How do proteins get into the blood stream?

How do proteins get into the blood stream?

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So I'm asking this in reference to the injection of insulin, which is commonly done subcutaneously (in the hypodermis, a fatty part of skin). Now I know proteins usually get into the blood when digested through the stomach/intestines - but I was wondering how they manage to get into the blood when injected into muscles/fat? I know there are capillaries pretty much everywhere, but from what I've researched proteins are too large to get through capillary walls.

That begs the question then, how do proteins manage to get into the blood stream when injected? I can't really envisage large capillaries, because surely they'd have huge holes in them or whatever to allow large proteins like insulin in. Any help on this one? Cheers

Found the answer - the lymph capillaries. I've not researched them too in depth but from what I've read thus far, their job is to essentially pick up fluids not picked up by the blood capillaries. They have walls that allow proteins to enter but make it very hard for fluid to flow out.

Wiki states that an average of 20 litres of blood gets processed each day by the blood, with roughly 17 litres through the blood capillaries/system (1), with the remaining 3 litres through the lymphatic system.

These are also prevalent around skin. 70% of lymph capillaries are found near the skin (2).

1) 2)

Scientific Study finds the spike protein used in Covid Vaccines causes Strokes, Heart attacks, and Blood Clots

A scientific study has been published which has found the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, used in the Covid-19 vaccines causes major vascular damage inducing strokes, heart attacks, migraines, and blood clots among dozens of other dangerous adverse reactions that have already killed a minimum of over 1100 people in the UK and over 10,500 people across EU countries alone.

The prestigious Salk Institute, founded by vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk, has authored and published the bombshell scientific study revealing that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein used in the Covid jabs is what’s actually causing vascular damage. Critically, all three of the experimental Covid vaccines currently under emergency use authorisation in the UK either inject patients with the spike protein or, via mRNA technology, instruct the patient’s own body to manufacture the spike protein and release them into the blood system.

The Salk Institute study proves the assumption made by the vaccine industry, that the spike protein is inert and harmless, to be false and dangerously inaccurate.

In an article entitled, “The novel coronavirus’ spike protein plays additional key role in illness“, published on April 30th, 2021, the Salk Institute warns that, “Salk researchers and collaborators show how the protein damages cells, confirming COVID-19 as a primarily vascular disease.”

Now, a major new study shows that the virus spike proteins also play a key role in the disease itself.

The paper, published on April 30, 2021, in Circulation Research, also shows conclusively that COVID-19 is a vascular disease, demonstrating exactly how the SARS-CoV-2 virus damages and attacks the vascular system on a cellular level.

“A lot of people think of it as a respiratory disease, but it’s really a vascular disease,” says Assistant Research Professor Uri Manor, who is co-senior author of the study. “That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings.”

The paper provides clear confirmation and a detailed explanation of the mechanism through which the protein damages vascular cells for the first time.

In the new study, the researchers created a “pseudovirus” that was surrounded by SARS-CoV-2 classic crown of spike proteins, but did not contain any actual virus. Exposure to this pseudovirus resulted in damage to the lungs and arteries of an animal model—proving that the spike protein alone was enough to cause disease. Tissue samples showed inflammation in endothelial cells lining the pulmonary artery walls.

The team then replicated this process in the lab, exposing healthy endothelial cells (which line arteries) to the spike protein. They showed that the spike protein damaged the cells by binding ACE2. This binding disrupted ACE2’s molecular signaling to mitochondria (organelles that generate energy for cells), causing the mitochondria to become damaged and fragmented.

Previous studies have shown a similar effect when cells were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but this is the first study to show that the damage occurs when cells are exposed to the spike protein on its own.

“If you remove the replicating capabilities of the virus, it still has a major damaging effect on the vascular cells, simply by virtue of its ability to bind to this ACE2 receptor, the S protein receptor, now famous thanks to COVID,” Manor explains. “Further studies with mutant spike proteins will also provide new insight towards the infectivity and severity of mutant SARS CoV-2 viruses.”

