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How does a tree trunk sprout and grow after being cut?

How does a tree trunk sprout and grow after being cut?


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After I cut trees into logs and remove the branches in winter, they start growing. They sprout out and grow completely normal looking stems and leaves and maintain them all summer. The sprouts mostly appear around the cut branches. Sometimes they last all winter and grow for another year. How does it find the energy and water necessary to maintain and grow these stems without ground connection and a water source?


This is basically the same that happens after pruning and involves a basic hormonal regulation mechanism in the plants.

What happens is that the cut piece of the wood forms a new meristem which allows the growth of new organs. What's important is that there is no other growth happening nearby, since that would hormonally inhibit any further growth. This is why such growths happen once you've cut the wood, not before (on the healthy stem). This inhibitory effect is known as apical dominance, which has now been disabled.

As to where the energy and water comes from, to some extent it is stored within the branches themselves. That's why you need to dry them before being able to use them in a fire. However, this growth is pretty limited. Further water is probably collected by condensation of water vapour in the air.


Issue: March 4, 2000

My tree is 34-years-old and has found its way into my sewer line. Unfortunately, after $800 in drainage bills, the tree has to go. How do I uproot my tree and its roots?

This question is one that concerns many people. However, it should not be a problem. Once the tree has been cut, the roots cannot grow anymore because the leaves are necessary to provide the food to fuel root growth. If the roots continue to produce sprouts with leaves, then in time there may be more root growth. The simple solution to this problem is to remove any sprouts that develop from the roots as soon as they begin to grow. In fact, the production of these sprouts is to your advantage because in order to produce these sprouts, the tree must withdraw food stored in the root. As you remove the sprout, you rob the tree of that stored food and reduce the size of the root by reducing the food stored in it.

The sprouts may be removed manually by cutting them just below the soil surface, digging to remove them and a piece of the root to which they are attached, or by use of herbicides. Translocated herbicides, those which are absorbed into the leaves and translocated into the roots, will be more effective than the contact herbicides that kill only those plant parts with which they come into contact. If you use herbicides, read and carefully follow the directions on the label.

It is possible to use some herbicides before removing the tree to kill more of the root system more rapidly than by just cutting the tree. This is done by applying the herbicide to notches cut into the trunk, just deeper than the bark. Don't make the notches (called frills on the herbicide label) too deep. Your objective is to cut to the phloem layer which is just under the bark. The phloem is the tissue in the plant that carries food from the leaves to the roots. This is most effective in the autumn, though it will also work well if done in the summer. It is important that there be leaves producing food which is being translocated to the roots through the phloem. Look for herbicides labeled for this purpose. A few weeks after applying the herbicide the tree may be cut.

Root problems are worse in older types of sewer systems composed of tiles or tar paper rolled to form pipe. These systems are prone to leakage which attracts the roots to the pipe and provides the roots a means of entrance into the pipe. Newer plastic sewer pipe is less subject to root problems since, if properly installed, it will not leak and attract the roots. There is still a chance that a root will grow along side the pipe. As the root grows in diameter, it may then crush the pipe, cracking it, and allowing leakage and root entry into the pipe.

Send your gardening questions to Yard and Garden, ATTN: Dr. Curtis Smith, NMSU Cooperative Extension Service, 9301 Indian School Road, NE, Suite 112, Albuquerque, NM 87112. Curtis W. Smith, Ph.D., is an Extension Horticulture Specialist with New Mexico State University's Cooperative Extension Service. New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator.

We seek to improve the lives of New Mexicans, the nation, and the world through research, teaching, and extension.


Gardening: Shoots on tree trunks, some branches should be removed

Epicormic (epi = upon, kormos = tree trunk) growth is the technical term for shoots that develop from hidden buds on tree trunks and branches.

Suckers, which grow out of tree trunks, often at their base, and water sprouts, which grow vertically from tree branches, or at any angle from stubs of broken branches, are the two types of epicormic growth that trees produce.

Suckers and water sprouts develop as a response to stress. They grow from latent, invisible buds beneath the bark that may lie dormant for as long as a hundred years in certain oak trees. These buds are a tree’s insurance policy in case of sudden environmental stress brought on by extreme cold, branch breakage, flooded soil, fire, insect pest devastation or fungal or bacterial disease.

