# Blood group probability question

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My answer ( after rounding off) is 9% -100( 0.75 X 0.25 X 0.5) but the answer given is 22 % Am I correct ?

I think the quoted answer is correct.

First, the probability of getting a son( and not a daughter) is \$P_s=0.5\$. Next, since both the parents are heterozygous, the probability of genotype \$hh\$ is \$P_h=0.25\$. This genotype will not produce any antigen precursor, and hence there will be no antigens on RBC. As blood group O is defined by the absence of antigens, this can be classified as blood group O.For the expression of the antigen (dominant at the \$H\$ locus), the probability is \$P_H=0.75\$.

Again owing to the heterozygosity of both the parents at \$I\$ locus, the probability of getting a blood group with genotype \$I^oI^o\$ is \$P_I=0.25\$. This is the probability, that if the antigen precursor is made, \$75%\$% of the times the expressed blood group will be O. Therefore the probability of blood group O due to homozygous \$I\$ locus and dominant \$H\$ locus is \$P_I imes P_H=3/16\$.

Net probability for blood group O=(probability due to homozygous h+probability due to homozygous I and dominant H)*probability of a son.

\$\$P_{net}=P_s(P_h+P_HP_I)approx 0.22\$\$

## Basic Probability Rules

In the previous section, we introduced probability as a way to quantify the uncertainty that arises from conducting experiments using a random sample from the population of interest.

We saw that the probability of an event (for example, the event that a randomly chosen person has blood type O) can be estimated by the relative frequency with which the event occurs in a long series of trials. So we would collect data from lots of individuals to estimate the probability of someone having blood type O.

In this section, we will establish the basic methods and principles for finding probabilities of events.

We will also cover some of the basic rules of probability which can be used to calculate probabilities.

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Questions about types of Tissues, descriptions and functions about the tissues in the Human body.

Two answers have been accepted in this question. As stated in a G2, since no example is specified for gene transfer in the guide, candidates could have studied examples that start with mRNA or from a gene in DNA. Since the former would not use enzymes to cut DNA, candidates would choose D, whereas those who had studied a DNA example would choose A, so both answers A and D have been considered as correct.

Alkaptonuria is an inherited condition in humans that affects phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the production of black-coloured urine. What deduction can be made about the allele for this condition from the pedigree chart?

In human blood, usually, there are two antigens and antibodies.

The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B.

The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B.

The antigens are remaining in the red blood cells, whereas the antibodies are found in the serum.

Based on the antigen property, the blood group of all human beings can be classified as &minus

Blood Group A &minus antigen A and antibody B

Blood Group B &minus antigen B and antibody A

Blood Group AB &minus antigen A and antigen B and no antibody

Blood Group O &minus no antigen, but antigen A as well as antibody B

Consideration of the ABO system is the most imperative while transfusion of human blood.

The ABO blood group systems were first discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901.

## Blood group probability question - Biology

BIOLOGY 100 - Human Biology

GENETICS PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Yellow guinea pigs crossed with white ones always produce cream colored offspring. Two cream colored guinea pigs when crossed produced yellow, cream and white offspring in the ratio of l yellow: 2 cream: l white. How are these colors inherited?

In humans the blood groups are produced by various combinations of three alleles I A , I B , and i. Blood type A is caused by either I A I A or I A i type B by I B I B or I B i type AB by I A I B and type O by i i. Suppose a child is of blood type A and the mother is of type 0. What type or types may the father belong to?

Suppose a father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B have a child of type O. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children?

Suppose a father of blood type B and a mother of blood type O have a child of type O. What are the chances that their next child will be blood type O? Type B? Type A? Type AB?

Suppose a father and mother claim they have been given the wrong baby at the hospital. Both parents are blood type A. The baby they have been given is blood type O. What evidence bearing on this case does this fact have?

A mother and father with normal color vision produce six male children, two of whom exhibit red-green colorblindness. Their five female children exhibit normal color vision. Ignoring the fact that these parents ought to seek some family planning advice, explain the inheritance of red-green colorblindness in their male children.

## Blood: Functions, Properties and Groups

Blood is a tissue consisting of different types of cells—the red blood cells (RBC), the white blood cells (WBC) and the platelets suspended in a liq­uid medium called plasma. It circulates in a closed system of blood vessels. The red colour of blood is due to hemoglobin present in the RBC.

