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16: Inheritance and Biotechnology - Biology

16: Inheritance and Biotechnology - Biology


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This chapter provides the molecular background for understanding heredity; explains Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance in humans; some genetic disorders and their treatment, and explores recent advances in genetics.

  • 16.1: Case Study- Genes and Inheritance
    People tend to look similar to their biological parents, as illustrated by the family tree above. But, you can also inherit traits from your parents that you can't see.
  • 16.2: Mendel's Experiments and Laws of Inheritance
    Mendel experimented with the inheritance of traits in pea plants at a time when the blending theory of inheritance was popular. This is the theory that offspring have a blend of the characteristics of their parents.
  • 16.3: Genetics of Inheritance
    Mendel did experiments with pea plants to show how traits such as seed shape and flower color are inherited. Based on his research, he developed his two well-known laws of inheritance: the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment.
  • 16.4: Mendelian Inheritance
    Mendelian inheritance refers to the inheritance of traits controlled by a single gene with two alleles, one of which may be completely dominant to the other. The pattern of inheritance of Mendelian traits depends on whether the traits are controlled by genes on autosomes or by genes on sex chromosomes.
  • 16.5: Non-Mendelian Inheritance
    Many human traits have more complicated modes of inheritance than Mendelian traits. Such modes of inheritance are called non-Mendelian inheritance, and they include inheritance of multiple allele traits, traits with codominance or incomplete dominance, and polygenic traits, among others.
  • 16.6: Genetic Disorders
    Genetic disorders are diseases, syndromes, or other abnormal conditions that are caused by mutations in one or more genes or by chromosomal alterations. Genetic disorders are typically present at birth, but they should not be confused with congenital disorders, which are any disorders, regardless of cause, that are present at birth. Some congenital disorders are not caused by genetic mutations or chromosomal alterations and are caused by problems during embryonic or fetal development.
  • 16.7: Biotechnology
    Biotechnology is the use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes. Generally, the goal of biotechnology is to modify organisms so they are more useful to humans. For example, biotechnology may be used to create crops that yield more food or resist insect pests or viruses, such as the virus-resistant potatoes pictured above. Research is also underway to use biotechnology to cure human genetic disorders with gene therapy.
  • 16.8: Case Study Cancer Conclusion and Chapter Summary
    Rebecca's family tree, as illustrated in the pedigree above, shows a high incidence of cancer among close relatives. But are genes the cause of cancer in this family? Only genetic testing, which is the sequencing of specific genes in an individual, can reveal whether a cancer-causing gene is being inherited in this family.

Interactive resources for schools

Polymerase chain reaction

PCR is a series of temperature-controlled reactions which enable us to amplify a very tiny sample of DNA, producing enough material for it to be analysed or used in DNA profiling.

Genetically modified

This indicates that an animal or plant has had its genetic makeup altered in some way. This is often by combining the genes from different organisms to produce an organism with desirable characteristics

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering involves changing the DNA of an organism, usually by deleting, inserting or editing a gene to produce desired characteristics.

Transformation

When a bacterium picks up pieces of DNA directly from the environment around the cell.

Biotechnology

The use of biological organisms or enzymes to create, break down or transform a material.

Stem cell

Cells which can divide repeatedly without becoming differentiated and have the capacity to develop into a diverse range of specialised cell types.

Glossary

A list of often difficult or specialised words with their definitions.

Enzyme

Reusable protein molecules which act as biological catalysts, changing the rate of chemical reactions in the body without being affected themselves

Deoxyribonucleic acid. This is the molecule which contains the genetic code. It coils up tightly inside chromosomes. DNA is a double helix made from two strands which are joined together by pairs of bases.

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the use of biological organisms or enzymes in the synthesis, breakdown or transformation of materials.

Biotechnology includes a whole range of processes, from the traditional production of cheeses, wine, bread and beer to the latest technologies that manipulate the DNA to produce genetically modified organisms which can be used to synthesise medicines or other chemicals for medical use.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the medical developments with the greatest potential to improve human health are all linked to biotechnology.