Epicormic growth at the base of the trunk is common on fruit trees, especially if the graft union is less than perfect. Fruit trees purchased at nurseries consist of the cloned scion variety (Eureka lemon, for example) grafted onto a rootstock, which is typically grown from the seed of a different species such as — in the case of citrus trees — Volkamer lemon, sour orange or citrange.

Rootstock species are chosen for the vigor they impart to the scion. However, if the graft union is flawed, suckers will sprout from the rootstock. If you allow rootstock suckers from citrus trees to grow and develop fruit, that fruit would be bitter.

Water sprouts proliferate on branches of trees whose growing conditions leave something to be desired. For example, citrus trees that do not receive sun all day are prone to develop water sprouts.

Suckers are also frequently found on roses, owing to the extreme vigor of the rootstock species and the fact that quality control, where grafting is concerned, is sometimes an issue when tens of thousands of plants are being grafted by a single grower over a short period of time.

Always purchase the highest-quality roses you can find, even if it means you have to pay a little more. Roses come in three grades: 1, 1.5, and 2.0, with 1 being the highest grade and the most expensive, but also the best value in the long run.

Suckers and water sprouts should be removed as soon as you notice them. They compete with flowering shoots for the tree’s mineral resources. It’s true that water sprouts, coming from the top portion of the tree, will eventually produce fruit of the scion variety, but that will not happen for several years and, meanwhile, water sprouts take away valuable resources from already fruitful branches and shoots whose crop, if water sprout growth is left intact, will be diminished.

There is one occasion when water sprouts are a welcome sight and that is when a branch breaks, whether in a storm or under the weight of too much fruit. After the stub of the broken branch is cut away, water sprouts are likely to grow from that spot. Prune off all but one, then train it so that, in time, it will fill in the area left vacant by the broken branch.

A correspondent who gardens in Downey sent a picture of a peach tree with seemingly healthy branches that has neither leafed out nor flowered this year. Suckers are growing from the trunk.

Reed avocados (Photo by Linda Roselund)

I believe this peach variety is ill-suited to its location, meaning it needs more winter chill hours (hours below 45 degrees) to leaf out and flower than it got this past winter, or that the soil is dangerously wet, another factor that can prevent spring growth in deciduous trees and result in sucker development.

For more information about area plants and gardens, go to Joshua Siskin’s website, thesmartergardener.com. Send questions and photos to [email protected]

Tip of the week

Five years ago, after tasting a ‘Reed’ avocado at the Pasadena Farmers’ Market, Linda Roselund, who gardens in Rosemead, purchased a ‘Reed’ avocado tree from San Gabriel Nursery.

It took a while for the tree to settle in, but now it has begun to produce a good sized crop and the fruit, she writes “are the size of softballs, with a tough outer skin and creamy inside. My largest fruit weighed one pound, four ounces!

“Even though surrounded by a large ‘Valencia’ orange to the north and two tall redwood trees to the south, the site gets good sun from late morning until the end of the day.”


Some fruit trees will grow back from stump

A: Yes, but it depends on the fruit tree where the new growth occurs and the kind of growth that results from damage. In my opinion, it’s worth the effort since you will know whether or not this is successful in a couple months after you cut off the trunk.

Most fruit trees are grafted. If you look at the trunk of the tree near the soil surface, you will see that the trunk is slightly crooked, perhaps 2 to 6 inches above the soil. This crooked part of the trunk is called the “dogleg.”

The dogleg is the place where the top of the tree — that gives us good fruit — was grafted to the bottom part, or rootstock, to give us good roots. This was done when the tree was very young.

New growth growing from the dogleg or below it must always be removed. But new growth, or suckers, coming from above the dogleg may be kept. But deciding which to keep depends on the type of growth.

Keep the new growth growing from above the dogleg if this new growth (suckers) is at a wide angle from the trunk. The angle or space between the trunk and sucker, where it is attached to the trunk, is called the “crotch angle.”

A wide crotch angle is important for strong future growth and fruit production. If this angle is too small, the point of attachment to the trunk is weak and will not support the weight needed in future years.

Whether to keep a sucker or not is decided only after a few weeks of new growth. It all depends on the crotch angle of this sucker. If this crotch angle is wide or strong enough, keep the sucker. In fact, keep several of these suckers if you’re lucky enough to get that many. You can decide later which one you will keep.