The research proves that the Covid vaccines are capable of inducing vascular disease and directly causing injuries and deaths stemming to blood clots and other vascular reactions. This is all caused by the spike protein that’s engineered into the vaccines.

The Salk Institute article refers to this science paper published in Circulation Research: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE 2.

This paper is the first to document the mechanism by which spike proteins — even ones lacking an active viral component — cause vascular destruction by binding to ACE2 receptors and inhibiting the function of cellular mitochondria.

SARS-CoV-1 [Spike] protein promotes lung injury by decreasing the level of ACE2 in the infected lungs. In the current study, we show that S protein alone can damage vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by downregulating ACE2 and consequently inhibiting mitochondrial function.

We next studied the impact of S protein on mitochondrial function. Confocal images of ECs treated with S1 protein revealed increased mitochondrial fragmentation, indicating altered mitochondrial dynamics…

Moreover, ACE2-L overexpression caused increased basal acidification rate, glucose-induced glycolysis, maximal glycolytic capacity, and glycolytic reserve (Figure [D], ii). Also, ECs incubated with S1 protein had attenuated mitochondrial function but increased glycolysis, when compared with control cells treated with IgG…

…our data reveals that S protein alone can damage endothelium, manifested by impaired mitochondrial function and eNOS activity but increased glycolysis. It appears that S protein in ECs increases redox stress which may lead to AMPK deactivation, MDM2 upregulation, and ultimately ACE2 destabilization.

The study then states that “vaccination-generated antibodies” may protect the body from the spike protein.

However it is the very spike protein within the vaccine that causes damage to the vascular system. In other words, the human immune system is trying to protect the patient from potential damage caused by the vaccine, before the damage can be caused. Therefore any person who does not suffer a serious adverse reaction to the Covid vaccine only does so because their innate immune system is protecting them from the vaccine, not with the vaccine as authorities want you to believe. The vaccine is the weapon. Your immune system is your defense.

Based on this research alone, all covid vaccines should be immediately pulled from the market and reevaluated for long-term side effects.

From the Mouth to the Stomach

Unless you are eating it raw, the first step in egg digestion (or any other protein food) involves chewing. The teeth begin the mechanical breakdown of the large egg pieces into smaller pieces that can be swallowed. The salivary glands provide some saliva to aid swallowing and the passage of the partially mashed egg through the esophagus. The mashed egg pieces enter the stomach through the esophageal sphincter. The stomach releases gastric juices containing hydrochloric acid and the enzyme, pepsin, which initiate the breakdown of the protein. The acidity of the stomach facilitates the unfolding of the proteins that still retain part of their three-dimensional structure after cooking and helps break down the protein aggregates formed during cooking. Pepsin, which is secreted by the cells that line the stomach, dismantles the protein chains into smaller and smaller fragments. Egg proteins are large globular molecules and their chemical breakdown requires time and mixing. The powerful mechanical stomach contractions churn the partially digested protein into a more uniform mixture called chyme. Protein digestion in the stomach takes a longer time than carbohydrate digestion, but a shorter time than fat digestion. Eating a high-protein meal increases the amount of time required to sufficiently break down the meal in the stomach. Food remains in the stomach longer, making you feel full longer.

Figure 5.4.2: Protein digestion requires the chemical actions of gastric juice and the mechanical actions of the stomach.

Protein: Digestion and Absorption Process | Protein Metabolism

The major constituents of the food are carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. They are digested and absorbed in the stomach and intestine. Some of the digested/degraded components of the food stuffs may either be reutilized or may be excreted out. Chewing of food, movements of the stomach and intestine facilitate the grinding of the food materials and bring them in contact with gastric secretions.