2. Functions of Blood:

a. Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.

b. It transports absorbed food materials to the tissues.

c. It transports metabolic waste products to the kidneys, lungs, skin and intestines for removal.

d. In association with the kidneys and lungs it maintains the acid-base equilibrium of the body by its efficient buffering action.

e. It maintains the steady osmotic pressure in the tissues and fluids of the body being assisted by the kidneys and the skin.

f. The plasma proteins assist in the exchange of water in the body from the tissue to blood and vice versa.

g. It maintains the body temperature at a con­stant level during its circulation.

h. It transports hormones from the site of pro­duction to different tissues.

i. By clotting, it protects body from hemorr­hage.

j. The WBC form a defence against micro­organisms.

k. It transports metabolites from one tissue to another, e.g., lactic acid formed in mus­cle is transported to liver and so on.

l. Other substances in blood combat toxic agents they are antitoxins, agglutinins, precipitins.

Red blood cells (RBC): It is circular, non-nu- cleated bi-concave disc. The count of RBC in adult male is about 4.5-6.2 millions and in the adult fe­male is 4.0-5.5 millions per cu. mm. The life span is about 120 days. The formation and destruction of RBC are going on continuously.

Packed Cell Volume and Hematocrit Ratio:

In normal males and females, the hemoglobin contents of blood are 14.5-16.5 gm. and 12-14.5 gm. per 100 ml of blood respectively. One gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.34 ml oxygen under optimal conditions.

4. Properties of Blood:

The specific gravity of normal blood usually lies between 1.056 and 1.06. The specific gravity of plasma lies between 1.024 and 1.038 and roughly proportional to the protein content.

The viscosity of blood is important in the sense that it determines the blood pressure. Human blood is 5 times as thick as water. The high viscosity is due to the cells, plasma has a very much lower viscosity. The viscosity of blood is affected by the change in the numbers or size of red cells or white cells. Abnormal values are found in leukemia’s, severe hemorrhage and pernicious anemia.

Blood is slightly alkaline and its pH lies between 7.35 and 7.45. In the resting individuals, the arterial blood is very slightly more alkaline (about 0.02) than venous blood.

This difference is increased by muscular exercise due to more forma­tion of lactic acid. Under normal conditions the pH of blood of an individual is maintained in the re­gion of 7.4. The pH of an individual is below 7.35 is considered in a condition of acidosis and over pH 7.45 is under the condition of alkalosis.

Normally the osmotic pres­sure of blood is constant which is equal to 0.945% NaCl. The osmotic pressure of blood is slightly re­duced on the ingestion of large amounts of water and increased on strenuous exercise.

Blood is clotted or coagu­lated within 5 or 10 minutes after shedding if it is left undisturbed. Different factors are involved in blood clotting which is discussed elaborately in physiology.

Sugar and urea are fairly equally distributed between plasma and corpuscles but oth­ers are almost entirely confined to one or the other, e.g., Na and Ca in the plasma and K in corpuscles. Bromide, iodide, indican, enzymes, anti-enzymes, hormones, vitamins and various antibodies are cir­culating in blood. Plasma contains 8% to 9% sol­ids, composed largely of proteins.

The constitu­ents of plasma are as follows:

In normal individuals, the plasma proteins vary from 6.0% to 8.5%.

The proteins are as follows:

Other proteins such as glycoproteins, lipopro­teins, enzymes and hormones are present in small amounts.

Human blood is classified into 4 main groups and several sub-groups. Agglutinogens are neutral ni­trogenous mucopolysaccharides with molecular weights ranging from 200,000 to 300,000. The four main groups are A, B, AB and O. The minor groups are M, N, P and Rh. The plasma contains antibodies called agglu­tinin. The distribution of agglutinogens in RBC and agglutinins in plasma in the four groups are noted.

To determine the blood group of an individual, an isotonic saline suspension of RBC is mixed with a test serum containing agglutinin α or agglutinin β on a slide. When no agglutination occurs, the cells separate and are evenly distributed. When agglutination occurs, the cells clump together.

The results are interpreted as follows:

1. Blood of group A is agglutinated by plasma of group B containing α-agglutinin.

2. Blood of group B is agglutinated by plasma of group A containing β-agglutinin.

3. Blood of group AB is agglutinated by the plasma of blood group A and B contain­ing agglutinins P and a, respectively.

4. Blood of group O is not agglutinated by the plasma of group A, B or AB. There­fore, persons of group O are called univer­sal donors. Anybody can receive their blood.