Growth of these suckers will be extremely rapid and strong because the roots of the old tree are providing the water and nutrients for this growth. Without the top of the tree to feed, all the water and nutrients are being fed into this new growth.

At the end of the growing season, during winter pruning, decide which sucker to keep and remove all the others. Remove the trunk above this sucker.

Cut this remaining sucker at knee height (about 28 inches) during winter pruning. This cut will force several new suckers to form below this cut in different directions the following spring. This new growth will be the foundation limbs — future scaffold limbs — of your new tree.

Peach and nectarine trees sucker from the trunk very poorly and may, in fact, die after cutting trunk. This is a risk but if you don’t see any new growth by the end of March, following your winter trunk removal, buy a replacement tree. You will lose maybe a couple of months of growth.

The best luck is from plum or pluot, apricot, apple, pear and many others. With these trees, wait until April or May to make your decision about whether to replace the tree or not since spring growth is later than peach.

Q: Should drip irrigation run during daylight hours or at night? I’m assuming there would be less water loss from evaporation if they run at night, but that makes finding bad emitters more difficult.

A: Time of day doesn’t matter if you’re using real drip emitters and not adjustable emitters that flood water on the soil surface. If there is standing water after using your drip emitters, then evaporation is a problem and it’s best if it’s done at night.

Drip irrigation is designed to slowly release water in one small area so this water enters the soil and doesn’t puddle on top. When adjustable emitters are used, the kind that can be adjusted to release more or less water, then this water may form water puddles on top of the soil.

The key to evaporation is whether there is standing water. If it is truly drip and not adjustable drip emitters which flood the area, then evaporation is minimal.

Always check first with local laws, regulations or policies regarding when it is lawful or advisable to irrigate.

Consider applying wood chips to the soil surface instead of rock to conserve water. Wood chips on the surface of the soil where water is released will slowly rot and improve the soil in only a few months. This soil improvement helps water released from drip emitters to enter the soil more quickly and reduce puddling and evaporation.

Free wood chips are available from the University Orchard in North Las Vegas or the Cooperative Extension office south of the airport. Call the master gardener help line at 702-257-5555 to get directions where to get it.

Q: Please give some tips on pruning my young sweet lime planted in 2015: when to prune, how tall to keep its growth on my limited backyard space, fertilizing and if pruning should be done every year?

A: Most information on pruning citrus will tell you to prune very little. Citrus of any type have few problems corrected by pruning. They seldom need to be pruned to improve fruit production, unlike other fruit trees.

However, they will need to be pruned to keep them smaller. Prune to reduce their size to about 60 percent of their mature size.

Pruning to reduce size but maintain production must be done every year. Prune these trees after harvesting the fruit so that it doesn’t interfere with next season’s fruit production. This is also the best time to apply fertilizer.

To control the height, identify those stems contributing to an undesirable height. These, most likely, will be almost vertical. Follow the stems along their entire length and remove them completely at the point where they become vertical.

This may be at a point deep inside the canopy. It doesn’t matter if they do. Remove them with a clean, close cut.

The tree wants to become tall and bigger. You want the tree to produce fruit but stay small. This is where you are at odds with the tree. Control the tree, don’t let it control you.

The best fruit production comes from stems not growing vertically. Consistent fruit production comes from stems closer to horizontal, no more than 45 percent above horizontal. Upright stems favor growth over fruit production.

If the width of the tree is a problem, reduce the length of these horizontal or near-horizontal stems. To do this, follow the length of the offending stem toward the inside of the tree. Remove a portion of this stem that is offensive at a juncture with another stem. Do not leave stubs.

Finally, remove any stems that are crossing or broken in the interior canopy.

Adding fertilizer to plants, particularly those high in nitrogen (the first number on the bag), should be done every year to maintain a high level of fruit production, but the amount applied should be adjusted according to the needs of the plant. If the tree is growing excessively, reduce the amount of fertilizer applied but don’t eliminate it.

If you see the beginning of undesirable growth, pull it out when you see it. If you pull it young enough, you will not need to cut it.

Pull it with your hands. Pulling is better than cutting but this technique needs frequent visits to the tree and exploring the inside of the canopy in order to see it early enough.