Proteolytic enzymes are absent in the salivary secretions, hence there is no digestion of proteins in the mouth. Proteolysis takes place in the gastro-intestinal tract (i.e. stomach and intestine). When the proteins enter the stomach they stimulate the secretion of the hormone called gastrin which in turn stimulates the secretion of HCl by parietal cells of the stomach and pepsinogen from the chief cells.

Gastric juice is acidic i.e. the pH is 1.5—2.5. Acidic pH of the stomach has an antiseptic action that kills the bacteria and other microorganisms. At this pH the dietary proteins also get denatured. In presence of HCl, pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by autocatalysis resulting in removal of some of the amino acids from the amino terminal end. Pepsin is an endopeptidase for tyr, phe, trp.

In the stomach the proteins are converted as follows:

Protein → Metaprotein → Proteone → Peptone → Peptide

As the food passes from the stomach to small intestine the low pH of the food triggers the secretion of the hormone ‘secretin’ into the blood. It stimulates the pancreas to secrete HCO3 into the small intestine in order to neutralize HCl. The secretion of HCO3 into the intestine abruptly raises the pH from 2.5 to 7.0. The entry of amino acids into the duodenum releases the hormone ‘cholecystokinin’ which in turn triggers the release of pancreatic juice (that contains many pancreatic enzymes like trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidases) by the exocrine cells of the pancreas (ecbolic and hydrolatic). Most of these enzymes are produced as zymogens (inactive enzymes) by the pancreas in order to protect the exocrine cells from being digested.

Subsequent to the entry of trypsinogen into the small intestine it is activated to trypsin by enterokinase secreted by the intestinal cells. Trypsin is formed from trypsinogen by the removal of hexapeptide from the N-terminal end.

The newly formed trypsin activates the remaining trypsinogen, Trypsin is an endopeptidase, specific for (acts on) the peptide bonds contributed by the basic amino acids like arginine, histidine and lysine. Chymotrypsin is secreted in an inactive from called chymotrypsinogen which is activated by trypsin. Chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase specific to aromatic amino acids i.e. phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryp­tophan.

Carboxypeptidase secreted as procarboxypeptidase is activated again by trypsin. It is an exopeptidase that cleaves the amino acids from the carboxy terminal end. Amino peptidase secreted as pro-aminopeptidase is once again activated by trypsin. It is an exopeptidase that cleaves the amino acids from the free amino terminal end. Dipeptides acts only on dipeptides and hydrolyses it into 2 amino acids.

Even after the action of all these enzymes most of the proteins remain undigested. Protein like collagen, fibrin etc., escape digestion and are excreted out.

Celiac Disease:

This is a rare disease caused due to genetic defect/absence of the enzyme required to hydrolyze the proteins containing N-glutamyl amino acids. Due to this the intestinal enzymes are unable to digest the water insoluble proteins present in wheat called gliadin which is injurious to the cells lining the small intestine.

In rare instances the inactive zymogen forms of the enzymes stored in the pancreas are pre-matured to active forms in the pancreas itself, which may be fatal to the pancreas. Antagonists called trypsin inhibitor, a protein secreted by the pancreas can be used to avoid such disaster.

Absorption of the Digested Proteins:

There are four distinct carrier systems in the intestinal epithe­lium for the absorption of the digested proteins. These are:

(1) Carrier system for neutral amino acids

(2) Carrier system for basic amino acids

(3) Carrier system for acidic amino acids

(4) Carrier system for glycine and imino acid (proline)

The digested amino acids are carried across the mucosal cell membrane from the intestinal lumen to the cytoplasm of the cell by one of the above carrier systems specific to that particular amino acid. Absorption of amino acids is an up-hill process (i.e. against gradient as compared to the Na + absorption which is downhill i.e. along the gradient).