Contents

Click here to download the Biotechnology poster shown below.

Click to download the key word summary of the topic shown below.

To order a free set of ABPI schools posters on the following topics: biotechnology, cloning, genetic engineering, unravelling the genome, polymerase chain reaction and stem cells, please fill in our order form.

How to use this site

There are a number of interactive features in this e-source:

  • A glossary of terms: any word with a glossary entry is highlighted like this. Moving the mouse over the highlighted word will show a definition of that word.
  • Quick questions: at the end of most pages or sections there is a question or set of quick questions to test your understanding.
  • Animations: most of the animations can be expanded to full screen size, ideal for showing on an interactive whiteboard. The animations will play all the way through or can be viewed one section at a time.
  • Downloads: Teachers can download individual diagrams, animations and other content from the Download Library area of the website. Terms and Conditions apply.

Follow us on twitter. We use cookies on our website.By using our website you consent to our use of cookies in accordance with our Cookie & Privacy Policy. The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry ABPI Resources for Schools, ABPI, 7th floor, Southside, 105 Victoria Street, London, SW1E 6QT

Interactive resources for schools

Eukaryotic cells

Cells that make up animals, plants, fungi and protista. They are three-dimensional, membrane-bound sacs containing cytoplasm, a nucleus and a range of membrane-bound organelles.

Human genome

The complete sequence of all 20,000-25,000 human genes. That is, which chromosomes they are in and whereabouts the gene appears on that chromosome's piece of DNA.

Chromosome

A chromosome is like a packet of coiled up DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. They are in the nucleus of every human cell.

Inheritance

The transfer of characteristics from parents to children through their genes.

Glossary

A list of often difficult or specialised words with their definitions.

Protein

A polymer made up of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. The amino acids present and the order in which they occur vary from one protein to another.

Enzyme

Reusable protein molecules which act as biological catalysts, changing the rate of chemical reactions in the body without being affected themselves

Nucleus

The part of a cell that controls the cell function and contains the chromosomes.

Deoxyribonucleic acid. This is the molecule which contains the genetic code. It coils up tightly inside chromosomes. DNA is a double helix made from two strands which are joined together by pairs of bases.

Genes and Inheritance

Genetic information is passed from one generation to the next- this is called inheritance. Genetic information is stored in DNA, which is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The complete amount of genetic information present in an organism is called the genome.

The human genome contains approximately 20,000-25,000 different genes arranged among 23 pairs of chromosomes. These genes contain the code to make proteins, which are involved in the development and functioning of body organs and systems. Proteins are essential to life and have many functions in the body, for example, as enzymes, regulators and structural molecules.


Interactive resources for schools

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering involves changing the DNA of an organism, usually by deleting, inserting or editing a gene to produce desired characteristics.

Tertiary structure

The final 3D structure of a protein. This structure is produced when the secondary structure of the polypeptide chain is folded.

Hydrogen bond

An intermolecular attractive force between hydrogen, when it is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom (fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen), and an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom on another molecule.

Stereospecific

Specific in three dimensions.

Biotechnology

The use of biological organisms or enzymes to create, break down or transform a material.

Chymotrypsin

A protein digesting enzyme found in the mammalian small intestine that is activated by trypsin.

Fermentation

Process where microorganisms are cultured so that they reproduce and increase in quantity.

Ionic bonds

Bonds formed by the complete transfer of one or more electron from one atom to another, so both achieve a stable outer shell. The positive and negative ions formed are held together by strong electrostatic forces - these are ionic bonds.

Trypsin

A protein-digesting enzyme found in the mammalian small intestine.

Pepsin

A protein-digesting enzyme found in the mammalian stomach.

Urease

The enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of urea and the first pure enzyme to be extracted and crystallised.