Q: My schedule was to fertilize my citrus plants on Presidents’ Day, but because of the drop in the temperatures, I decided to postpone. It has stayed cold. So when should I fertilize?

A: Everything has slowed down because of the temperatures. As soon as it warms up would be fine. If they need some extra help, consider foliar feeding them with a tomato-type fertilizer in three or four weeks. Don’t forget to apply iron either in the soil or combined with your foliar feeding.


How does a tree trunk sprout and grow after being cut? - Biology

New International Version
“At least there is hope for a tree: If it is cut down, it will sprout again, and its new shoots will not fail.

New Living Translation
“Even a tree has more hope! If it is cut down, it will sprout again and grow new branches.

English Standard Version
“For there is hope for a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that its shoots will not cease.

Berean Study Bible
For there is hope for a tree: If it is cut down, it will sprout again, and its tender shoots will not fail.

King James Bible
For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

New King James Version
“For there is hope for a tree, If it is cut down, that it will sprout again, And that its tender shoots will not cease.

New American Standard Bible
“For there is hope for a tree, When it is cut down, that it will sprout again, And its shoots will not fail.

NASB 1995
“For there is hope for a tree, When it is cut down, that it will sprout again, And its shoots will not fail.

NASB 1977
“For there is hope for a tree, When it is cut down, that it will sprout again, And its shoots will not fail.

Amplified Bible
“For there is hope for a tree, If it is cut down, that it will sprout again, And that the shoots of it will not cease nor fail, [but there is no such hope for man].

Christian Standard Bible
There is hope for a tree: If it is cut down, it will sprout again, and its shoots will not die.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
There is hope for a tree: If it is cut down, it will sprout again, and its shoots will not die.

American Standard Version
For there is hope of a tree, If it be cut down, that it will sprout again, And that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Because there is hope for a tree that if it is cut, it is renewed again its offshoots are not lacking

Brenton Septuagint Translation
For there is hope for a tree, even if it should be cut down, that it shall blossom again, and its branch shall not fail.

Contemporary English Version
When a tree is chopped down, there is always the hope that it will sprout again.

Douay-Rheims Bible
A tree hath hope: if it be cut, it groweth green again, and the boughs thereof sprout.

English Revised Version
For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

Good News Translation
There is hope for a tree that has been cut down it can come back to life and sprout.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
There is hope for a tree when it is cut down. It will sprout again. Its shoots will not stop sprouting.

International Standard Version
"There is hope for the tree, if it is cut down, that it will sprout again, and that its shoots won't stop growing.

JPS Tanakh 1917
For there is hope of a tree, If it be cut down, that it will sprout again, And that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

Literal Standard Version
For there is hope for a tree, if it is cut down, That it changes again, That its tender branch does not cease.

NET Bible
"But there is hope for a tree: If it is cut down, it will sprout again, and its new shoots will not fail.

New Heart English Bible
"For there is hope for a tree, If it is cut down, that it will sprout again, that the tender branch of it will not cease.

World English Bible
"For there is hope for a tree, If it is cut down, that it will sprout again, that the tender branch of it will not cease.

Young's Literal Translation
For there is of a tree hope, if it be cut down, That again it doth change, That its tender branch doth not cease.

Job 14:6
look away from him and let him rest, so he can enjoy his day as a hired hand.

Job 14:8
If its roots grow old in the ground and its stump dies in the soil,

Isaiah 6:13
And though a tenth remains in the land, it will be burned again. As the terebinth and oak leave stumps when felled, so the holy seed will be a stump in the land."

Daniel 4:15
But leave the stump with its roots in the ground, and a band of iron and bronze around it, in the tender grass of the field. Let him be drenched with the dew of heaven and graze with the beasts on the grass of the earth.

For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

Job 14:14 If a man die, shall he live again? all the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come.

Job 19:10 He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone: and mine hope hath he removed like a tree.

Isaiah 11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:


Hire Professionals

If you destroy tree branches, there is a chance new branches may not grow at all. The best way to avoid this type of scenario is to hire professionals like those at Mr. Tree to prune your trees. Let’s be honest: unless you have experience doing this kind of work—and even if you do, that does not necessarily mean that experience is at an expert level—the odds are pretty high that you could make some major mistakes, and your tree will most certainly pay the price.