There are four systems that operate to absorb amino acids from the mucosal cells into the blood. They are:

(1) A — system (alanine system)

(2) L — system (leucine system)

(3) Ly – system (lysine system)

Amino acids are taken up by the blood capillaries of the mucosa and are transported in the plasma to the liver. Some amounts of amino acids are also absorbed through the lymph. Glucagon stimulates the absorption of amino acids through ‘A’ system mediated by cAMP. Insulin stimulates the trans cellular transport of amino acids to minimize the loss in the urine. The proximal tubule cells reabsorb and return them to the blood stream. It is done by glutathione, a tripeptide. Three ATPs are utilized for the absorption of each amino acid.

Absorbed amino acids do not stimulate antibody production whereas an intact protein absorbed becomes antigenic. Intestinal membranes allow the transport of proteins across them ex.—In a neonate the intestinal mucosa is permeable to y-globulin (immunoglobulin) of colostrum.

The immune system in a neonate is not well developed thus absorption of intact y-globulin into the blood does not elicit any immune response instead it results in the defence of the neonate against infections. In adults, some proteins may be absorbed intact through the intestinal mucosa leading to the formation of antibodies and anaphylactic reactions or other such immunological phenomena after the absorption of those proteins. Thus in such cases allergies to food proteins occur.

Protein Turnover:

Protein turnover is a continuous process of degradation and re-synthesis of all cellular proteins. Each day, human beings turn over 1 to 2% of their total body proteins i.e., about 2% of the body proteins are degraded and resynthesized every day. 75-80% of the amino acids released from the degraded proteins are reutilized for new protein synthesis and the nitrogen of the remaining 20-25% forms urea leaving the carbon backbone to be oxidized to intermediates of TCA or other metabolites.

The rate at which proteins degrade depends upon the physiological state of the individual. The time required to reduce the concentration of a given protein to 50% of its original concentration is termed as ‘half-life (t½)’. The half-life of liver proteins ranges from 30 minutes to 150 hours. The half-life of HMG CoA reductase is 0.5-2 hours whereas aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and cytochromes have a half-life of 100 hours. Hence it can be said that, almost all the proteins of the body are degraded within a span of 6-9 months and are replaced by new proteins.

Role of Lysosomes in Protein Turnover:

Lysosomes play an important role in the degradation of intracellular and extracellular proteins. The proteins from the circulation and those within the cell lose the oligosaccharides and are then internalized by the lysosomes and are degraded by proteases called cathepsins. The non-glycosylated proteins are degraded in the cytosol by ubiquitin, a small protein of 8.5 kDa in all eukaryotic cells.

Ubiquitin forms a non-peptide bond with the N-terminal amino acid in the protein with conversion of ATP to AMP. Thus, the life of the protein depends upon the type of amino acid present at the N-terminal end. If serine and methionine are present as the N-terminal amino acid then the life of the proteins is long and if aspartate and arginine are present then the life is short because ubiquitin acts fast on these amino acids.

Spike Protein Circulating in the Vaccinated: What does it mean?

A recent paper has found spike protein antigens in the blood of people who received the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna, and this is naturally being spun to mean the vaccines are dangerous. But actually there are several points about this paper that are very reassuring. Firstly, the reason some are concerned has to do with the discoveries that the spike protein alone may play a role in some of the disease manifestations of COVID (such as those explored here, and here). I have a detailed post on spike that I am working on to explain basically everything anyone ever wanted to know about the protein but in brief when spike protein interacts with the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, it has been shown to reduce expression of the ACE2 protein (this makes some sense as ACE2 is how the virus enters cells, so naturally the cells are driven to evade infection) and this contributes to inflammation of the endothelial cells. Additionally, in Buzhdygan et al, it’s shown that spike protein can affect the permeability of a model of the blood-brain barrier, which may lend clues as to some of the neurological diseases that seem to result from COVID-19. Spike is also shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome which can induce inflammation that alerts the immune system to a problem (but can cause damage if allowed to go on uncontrolled) this can cause cells to undergo an inflammatory type of cell death called pyroptosis.