Starch

A complex carbohydrate made as an energy store plants

Faeces

The waste material left at the end of the digestive process made up of undigested food, dead cells, bacteria and water

The poisonous waste compound produced when excess amino acids are broken down in your liver

A common term for the digestive system.

What is an enzyme?

1. Enzymes are proteins: Most enzymes are globular proteins. The bonds holding the amino acids together are peptide bonds but hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds and ionic bonds work together to produce a secondary and tertiary structure.

Most enzymes are globular proteins

2. Enzymes have an active site: Within the globular protein structure of an enzyme is the active site. This is a 3D depression or hollow shape that is vital to the way the enzyme functions. The three dimensional, stereospecific shape of the active site is the result of the folding of the protein molecule. Anything that affects the shape of the active site will affect the ability of the enzyme to bind to the substrate or substrates and catalyse a reaction.

This computer generated model of the enzyme COX-2 shows the active site in red (Jeff Dahl, public domain).

3. Enzymes are very specific: An enzyme will only catalyse one type of reaction. Some enzymes are so specific that they will only catalyse one particular reaction. This is due to shape of the active site. The active site is stereospecific – in other words, it is specific in three dimensions. So, for example, it will only bind to one stereoisomer or enantiomer of a substrate molecule, not both (See Chemistry of Life, page 4).

4. Enzymes change the rate of a reaction: They act as catalysts so they do not affect the end products or the equilibrium of the reaction that they catalyse.

A brief history of enzymes

Animal faeces contain enzymes that were used for centuries to soften leather


Interactive resources for schools

Intramolecular bonds

Forces between molecules or between parts of a molecule e.g. hydrogen bonds.

Amino acid

The basic building blocks of proteins. There are twenty amino acids used, in different combinations, to make every protein required by the human body.

Active site

The specially shaped site on an enzyme where the substrates of the reaction bind. It is formed by the folding of the amino acid chains which make up the protein.

Protein

A polymer made up of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. The amino acids present and the order in which they occur vary from one protein to another.

Glossary

A list of often difficult or specialised words with their definitions.

Enzyme

Reusable protein molecules which act as biological catalysts, changing the rate of chemical reactions in the body without being affected themselves

The basic unit from which all living organisms are built up, consisting of a cell membrane surrounding cytoplasm and a nucleus.

Enzymes – biological catalysts that control the reactions of life

Inside every cell hundreds of chemical reactions take place. Enzymes help control the rate of all these reactions and make sure that they take place at the right place and in the right order for the cell to survive.

Contents

How do the right chemicals react together in your cells? Why do reactions take place so fast inside a cell? Why is it so dangerous if you have a fever that goes over 40°C? How can organisms survive in hot springs at temperatures above the boiling point of water?

Enzymes are globular proteins, built up of chains of amino acids. The shape of the molecule is held together by intramolecular bonds. The shape of an enzyme is key to the way it functions. Anything that affects the shape of the active site affects the function of the enzyme itself.

Enzymes control the rate of all the reactions in the body. Specialised feedback control systems enable the rate of complex chains of reactions to be matched to the demands of the body.

Enzymes are increasingly being used in industry, harvesting their power of catalysis to enable industrial process to take place in conditions of low pressure and temperature - making them much more economically viable.

Photos by Anthony Short unless credited otherwise. Animations and diagrams by Edward Fullick throughout.

Enzymes work by forming structures called enzyme-substrate complexes. The structure of an enzyme is closely related to its function in the cell. The model on the left shows COX-2, an enzyme inhibited by aspirin (Jeff Dahl, public domain).


Teaching an Online Introductory Biology Lab Using Cellular and Molecular Biology Resources

This playlist can be used in an online, undergraduate (majors-level) introductory biology lab to incorporate core topics in cellular and molecular biology. Using case studies, multimedia, and interactive resources, it engages students in data analysis and critical thinking. The topics covered include the process of science, cellular energetics/photosynthesis, metabolism, meiosis and patterns of inheritance, and biotechnology.

