemanan, G. (2007). The effect of groupwork on ethical decision-making of accountancy students. Journal of Business Ethics, 75, 215–228. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9248-5.

Oumlil, A. B., & Balloun, J. L. (2009). Ethical decision-making differences between American and Moroccan managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 84, 457–478. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9719-y.

Pflugrath, G., Martinov-Bennie, N., & Chen, L. (2007). The impact of codes of ethics and experience on auditor judgments. Managerial Auditing Journal, 22(6), 566–589. doi:10.1108/02686900710759389.

Pierce, B., & Sweeney, B. (2009). The relationship between demographic variables and ethical decision making of trainee accountants. International Journal of Auditing, 14, 79–99. doi:10.1111/j/1099-1123.2009.00404.x.

Premeaux, S. F. (2004). The link between management behavior and ethical philosophy in the wake of the Enron convictions. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 13–25. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9745-9.

Rabl, T., & Kühlmann, T. M. (2008). Understanding corruption in organizations—development of empirical assessment of an action model. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 477–495. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9898-6.

Randall, D. M., & Gibson, A. M. (1990). Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 457–471. doi:10.1007/BF00382838.

Reidenbach, R. E., & Robin, D. P. (1988). Some initial steps toward improving the measurement of ethical evaluations of marketing activities. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 871–879. doi:10.1007/BF00383050.

Reidenbach, R. E., & Robin, D. P. (1990). Toward the development of a multidimensional scale for improving evaluations of business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 639–653. doi:10.1007/BF00383391.

Rest, J. R. (1986). Moral development: Advances in research and theory. New York: Praeger.

Reynolds, S. J. (2006). Moral awareness and ethical predispositions: Investigating the role of individual differences in the recognition of moral issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 233–243. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.233.

Robin, D. P., Reidenbach, R. E., & Forrest, P. J. (1996). The perceived importance of an ethical issue as an influence on the ethical decision-making of ad managers. Journal of Business Research, 35, 17–28. doi:10.1016/0148-2963(94)00080-8.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.

Rottig, D., Koufteros, X., & Umphress, E. (2011). Formal infrastructure and ethical decision making: An empirical investigation and implications for supply management. Decision Sciences Journal, 42(1), 163–204. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.2010.00305.x.

Ruedy, N. E., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2010). In the moment: The effect of mindfulness on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 73–87. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0796-y.

Rutledge, R. W., & Karim, K. E. (1999). The influence of self-interest and ethical considerations on managers’ evaluation judgments. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 24(2), 1730184. doi:10.1016/S0361-3682(98)00027-0.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic Press.

Schweitzer, M. F., & Gibson, D. E. (2008). Fairness, feelings and ethical decision-making: Consequences of violating community standards of fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 287–301. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9350-3.

Selart, M., & Johansen, S. T. (2011). Ethical decision making in organizations: The role of leadership stress. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 129–143. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0649-0.

Shafer, W. E., & Simmons, R. S. (2011). Effects of organizational ethical culture on the ethical decisions of tax practitioners in mainland China. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 24(5), 647–668. doi:10.1108/09513571111139139.

Sims, R. L. (2009). Collective versus individualist national cultures: Comparing Taiwan and U.S. employee attitudes toward unethical business practices. Business & Society, 48, 39–59. doi:10.1177/0007650307299224.

Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., & Kraft, K. L. (1996). Moral intensity and ethical decision-making of marketing professionals. Journal of Business Research, 36, 245–255.

Smith, N. C., Simpson, S. S., & Huang, C. (2007). Why managers fail to do the right thing: An empirical study of unethical and illegal conduct. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(4), 633–667.

Spicer, A., Dunfee, T. W., & Bailey, W. J. (2004). Does national context matter in ethical decision making? An empirical test of integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 610–620.

Street, M., & Street, V. L. (2006). The effects of escalating commitment on ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 343–356. doi:10.1007/s10551/005-5836-z.

Su, S. H. (2006). Cultural differences in determining the ethical perception and decision-making of future accounting professionals: A comparison between accounting students from Taiwan and the United States. The Journal of American Academy of Business, 9(1), 147–158.

Sweeney, B., Arnold, D., & Pierce, B. (2010). The impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and demographic variables on auditors’ ethical evaluation and intention to act decisions. Journal of Business Ethics, 93, 531–551. doi:10.1007/s10551-009-0237-3.

Sweeney, B., & Costello, F. (2009). Moral intensity and ethical decision-making: An empirical examination of undergraduate accounting and business students. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 18(1), 75–97. doi:10-1080/09639280802009454.

Treise, D., Weingold, M. F., Conna, J., & Garrison, H. (1994). Ethics in advertising: Ideological correlates of consumer perceptions. Journal of Advertising, XXIII(3), 59–69.

Trevino, L. K. (1986). Ethical decision-making in organizations: a person–situation interactionist model. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 601–617. doi:10.5465/AMR.1986.4306235.

Valentine, S. R., & Bateman, C. R. (2011). The impact of ethical ideologies, moral intensity, and social context on sales-based ethical reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics, 102, 155–168. doi:10-1007/s10551-011-0807-z.

Valentine, S. R., & Rittenburg, T. L. (2007). The ethical decision-making of men and women executives in international business situations. Journal of Business Ethics, 71, 125–134. doi:10-1007/s10551-006-9129-y.

Vitell, S. J., Bing, M. N., Davidson, H. K., Ammeter, A. P., Garner, B. L., & Novicevic, M. M. (2009). Religiosity and moral identity: The mediating role of self-control. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 601–613. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9980-0.

Watson, G., & Berkley, R. A. (2008). Testing the value-pragmatics hypothesis in unethical compliance. Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 463–476. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9953-3.

Watson, G. W., Berkley, R. A., & Papamarcos, S. D. (2009). Ambiguous allure: The value-pragmatics model of ethical decision making. Business and Society Review, 114(1), 1–29. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8594.2009.00333.x.

Westerman, J. W., Beekun, R. I., Stedham, Y., & Yamamura, J. (2007). Peers versus national culture: An analysis of antecedents to ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 75, 239–252. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9250-y.

White, D. W., & Lean, E. (2008). The impact of perceived leader integrity on subordinates in a work team environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 765–778. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9546-6.

Zgheib, P. W. (2005). Managerial ethics: An empirical study of business students in the American University of Beirut. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 69–78. doi:10.1007/s10551-004-6394-5.

Zhang, J., Chiu, R., & Wei, L. (2009). Decision-making process of internal whistleblowing behavior in China: Empirical evidence and implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 25–41. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9831-z.

Zhuang, J., Thomas, S., & Miller, D. L. (2005). Examining culture’s effect on whistle-blowing and peer reporting. Business & Society, 44, 462–486. doi:10.1177/0007650305281848.

Watch the video: Bipolar disorder depression u0026 mania - causes, symptoms, treatment u0026 pathology (July 2022).


  1. Grojar

    Sorry for interrupting you, I also want to express the opinion.

  2. Shermon

    Other variant is also possible

  3. Ruhdugeard

    I thank for the information.

  4. Dar

    Also that we would do without your very good phrase

  5. Faerg

    There are no such

  6. Sherborne

    Quick response )))

Write a message