Anyway with that context, let’s discuss the paper. The paper uses a technique called SIMOA to identify the S1 fragment of the spike protein and the intact spike protein in the plasma of vaccinees. I’ll focus on those data which are shown below:

Plasma levels of vaccine antigens are shown on days after injection. Nucleocapsid is included as a negative control. The vaccines do not contain it, so if it is present, it may indicate that the spike antigens are from SARS-CoV-2 infection rather than from the vaccine.

This finding is initially a bit surprising. A key mechanistic point regarding the safety of the vaccines has been that the spike protein does not get to freely float around in the blood where it might be able to cause these deleterious effects we discussed earlier. We know that the spike protein does not get secreted because it lacks the signal sequence for that, and the protein as specified by the mRNA is membrane bound. However we need to be aware of a few things. Firstly, this assay is measuring picograms per milliliter quantities of the proteins. A picogram is a trillionth of a gram, so this is a very small quantity indeed. Additionally, we see quite clearly that the S1 and spike proteins both disappear from the blood despite their initial tiny concentration (note the day scale). And intact spike is scarcely detectable in any of the participants (though there weren’t many). In other words, a test that doesn’t get to this level of sensitivity- picograms per milliliter- will likely show that no spike antigens are detectable in the vaccinees. The question now, however, is how small this really is- how does this compare to those studies that did find a concerning effect from spike protein alone?

Ogata et al summarize their results:

S1 antigen was detected as early as day one post vaccination and peak levels were detected on average five days after the first injection (Figure 1A). The mean S1 peak levels was 68 pg/mL ±21 pg/mL. S1 in all participants declined and became undetectable by day 14. No antigen was detected at day zero for 12 of 13 participants, as expected. However, one individual presented detectable S1 on day zero, possibly due to assay cross reactivity with other human coronaviruses or asymptomatic infection at the time of vaccination. Spike protein was detectable in three of 13 participants an average of 15 days after the first injection. The mean spike peak level was 62 pg/mL ± 13 pg/mL. After the second vaccine dose, no S1 or spike was detectable, and both antigens remained undetectable through day 56. For one individual (Participant #8), spike was detected at day 29, one day after the second injection and was undetectable two days later.

Let’s be cautious and round up to 100 pg/mL of S1 subunit and 100 pg/mL of spike protein in the plasma of these vaccinated individuals. Before we begin though, a caveat: the spike protein in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines is not quite the same as the wild-type spike protein found on the virus. This protein has been prefusion stabilized which means it lacks the ability to change conformation into its postfusion state (via a double proline substitution). This change is thought to significantly enhance the ability of the spike protein to elicit neutralizing antibodies from the immune system, but it also has another functional consequence: the spike protein has drastically less ability to cause syncytium formation. Syncytia form when cells fuse together, as may happen in this case if the spike protein binds a receptor (e.g ACE2) on an adjacent cell and form a single cell, potentially leading to the formation of giant cell structures. It’s worth noting that it is thought that Merck’s rVSV-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was ineffective because there was not sufficient viral receptor at the injection site for it to adequately stimulate the immune system and elicit a productive response. However, syncytium formation may indeed play a direct role in the disease process of COVID-19, as demonstrated by papers here (where it’s suggested that this process results in killing of cells of the immune system and interferes with the ability to initiate a productive response) and here (where it’s discussed how syncytium formation may play an important role in the pulmonary disease inherent to severe COVID-19). For this reason, the spike protein of the mRNA vaccines, as well as the Johnson and Johnson/Janssen vaccine, likely has important differences in its properties compared with the wild type spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. But for the sake of argument, let’s be cautious and assume that the biological, pathologic properties of spike protein as produced by vaccinees is the same as that from virus (though again, this is likely not entirely true).

Using Lei et al as a reference, the toxic effects of spike resulted from a concentration of 4 mcg/mL on the endothelial cells. A microgram is one-millionth of a gram. If we assume that the plasma concentration of spike and S1 were 100 ng/mL we can conservatively estimate that this concentration is 40,000 times higher than that which was detected in the patient’s plasma.