This playlist can be used to teach five 3-hour (180-minute) labs in a lab course for a total of 900 minutes of instruction over a semester.

Lab 1: Process of Science

By completing the resources in this lab (resources 1–3 in this playlist), students will be able to:

  • Compare and contrast questions that can be analyzed using the methods of science and those that are outside the scope of science.
  • Develop testable scientific questions.
  • Use data to propose hypotheses, make predictions, and justify claims with evidence.
  • Identify, evaluate, and predict the scientific questions that drove research, based on data or figures from the scientific literature.

Lab 2: Cellular Metabolism and Photosynthesis

By completing the resources in this lab (resources 4–6 in this playlist), students will be able to:

  • Summarize the overall purpose of photosynthesis, including the inputs and outputs of matter at various steps in the process.
  • Identify the structures that perform photosynthesis in plants.
  • Summarize the main components of the light reactions and Calvin cycle, and how they contribute to photosynthesis.
  • Analyze and interpret data from a scientific figure.
  • Explain and contrast the impact of environmental factors on the function of the electron transport chain.
  • Design a research protocol using the basic principles of experimental design.

Lab 3: Macromolecules and the Digestion of Carbohydrates

By completing the resources in this lab (resources 7–8 in this playlist), students will be able to:

  • Analyze and interpret data from a scientific figure.
  • Graph data and appropriately label all graph components, including title, axes, units, and legends.
  • Make claims based on scientific evidence and support those claims using scientific reasoning.
  • Discuss the role of enzymes in metabolism.

Lab 4: Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance and Understanding Sex and Gender

By completing the resources in this lab (resources 9–10 in this playlist), students will be able to:

  • Study a pedigree to make an evidence-based claim about the mode of inheritance of a trait.
  • Determine the most likely inheritance pattern of a trait tracked in a pedigree and the genotypes of individuals included in the pedigree.
  • Analyze variations in DNA to make claims about which variants are associated with specific traits.
  • Explain how biological sex and gender differ.
  • Summarize how mutations in a variety of genes can affect the development of internal and external sex characteristics.
  • Explain how characteristics associated with biological sex may affect athletic performance.

Lab 5: Biotechnology

By completing the resources in this lab (resources 11–14 in this playlist), students will be able to:


Principles of Microeconomics

  • Interdependence and Gains from Trade
  • The Market Forces of Supply and Demand
  • Elasticity and Its Application
  • Supply, Demand and Government Policies

Learn the principles of microeconomics with James DeNicco. He will introduce you to the following terms:

Interdependence and Gains from Trade

The Market Forces of Supply and Demand

Elasticity and Its Application

Supply, Demand and Government Policies

Consumers, Producers and the Efficiency of Markets

Public Goods and Common Resources

Firms in Competitive Markets

  • Those who are learning about microeconomics for the first time
  • Those who are looking to revisit the fundamentals of microeconomics


Biotechnology, Biology: Principles of Inheritance

Unlimited access to 30 000 Premium SkillShare courses

☑ GENETICS BASICS TO ADVANCED CONCEPTS: PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE.

☑ After completing this course you will be able to apply these concepts practically in order to understand the inheritance pattern in future generations. Also, you will find the reality that twin are not 100% identical, Why. Why in siblings one grows tall in height while other one short? or Why there are so many varieties of skin tone color present in entire world population? or why a mutation in one particular functional gene alters the function at some other part of body. you need to finish this course for all the answers. Not only this, You are getting one bonus quiz too at the end of completing this course. Finishing this bonus video will give you full understanding of, how you can find the genotype of any unknown parent/individual/ may be yours by just looking at the ratios of offsprings.

In this course, students will imbibe knowledge about Principles of Inheritance and would be able to solve the questions based on different crosses (discussed below).