With professionals like Mr. Tree, that doesn’t need to be a worry, because they have a fully trained, experienced staff, and all the equipment necessary to get the job done quickly and correctly. Plus, they will safely clean up any mess their work creates and dispose of the waste. Not to mention, they are professionals and fully insured, so safety is a top priority, and if there are any injuries or any accidental damage while the work is being completed, you will not be held liable.


Somebody please help - tree death messing up my whole plan!!

I need a new rug for this room.

Tree remove - grinding stump help/advice

Tree experts: best way to trim backside of this tree as it grows?

Spruceman

I see questions about stump sprouts fairly often in this forum--it is an important and interesting issue. I have had a lot of experience with trees from stump sprout origin, and have read a number of silvicultural articles about it. Here are some important points.

First, different species of trees have different potentials for successful stump sprout regeneration. With some species, such as black cherry, stump sprouts are almost universally successful, and often result in magnificent trees, strong, vigorous, and basically as good as trees of seedling origin. Other kinds of trees are a bit more "iffy," such as red maple. But even red maple stump sprouts can result in good trees.

I really don't have any information about birch trees, and it may make a difference which kind of birch you have.

But here are some general guidelines. First, for the first year, leave all the sprouts to grow. It looks like you are in the second year now, so here is what you should do. Remove all the sprouts that are near the top of the stump--those near where the point where the tree was cut off. Remove these even if some of them seem to be the most vigorous. Next, look for those that are lowest on the stump. Any that are growing at or just above the root collar, if you can identify that, are those that have the best potential. If any of these are among the most vigorous, and come out from the stump fairly straight, these are your best potential trees. If you can find anywhere from two to as many as five of these, leave them all for now. But, if any two or more of these "best sprouts" are growing close to each other--within 3 inches or so--remove all but one from each group/pair. Now remove all the other sprouts.

Next year you can remove all but the best two or three. Then you can decide if you want a clump of more than one tree or just one. If you want just one, wait one more year, and then remove all but the one that seems to be the strongest. If one is lower on the stump--closer to the root collar--that should get some priority, unless some other one that is nearly as low seems clearly more vigorous.

If you do these things--and have sprouts at or near the root collar--your chances of getting a really good new tree this way are very high. Stump sprout trees do not necessarily have the rot from the stump migrate into the new tree--ever--especially if they grow from a point very near the root collar. And, although they can easily be broken off when they are very young, later these trees can be very strong and are not more likely to break than other trees.


What is going on in a tree stump immediately after the tree is cut down? Does the stump continue to try to live? Is the tree instantly dead like a human would be if the human suffered something equally catastrophic?

They rely on stored energy in the roots to produce new shoots that are quickly productive on a small-scale. The root infrastructure for getting water and minerals is still strong.

Is it possible to learn this power?

Real question: how long would this proccess take before it became a full tree again.

interestingly, this regrowth behavior will even occur in saplings. it's most noticeable in a beaver-inhabited area - after the beavers have chewed down saplings, they will sprout several new limbs and regrow foliage. makes the tree's appearance pretty crazy if it survives.

Don’t they need leaves to pull the water through it?

It really depends on the species of tree. One of the reasons why Beavers are so destructive in South America (where they're an invasive species) it's that the trees down there so not regrow after being munched on. In North America, the Beaver goes after species like Poplar, Aspen and so forth that do coppice, making their habits more or less sustainable.

So what happens to the root system then if it does start coming back? Perhaps this is not how it works, but I am imagining that if you have a single branch with just a couple leaves starting to grow that the sunlight it takes in with just those few leaves is not enough to sustain a very large root system.

fat wood which is used to start fires is based on the continued production of sap in roots when a tree has been cut down. To make it pine trees are cut down leaving a stump a foot or so tall. The roots continue to produce the sap that would have supplied the entire tree. The sap becomes concentrated in the remaining stump. The stump is then cut off the roots after sap production has stopped. The harvested piece of stump is then split down into pieces just bigger than the thickness of a pencil. These pieces can be lit easily with a match. The sap acts as an accelerant. It’s a great natural way to start wood stoves etc.

How long does sap production continue? are there visual cues to know when the remainder of the stump can be cut?

Fat wood also occurs in the knots of large branches. When a tree dies, the resin flows back down the limb due to gravity and collects at the joints.