Rh Blood Groups:

It is an antigen of the Rhesus monkey and is present in the blood of 85% of white people and may be transmitted from father to child. The commonest Rh antigen is D and its antibody is anti D. If the mother is Rh negative, she develops antibodies to it and these antibodies pass through the placenta to the fetus and cause severe destruction of red blood cells in the new-born child.

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After attempting quiz if you find some improvements mistakes in Genetics Quiz Sachin’s Biology is always Waiting for your suggestion, Comment below your suggestion or you can directly talk to the Founder of SACHIN’S BIOLOGY on Instagram or on Facebook we will work on your suggestions its a Promise .

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#### Developmental biology MCQ Quiz 1

by Sachin Chavan · Published October 15, 2020 · Last modified May 13, 2021

#### Molecular Biology MCQ Quiz

by Sachin Chavan · Published October 9, 2020 · Last modified October 27, 2020

## MNSs blood group system

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

MNSs blood group system, classification of human blood based on the presence of various substances known as M, N, S, and s antigens on the surfaces of red blood cells. This system, first discovered in 1927, has many distinct phenotypes and is of interest in genetic and anthropological studies of human populations.

There are more than 40 antigens in the MNSs blood group system. These antigens are encoded by two highly polymorphic (variable) genes, known as GYPA and GYPB (glycophorin A and B, respectively). The system consists of two pairs of codominant alleles, designated M and N (identified in 1927) and S and s (identified 1947 and 1951, respectively). The alleles M and N are usually distributed in populations in approximately equal frequencies. However, the S and s alleles have varying frequencies, with the S allele occurring in about 55 percent of whites and 30 percent of blacks, and the s allele occurring in roughly 90 percent of individuals in both populations.

Several phenotypes in the MNSs antigen system result from deletion mutations in the GYPA and GYPB genes examples of these phenotypes include S−s−U−, En(a−), and Mk. Some antigens, including He (Henshaw, identified 1951), Dantu, St a (Stone), and Mi a (Miltenberger), are formed by genetic recombination (the exchange of genetic material between genes) of GYPA and GYPB.

Antibodies to the M and N antigens rarely cause incompatibility reactions. However, antibodies to S, s, and several other antigens, including En a and Mi a , can cause transfusion reactions and erythroblastosis fetalis.

For more information on the classification of human blood antigens, see blood group.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Kara Rogers, Senior Editor.

## Study Easy Questions and Answers on Blood

Blood is a means of substance transportation throughout the body. Blood distributes nutrients, oxygen, hormones, antibodies and cells specialized in defense to tissues and collects waste such as nitrogenous wastes and carbon dioxide from them.

### The Components of Blood

#### 2. What elements make up blood?

Blood is made of a liquid and a cellular portion. The fluid part is called plasma and contains several substances, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and mineral salts. The cellular components of blood are also known as blood corpuscles and they include erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes and platelets.

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### Hematopoiesis, Bone Marrow and Stem Cells

#### 3. What is hematopoiesis?

Hematopoiesis is the formation of blood cells and the other elements that make up blood.

#### 4. Where does hematopoiesis occur?

Hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (mainly within flat bones), where erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are made and in lymphoid tissue, which is responsible for the maturation of leukocytes and which is found in the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes.

#### 5. In which bones can bone marrow chiefly be found? Is bone marrow made of bone tissue?

Bone marrow can mainly be found in the internal cavities of flat bones, such as vertebrae, the ribs, the shoulder blades, the sternum and the hips.

Bone marrow is not made of bone tissue, although it is a connective tissue just like bone tissue.

#### 6. What are blood stem cells?

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells able to differentiate into other types of specialized cells.

The stem cells of the bone marrow produce differentiated blood cells. Depending on stimuli from specific growth factors, stem cells are turned into red blood cells, leukocytes and megakaryocytes (the cells that form platelets). Research shows that the stem cells of the bone marrow can also differentiate into muscle, nervous and hepatic cells.

### Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin

#### 7. What are the other names for erythrocytes? What is the function of these cells?

Erythrocytes are also known as red blood cells (RBCs) or red corpuscles. Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to tissues.

#### 8. What is the name of the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen?

The respiratory pigment of red blood cells is called hemoglobin.

#### 9. What is the molecular composition of hemoglobin? Does the functionality of hemoglobin as a protein depend on its tertiary or quaternary structure?