This course is designed by keeping in mind the difficulty level in understanding the various concepts by students. The course commences with basic topics like difference between homologous and non-homologous chromosomes, chromatids, sister and non-sister chromatids, Gene and Factors, DNA, Nucleosomes, solenoid structure, human chromosomal makeup, concept of Alleles, Genotype and Phenotype, Genotypic ratio and Phenotypic ratio, Dominant and Recessive, Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross, Punnet Square, F1, F2 generation etc to advanced concepts like Mendelian genetics, deviation from Mendel's Inheritance laws, brief discussion on Morgan experiment, chromosomal theory of inheritance, detailed explanation with examples on- 3 laws of inheritance, Incomplete dominance, Codominance, Polygenic Inheritance, Multiple Alleles, Pleiotropy, Epigenetics, Test cross and Back cross, and finally how to solve questions based on these crosses etc.

After completing this course you will be able to apply these concepts practically for understanding the inheritance pattern in future generations. Also, you will find the reality that twins are not 100% identical, Why. Also why in siblings one grows taller in height while other one remains short? or Why there are so many varieties of skin tone color present in entire world population? or why a mutation in one particular functional gene alters the function at some other part of body. you need to finish this course for all the answers.

Not only this, You are getting one bonus quiz too at the end of completing this course. Finishing this bonus video will give you full understanding of, how you can find the genotype of any unknown parent/individual/may be yours too,by just looking at the ratios of offspring and other interesting information.


Biotechnology & Genomics Course Descriptions/ Elective Courses

16:115:511 Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (Fall, 3)
Disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology as interlocking and mutually complementary fields of study. Protein structure and function, lipids, membranes and carbohydrates, catalysis of biochemical reactions, intermediary metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, membrane transport, lipid metabolism, signal transduction, photosynthesis, protein secretion, targeting and turnover, nitrogen, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism.

16:115:512 Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (Spring 3)
Disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology as interlocking and mutually complementary fields of study. Recombinant DNA approaches, DNA replication, repair and recombination, mobile genetic elements, transcription and gene regulation, RNA splicing, translation, viral gene expression.

16:115:503/504 Biochemistry (Fall, 4 Spring, 3)
A comprehensive survey of the chemistry and metabolism of biological compounds, including proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids. Enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, organelles, and cellular organization. Expression and processing of biological information, including DNA replication transcription into RNA translation into protein, regulation, and recombinant DNA techniques. A detailed computer laboratory study of structural biology, including protein and nucleic acid three-dimensional structures and the interactions between these and ligands.

16:137:615 Concepts in Biotechnology and Genomics (Fall, 3)
This will be the introductory survey course. It will cover a broad range of topics with an emphasis on applications in research and industry, along with a focus on the impact of these technologies on science and society. Mike Lawton will develop this course and be the instructor.

This course will comprise 5-6 modules, each focused on a particular technology (DNA sequencing, proteomics, metabolomics, imaging, synthetic biology (for example -these will change each year)). The course will bring in experts from industry and academia to discuss the scientific foundations of the technology and its applications. Students will work in teams of

5 on one of the module subjects to develop a project that will be set up by the instructor (e.g. develop a genomics-based approach to identify non-responders to a drug develop and design scale-up plant for algal-based biofuels). These projects will take into account scientific, economic, market, business and social factors. Prerequisites: Completion of the three core courses listed above.

16:765:585 Bioinformatics (Fall, 3)
This course is designed to introduce biologists to utilizing UNIX, perl and R in bioinformatics. The concepts, principles and tools of bioinformatics will be introduced in the framework of basic shell scripting. Students will learn how to script, install programs and navigate in the UNIX shell. Students will learn how to setup and use command line BLAST. Students will learn basic perl scripting and handling of large datasets. Finally, students will be introduced to the statistical package R, and learn basic functions such as file handling, analysis and graphing.

Biotechnology-General

01:447:451 (F) Genomes (Fall, 3)
Examination of genome structure and function in humans and other organisms. Topics include genome structure and function, the evolution of genomes and the role of genome analysis in medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture.