Using Buzhdygan et al, a concentration of 10 nM was used- a nanomolar is 1 billionth of one mole per liter of solution. Spike protein has a mass of about 146.1 kDa (divide the mass of the structure by 3 because that’s the trimer) and the S1 subunit has a mass of about 76.5 kDa. A 10 nM solution of these would equate to 14,610,000 pg/mL and 7,650,000 pg/mL respectively which are respectively 146100 times and 76500 times more spike protein than is found in plasma of vaccinated people. Here’s the math for the calculation as it’s a bit more involved due to the many conversions:

Ah but I hear you protesting- the experts lied! They said no spike circulating- clearly there’s spike circulating. Not exactly. For one thing, the data available until this point didn’t show evidence of spike circulating, and we have a tendency in shorthand to say that that means there is no spike because we can’t prove a negative. All assays have limits of detection (in this case it’s labelled). A 10 nM concentration is very small- and yet this is still about 100,000 times more spike than what we find in plasma. This assay is pretty special to be able to find anything reliably at this concentration and I would be skeptical of its accuracy at this level if not for the time points that these things are appearing. Also note that this isn’t evidence of spike protein being secreted by the cells that receive the mRNA, which was the key consideration behind such claims and indeed based on the tiny quantities noted, that doesn’t appear to be happening. The appearance of intact spike in the plasma of this admittedly small sample is very rare and transient. The authors attribute it to T cell killing of infected cells, which seems plausible (though I would imagine that this would generally occur by an apoptotic pathway which should preserve the contents of the cell as being membrane-bound, although nothing is absolute and given these quantities it could reflect small leaks). My initial guess was that this was from pyroptosis triggered by spike but that doesn’t fit with the timing of the appearance of spike protein (it happens too late). Roy Heesbeen suggested that the spike protein may be spontaneously forming virus like particles on the surface of the cells which get released when they concentrate at high levels (I don’t know that spike has been shown to do this- but it has been seen with other proteins as he points out). The authors are uncertain about the source of the S1 subunit- I think there’s probably a protease on the surface of transfected cells that cleaves spike and that’s accounting for this.

So in short, this study is interesting- but it in no way impugns the safety of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19, or mRNA vaccines as a whole. In fact I would take it a step further and say we don’t need to know anything about the biology of a pharmaceutical to make judgments about whether or not it’s safe. That determination is based on epidemiologic surveillance. To date, the epidemiologic data on mRNA vaccines is exceptional and reassuring: anaphylaxis can occur but is rare and very treatable. Otherwise no events have produced safety signals in these vaccines to date, and outcomes in pregnant patients are reassuring. We have given out hundreds of millions of doses of these vaccines and despite a pharmacovigilance system sensitive enough to detect an adverse event reported in fewer than 1 per million doses, we are seeing no such problems with mRNA vaccines. Papers analyzing the mechanisms of how these vaccines work are valuable because they can be used to guide smarter vaccine design. But they cannot tell us anything definitively about safety. All of this data must be held in context. COVID-19 has killed nearly 600,000 Americans, and the death toll globally is staggering. People are additionally experiencing disabling complications after getting over even seemingly mild cases. Vaccines are the way out.

Not Drinking Enough Water

Your high blood protein levels may simply be due to dehydration. Blood is made up of mostly water. When you don't drink enough fluids, the components of your blood become more concentrated, leading to a falsely elevated protein level. Drinking more water easily fixes the problem.

You can prevent dehydration by making sure you always drink enough water. Adults need 1 quart of water (4 cups) for every 50 pounds of weight, or 2.5 quarts (10 cups) for a 125-pound person. Carry a large refillable water bottle everywhere you go and refill as needed to make sure you get enough water to keep blood protein levels normal. If you're not sure how much water you should be drinking, talk to your doctor.

Possible Causes

What causes high blood protein?