Hemoglobin is a molecule made of four polypeptide chains, each bound to an iron-containing molecular group called a heme group. Therefore, the molecule contains four polypeptide chains and four heme groups.

As a protein composed of polypeptide chains, the functionality of hemoglobin depends upon the integrity of its quaternary structure.

#### 10. On average, what is the lifespan of a red blood cell? Where are they destroyed? Where do heme groups go after the destruction of hemoglobin molecules?

On average, red blood cells live for around 120 days. The spleen is the main organ where old red blood cells are destroyed.

During the destruction of red blood cells, the heme groups turn into bilirubin and this substance is then captured by the liver and later excreted to the bowels as a part of bile.

#### 11. What are the functions of the spleen? Why can people still live after a total splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen)?

The spleen has many functions: it participates in the destruction of old red blood cells in it specialized leukocytes are matured it helps regenerate the hematopoietic tissue of bone marrow when necessary and it can act as a sponge-like organ to retain or release blood into circulation.

It is not impossible to live after a total splenectomy because none of the functions of the spleen are both vital and exclusive to  this organ.

### Anemia Explained

#### 12. What is anemia? What are the four main types of anemia?

Anemia is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.

The four main types of anemia are nutrient-deficiency anemia, anemia caused by blood loss, hemolytic anemia and aplastic anemia.

Nutrient-deficiency anemia is caused by a dietary deficiency in fundamental nutrients necessary for the production or functioning of red blood cells, such as iron (iron deficiency anemia), vitamin B12 and folic acid.

Anemia caused by blood loss occurs in hemorrhagic conditions or in diseases such as peptic ulcerations and hookworm disease.

Hemolytic anemia is caused by the excessive destruction of red blood cells, for example, in diseases such as malaria or in hypervolemic conditions (excessive water in blood causing lysis of red blood cells).

Aplastic anemia occurs from deficiencies in hematopoiesis and occurs when bone marrow is injured by cancer from other tissues (metastasis), by autoimmune diseases, by drug intoxication (such as sulfa drugs and anticonvulsants) or by chemical substances (such as benzene, insecticides, paints, herbicides and solvents in general). Some genetic diseases also affect bone marrow, causing aplastic anemia.

### White Blood Cells

#### 13. What is the difference between white and red blood cells? What are leukocytes?

Red blood cells are called erythrocytes and white blood cells are called leukocytes.

Leukocytes are cells specialized in the defense of the body against foreign agents and are part of the immune system.

#### 14. What are the different types of leukocytes and how are they classified into granulocytes and agranulocytes?

The types of leukocytes are lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Granulocytes are those with a cytoplasm that contains granules (when viewed under electron microscopy): neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are granulocytes. Agranulocytes are the other leukocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.

#### 15. What is the generic function of leukocytes? What are leukocytosis and leukopenia?

The generic function of leukocytes is to participate in the defense of the body against foreign agents that penetrate it or are produced inside the body.

Leukocytosis and leukopenia are clinical conditions in which a blood sample contains an abnormal count of leukocytes. When the leukocyte count in a blood sample is above the normal level for the individual, it is called leukocytosis. When the leukocyte count is lower than the expected normal level, it is called leukopenia. The multiplication of these defense cells, leukocytosis, generally takes place when the body is suffering from infections or in cancer of these cells. A low count of these defense cells, or leukopenia, occurs when some diseases, such as AIDS, attack the cells or when immunosuppressive drugs are used.

In general, the body uses leukocytosis as a defense reaction when it is facing infectious or pathogenic agents. The clinical condition of leukocytosis is therefore a sign of infection. Leukopenia occurs when there is a deficiency in the production (for example, in bone marrow diseases) or excessive destruction of leukocytes (for example, in the case of HIV infection).

### Platelets and Hemostasis

#### 16. What are the mechanisms to contain hemorrhage called?

The physiological mechanisms to contain hemorrhage (one of them is blood clotting) are generically called hemostasis, or hemostatic processes.

#### 17. How are platelets formed? What is the function of platelets? What are the clinical consequences of the condition known as thrombocytopenia?

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are fragments of large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes. Through their properties of aggregation and adhesiveness, they are directly involved in blood clotting as well as release substances that activate other hemostatic processes.

Thrombocytopenia is a clinical condition in which the blood platelet count of an individual is lower than normal. In this situation, the person becomes susceptible to hemorrhages.