01:447:481 Topics in Human Genetics (Fall, 3)
Genetics aspects of human health and disease. Topics include birth defects, immunogenetics, cytogenetics, metabolic disorders, pattern of inheritance, and genetic counseling.

01:447:486 Evolutionary Genetics (Fall, 3)
Principles of evolution as revealed in DNA sequences. The effects of natural selection, genetic drift, and speciation on DNA, and the inference of histories from comparative DNA sequence data.

01:694:412 Proteomics and Functional Genomics (Spring, 3)
Survey of modern techniques of protein biochemistry, bioinforatics, proteomics, and functional genomics, including basic concepts of protein structure and function, protein folding, protein characterization and purification, enzyme kinetics, NMR and X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, RNAi, yeast two hybrid, and various techniques and approaches to functional and structural genomics.

01:694:413 Chromatin and Epigenomics (Fall, 3)
Introduction to chromatin dynamics, particularly the structural and biochemical modifications of chromatin that underlie epigenetic states and their effects on gene expression and development.

01:694:492 Gene Regulation and Cancer Development (Spring, 3)
Molecular biology is an experimental science, and a major goal of this course is to explain not just what molecular biologists know, but how they know it. Thus, while covering selected topics in gene regulation, development, and cancer, we will emphasize the methods, experimental design, history, and deductive reasoning that has led to the current state of understanding of these topics. Pre- or co-requisites: 16:115:403/404 or 16:115:511/512.

11:126:407 Comparative Virology (Fall, 3)
Biology of viruses and approaches to control through antivirals and genetic engineering. Genome organization, gene expression, replication, movement, and transmission across kingdoms. Prerequisites: Two semesters of biology and organic chemistry. Offered in odd-numbered years

11:126:481 Molecular Genetics (Fall, 3)
Principles of genetics at the molecular level, including the chemical nature of hereditary material, the genetic code, regulatory mechanisms, the molecular basis of mutation, DNA replication and recombination.

11:680:480 Microbial Genomics (Spring, 3)
This course covers the principles of genetics and genomics and their application to the study of fundamental biological functions at the molecular and cellular level in microbial organisms. Topics include: mutations and genetic analysis of mutants genetic elements and their role in horizontal gene transfer control of gene expression, global regulatory mechanisms intercellular signaling, quorum sensing, two-component systems structure and function of prokaryotic genomes genome-wide expression analysis applications of genomic data evolution of prokaryotic genomes – what makes a prokaryotic species? inferring microbial physiology, pathogenicity, resistance from genomic sequences.

16:125:509 Medical Device Development (Spring, 3)
Development of medical devices that employ primarily polymeric materials in their construction. Materials selection, feasibility studies, prototype fabrication, functionality testing, prototype final selection, biocompatibility considerations, efficacy testing, sterilization validation, FDA regulatory approaches, writing of IDE, SID(K) and PMAs, device production, and record keeping.

16:125:586 Structure and Dynamics in Adult and Stem Cell Biology (Fall, 3)
The interface between stem cell biology and bioengineering is central to the application of developmental biology to problems in biomedicine and biotechnology. This course will provide a basic understanding of the science behind stem cell research, its applications and potential, and its ethic and social implications. The course will begin by highlighting important fundamental aspects of stem cell biology: embryonic and adult stem cells, including origin, regulation, self-renewal, differentiation, fate, and relationship to cancer biological mechanisms and methods to translate findings to therapeutic applications this is to be followed by a consideration of the role that bioengineering can play in advancing research into stem cell biology. Each class will include a lecture on a fundamental topic (traditional lecture format), followed by an extended discussion about a paper of particular significance in the current stem cell biology and bioengineering literature (a journal club format). After completion of this course, students will have enough knowledge to understand and participate in stem cell research activities on campus and be informed about the political and ethical stances surrounding this developing field. The course is geared primarily toward broadly trained graduate students (for example, students of the IGERT program). Students will be expected to take an active role in both lectures and discussion periods

16:148:514 Molecular Biology of Cells (Fall, 3)
Fundamentals of the molecular organization and functions of cells. Co-requisite: Graduate course in biochemistry.