Always wondered how those were made, never imagined they were made naturally (other than cutting down the tree, of course). Very neat stuff!

Let's start out by saying trees have hormones. Auxin is produced in the leaves and travels down to the roots, sort of as a way of saying to the roots "hey I'm here and I'm making sugar!" The roots produce cytokinin, which travels up to the leaves and says "hey I'm here and I'm getting water and micronutrients!"

When a tree is cut, the auxin isn't being produced anymore, so the roots start to freak out. "Where did the leaves go!! We need to produce sugar!!" This is why sometimes you see what's called stump sprouting. Oaks, maples, sweetgum, etc will sometimes put little shoots up after being cut. This is the tree's attempt to come back alive to produce more sugar.

So yes, the tree is usually still alive and trying to produce more sugars. Unfortunately, any new leaves it puts out just isn't adequate for the root system of the previously much larger tree, and the roots eventually die.


How Much Does Pine Tree Removal Cost?

If you’re bent on taking down that pine tree in your backyard, you can hire someone to have it cut down. This can cost you a bit, though, and the price depends mostly on the height and the overall size of the pine tree. On average, the cost to cut down a 40-foot pine tree is about $1,900 (according to www.gotreequotes.com). The price can shoot up dramatically beyond this, with 80-foot pine trees costing a whopping $4,500 or more.

For an extra cost, you can also hire these professionals to remove the tree stump once they’re done with the rest of the tree. Grinding down the tree stumps can cost you anywhere between $80 to $140 extra, depending on the diameter of the stump itself.


How does a tree trunk sprout and grow after being cut? - Biology

The sugar maple is the largest and most long lived of the three types of maples (sugar, silver, and red) found on the Nature Trail. Mature specimens reach heights of seventy to one hundred feet and diameters of two to three feet. Some individuals attain ages of over three hundred years. The sugar maple is called a "hard" maple because of the density and strength of its wood. The long life of the tree and its resistance to disease and infestations are without question due to the durability of its trunk and branch wood. Like other maples, the sugar maple has a shallow, spreading root system that is well adapted to wet soil conditions. The sugar maple, though, is not as restricted as the other maples to wet habitats and can form a deep root system in well-drained, deep upland soils.

The distinctive leaves of the sugar maple are from three to five inches in diameter and equally as wide. They have five deep, long-pointed lobes that often have a variable number of narrow, pointed teeth. The leaves are dark green above and a paler green below. In the fall the leaves turn an assortment of colors which include deep red, orange and yellow making a very distinctive autumnal crown appearance.

The flowers are yellowish-green, and they open just before the leaves expand in the early spring. Flowers are produced in great abundance every two to five years. During these heavy flower years sugar maples have a very distinctive early spring, yellow-green "glow" that is easily visible even some distances away. Samaras from the pollinated flowers developed through the summer and are released in the autumn in great abundance. Eight million maple seeds per acre have been collected in old growth sugar maple sites. Seedlings emerge in the spring. These seedlings grow well in the shaded conditions of the forest floor. Sugar maples are also able to stump sprout and root sprout after they are cut. An established sugar maple forest, then, via prodigious seed production, sprouting and long lived individuals is able to maintain itself even in the face of disruptive or destructive ecological events.

The bark of the sugar maple is light gray. It becomes very rough and deeply furrowed as the tree ages forming irregular ridges, plates and scales. The appearance and patterning of the bark of specific trees is quite individualized and variable. In the shaded conditions of the forest the trunk of the sugar maple is long and straight up into a dense, high crown. In more open conditions the trunk often branches near the ground to form a very wide, dense, rounded crown of branches and foliage.

The sugar maple is found in a number of forest associations with conifers (like white pine, red spruce, hemlock) in the northern parts of its range and with a number of hardwood species (like white ash, yellow poplar, hickories and oaks) through the rest of its northeastern U.S. range.

The sugar maple is probably best know as the source of sweet sap that can be converted into maple syrup or sugar. A tree tapped in the early spring as the sap begins to rise can yield between five and sixty gallons of sap. This sap is then boiled down to produce syrup or sugar. Thirty-two gallons of sap are needed to produce a single gallon of syrup and, as the precise sugar content of a tree's sap varies, between four and eight pounds of sugar.

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