#### 18. How does the body know that the coagulation process must begin?

When tissue wound contains injury to a blood vessel, the platelets and endothelial cells of the wall of the damaged vessel release substances (platelet factors and tissue factors, respectively) that trigger the clotting process.

#### 19. How can the blood coagulation (clotting) process be described?

Blood clotting encompasses a sequence of chemical reactions whose products are enzymes that catalyze the subsequent reactions (that is why clotting reactions are called cascade reactions). In the plasma, thromboplastinogen transforms into thromboplastin, a reaction triggered by tissue and platelet factors released after injury to a blood vessel. Along with calcium ions, thromboplastin then catalyzes the transformation of prothrombin into thrombin. Thrombin then catalyzes a reaction that produces fibrin from fibrinogen. Fibrin, as an insoluble substance, forms a network that traps red blood cells and platelets, thus forming the blood clot and containing the hemorrhage.

#### 20. What are clotting factors?

Clotting factors are substances (enzymes, coenzymes, reagents) necessary for the clotting process to happen. In addition to the triggering factors and reagents already described (tissue and platelet factors, thromplastinogen, prothrombin, fibrinogen, calcium ions), other substances participate in the blood clotting process as clotting factors. One of these is factor VIII, the deficiency of which causes hemophilia A, and another is factor IX, the deficiency of which causes hemophilia B.

#### 21. In what organ are most of the clotting factors produced? What is the role of vitamin K in blood coagulation?

Most clotting factors are produced in the liver.

Vitamin K participates in the activation of several clotting factors and is essential for the proper functioning of blood coagulation.

### Hemophilia Explained

#### 22. What is factor VIII? What is the genetic disease in which this factor is absent?

Factor VIII has the function of activating factor X, which in turn is necessary for the transformation of prothrombin into thrombin during the clotting cascade. Hemophilia A is the X-linked genetic disease in which the individual does not produce factor VIII and as a result is more susceptible to severe hemorrhages.

#### 23. How is hemophilia treated? Why is hemophilia rare in females?

Hemophilia is medically treated with the administration of factor VIII, in the case of hemophilia A, or of factor IX, in the case of hemophilia B, by means of blood or fresh frozen plasma transfusions.

Both hemophilia A or B are X-linked recessive diseases. For a girl to be hemophilic, it is necessary for both of her X chromosomes to be affected whereas boys, who have only one X chromosome, are more easily affected. A girl with only one affected chromosome does not present the disease, since the normal gene of the unaffected X chromosome produces the clotting factor.

#### 24. What is the epidemiological association between hemophilia and HIV infection?

Since hemophilic patients need frequent transfusions of clotting factors (VIII or IX) they are more susceptible to contamination by infectious agents present in the blood from which the transfused elements come. In the past, blood banks did not usually perform HIV detection tests and many hemophilic patients have become infected with the virus.

### Anticoagulation and Fibrinolysis

#### 25. What are anticoagulants? What are the practical applications of anticoagulants, such as heparin, in Medicine?

Anticoagulants are substances that block clotting reactions and therefore stop the coagulation process. Ordinarily, anticoagulants circulate in the plasma, since under normal conditions blood must be maintained fluid.

In Medicine, anticoagulants such as heparin are used in surgeries in which tissue injuries caused by surgery act could trigger undesirable systemic blood clotting. They are also used to avoid the formation of thrombi inside the blood vessels of patients riskat an increased risk for thrombosis.

#### 26. What is dicoumarol? What is the role of this substance in the clotting process and what are some examples of its toxicity?

Dicoumarol is an anticoagulant drug. Due to its molecular structure, dicoumarol competes with vitamin K to bind to substrates, thus blocking the formation of clotting factors and interrupting the production of prothrombin. Dicoumarol is found in some decomposing vegetables and can cause severe internal hemorrhages when those vegetables are accidentally ingested. Coumarinic anticoagulants cannot be administered during pregnancy since they pass the placental barrier and can cause fetal hemorrhages.

#### 27. Streptokinase is a substance used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. What is function of this substance?

Substances known as fibrinolytics, such as streptokinase and urokinase, can destroy thrombi (clots formed inside blood vessels, capillaries or within the chambers of the heart) and are used in the treatment of obstructions of the coronary arteries or other blood vessels.

Streptokinase destroys the fibrin network and as a result dissolves the thrombotic clot. Its name is derived from the bacteria that produce it, streptococci.

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