16:375:510 (S) Environmental Microbiology (Spring, 3)
Microorganisms in carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycling, biogeochemical processes, and water and wastewater treatment systems biodegradation strategies and pathways and bioremediation of toxic contaminants in the environment. Prerequisite: One semester of microbiology.

16:400:514 (S) Food Biology Fundamentals (Spring, 3)
Mechanistic examinations of food-borne microbes, enzymology, biotechnology, postharvest physiology, nutrition, and current concepts in food safety as related to food composition and processing. Prerequisite: General microbiology or biochemistry.

16:710:555 Neurobiology (Fall, 3)
Introductory survey emphasizing experimental approaches to the study of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. Molecular, biophysical, and biochemical bases of nerve cell function. Higher-level functions shown as emerging from nerve cell properties, anatomical development, and mature connections. See also 16:830:555. Recommended: Biochemistry, physiology, or animal behavior.

Pharma-Biotech

16:137:510 Drug Development from Concept to Market (Fall, 3)
The first part of the course will be an industry overview and orientation of the process of the development of a pharmaceutical product. An interactive case study format will be used to study the developmental history of specific drug candidates throughout the course, starting with the target identification and method of drug discovery, through the development of lead compounds, patent filings, drug refinement, clinical trials, regulatory approvals and marketing processes. These sessions will be led by members of the pharmaceutical industry who will discuss their roles in the developmental pipeline

This course provides an in-depth study of the pharmaceutical industry from target identification through preclinical development. In addition to lectures led by the instructor and several guest lecturers, students will participate on project teams to evaluate a potential drug target, and then advance the project through lead discovery, lead optimization and preclinical development to the IND stage. Students will participate in a series of group presentations where project teams will discuss how they dealt with real-life problems encountered by drug discovery and development teams and assemble a summary IND document.

16:137:580 Practical Aspects of Clinical Trial Design (Fall, 3)
This course is designed to provide extensive training in clinical research and clinical data management. It incorporates end-to-end training for all Clinical research areas with a special focus on clinical data management processes, documentation and clinical data management systems. The course includes extensive practical sessions to provide rigorous hands-on experience on a Clinical Data Management system (CDMS), which is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry today. It also provides hands-on experience in Protocol Development, Case Report Form development, clinical database planning, database design, clinical data entry, clinical data definition, discrepancy management, and writing validation procedures.

16:137:581 Statistics in Clinical and Translational Research (Spring, 3)
This course provides extensive training in the use of statistical procedures to analyze data from clinical and translational research studies using a standard statistical package. Through writing and executing program in SAS, students will gain an appreciation of the concepts of random variation and bias. The course provides opportunities to gain experience with a wide range of bio-statistical methods, and applying these methods to problems in medicine and public health. In addition, students will learn to recognize pitfalls in interpreting biomedical and public health data.

16:137:582 Fundamentals of Regualtory Affairs (Spring, 3)
An overview of the laws, regulations, and regulatory agencies governing Pharmaceuticals, Devices, Biologics and Combination Products marketed in the US and in the world. The course also discusses the historical context in which the FDA evolved its structure and its relationship with other US regulatory agencies. The course will provide an overview of market clearance pathways for drugs, biologics, medical devices and combination products so that the development and delivery of safe and effective healthcare products can be expedited. This course will emphasize teamwork, oral communication skills, and written communication skills.

Biotechnology & Food

16:400:514 Food Biology Fundamentals (Spring, 3)
Mechanistic examinations of food-borne microbes, enzymology, biotechnology, postharvest physiology, nutrition, and current concepts in food safety as related to food composition and processing.

16:400:610 (S) Nutragenics and Nutraceuticals (3)
Host-immune responses in diseases, signal transduction pathways in cancer and inflammation, transcription factors, proteomics, bioavailability of nutraceuticals, signaling molecules and their interactions with nutraceuticals. Role of nutraceuticals in health promotion and its mechanism of action. Isolation and identification of health promoting nutraceuticals and separation techniques. Beneficial and questionable effects of nutraceuticals and the development of future foods. Prerequisite: 16:400:514 or biochemistry or permission of instructor.

16:400:613 Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Biotechnology and Food (Fall, 3)
Basic concepts, investigation tools, and fundamental issues of nanotechnology, with emphasis on the applications of nanotechnology in agricultural and food systems, health care, food safety, and food packaging. Self-assembly, scanning probe microscopy, micro- and nanoencapulation, organic/inorganic nanocomposites, DNA, and protein chips. Prerequisites: Physical chemistry or permission of instructor.

Plant Biotechnology

16:765:513 Plant Molecular Biology (Fall, 3)
Fundamental and applied aspects of plant molecular biology, including isolation, structure, and regulation of nuclear and organellar genes, molecular biology of plant-microbe interactions, molecular biology of plant development, and plant biotechnology. Prerequisites: one semester of genetics and organic chemistry. Course in molecular genetics or molecular biology recommended.

16:765:520 Plant Biochemistry and Metabolism (Spring, 3)
Physiological significance of principal metabolic systems, including photosynthesis, photorespiration, sulfate and nitrate reduction, and hexose metabolism synthesis of lipids and lipid pigments, photochemical, and hormonal controls, chloroplast development, and biochemistry of secondary plant products. Prerequisite: Plant physiology or equivalent.

16:765:528 Advanced Plant Breeding (Fall, 3)

Breeding, self-pollinated, cross-pollinated, and apomictic plants role of mutation, polyploidy, and interspecific hybridization in plant improvement inheritance of adaptive plant characters developing and maintaining improved varieties.


Interactive resources for schools

Immunosuppressant

Medicines which prevent the immune response of the body from destroying a transplanted organ

Organelles

A distinct part of the cell, such as the nucleus, ribosome or mitochondrion, which has structure and function.

Membrane

A thin, flexible sheet-like structure that acts as a lining or a boundary in an organism.

Pathogen

A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism, capable of causing disease.

Bacteria

Single-celled organism. Has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm. Its DNA is loosely-coiled in the cytoplasm and there is no distinct nucleus

Glossary

A list of often difficult or specialised words with their definitions.

Enzyme

Reusable protein molecules which act as biological catalysts, changing the rate of chemical reactions in the body without being affected themselves

The basic unit from which all living organisms are built up, consisting of a cell membrane surrounding cytoplasm and a nucleus.

Cells - the fundamental unit of life

Living organisms are made up of cells. Understanding the structures and functions of cells is the key to understanding how whole organisms work and interact with the world around them.

Contents

How does your body recognise an invading pathogen? How do cells communicate so they can act as a coordinated whole? Why are transplanted organs rejected without immunosuppressant drugs? What are the differences between your cells and those of bacteria?

The size and structure of cells varies enormously, but there are many common features. The cell surface membrane forms a barrier between the contents of the cell and the environment. Membranes also surround all the organelles inside the cell. The structure of these membranes affects the functioning of almost every aspect of the cell.

Cells act as biological factories, producing many different substances which need to be exported to different regions of the cell or the body. Often these substances are produced as a result of signals from inside or outside the cell itself.

Cells display complex identification systems on their surfaces, and these act as part of overall cell communication. These systems are sometimes used by pathogens to gain entry to cells – and both surface identification systems and internal communication cascades can be used as targets for drugs in the battle against disease.

A cell contains a hundred or more chemical reactions, each contained by membranes and controlled by enzymes.


Watch the video: IGCSE BIOLOGY REVISION Syllabus 20 - Biotechnology u0026 Genetic Engineering (May 2022).


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