High blood protein is not a disease. It is a sign of another underlying medical problem.

Many diseases or medical conditions may cause elevated protein blood levels (hyperproteinemia) or an imbalance of the ratio of albumin to globulins. These conditions include:

  • Dehydration.
  • Chronic (long-term) inflammation or inflammatory disorders.
  • Infections caused by viruses, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV/AIDS.
  • Certain cancers, like multiple myeloma, sarcoidosis and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.
  • Severe liver or kidney disease.

How is high blood protein diagnosed?

A blood test provides information on high blood protein. Protein levels are often included as part of a comprehensive metabolic panel, a blood test ordered by doctors as part of an overall examination. The health provider collects a blood sample through a small needle inserted into a vein in your arm. A laboratory analyzes the blood sample to measure the amount of total protein in your body, among other items.

The blood test results often include total protein levels, albumin level and the ratio of albumin to globulins. An abnormal level of blood proteins may require further follow-up testing like protein electrophoresis and quantitative immunoglobulins.

Digestion and Nutrient Absorption

When you eat food, your teeth physically break it down, increasing the surface area for the rest of your digestive system to act on. After that, enzymes in your digestive system break down complex molecules in to smaller metabolites. Digestion is started in the stomach and intestines and the nutrients are broken down to their final form by enzymes embedded at the site of absorption in the intestinal wall. Most nutrients are absorbed through the microvilli in the small intestine, small protrusions on the finger-like villi that line the intestinal wall.


The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide. As the food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place. The acidic environment in the stomach stops amylase from continuing to break down the molecules.

The next step of carbohydrate digestion takes place in the duodenum. The chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretions from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose and other disaccharides. These disaccharides are then broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases. The monosaccharides produced are absorbed so that they can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy. They are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): Digestion of carbohydrates: Digestion of carbohydrates is performed by several enzymes. Starch and glycogen are broken down into glucose by amylase and maltase. Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively.

Vaccine researcher admits ‘big mistake,’ says spike protein is dangerous ‘toxin’

Professor Bryam Bridle University of Guelph / YouTube

Editor&rsquos Note: This article has been amended to note that 11 of 13 vaccinated subjects in a recent Ogata study had detectable protein from SARS coronavirus in their bloodstream including three people who had measurable spike protein. Whereas the article referenced a statement from Professor Bridle's group stating that spike protein was present for 29 days in one person, the study in question states that spike protein was found in the person on Day 29, one day after a second vaccine injection and was undetectable two days later.

May 31, 2021 (LifeSiteNews) &mdash New research shows that the coronavirus spike protein from COVID-19 vaccination unexpectedly enters the bloodstream, which is a plausible explanation for thousands of reported side-effects from blood clots and heart disease to brain damage and reproductive issues, a Canadian cancer vaccine researcher said last week.

&ldquoWe made a big mistake. We didn&rsquot realize it until now,&rdquo said Byram Bridle, a viral immunologist and associate professor at University of Guelph, Ontario, in an interview with Alex Pierson last Thursday, in which he warned listeners that his message was &ldquoscary.&rdquo

&ldquoWe thought the spike protein was a great target antigen, we never knew the spike protein itself was a toxin and was a pathogenic protein. So by vaccinating people we are inadvertently inoculating them with a toxin,&rdquo Bridle said on the show, which is not easily found in a Google search but went viral on the internet this weekend.

Bridle, a vaccine researcher who was awarded a $230,000 government grant last year for research on COVID vaccine development, said that he and a group of international scientists filed a request for information from the Japanese regulatory agency to get access to what&rsquos called the &ldquobiodistribution study.&rdquo

&ldquoIt&rsquos the first time ever scientists have been privy to seeing where these messenger RNA [mRNA] vaccines go after vaccination,&rdquo said Bridle. &ldquoIs it a safe assumption that it stays in the shoulder muscle? The short answer is: absolutely not. It&rsquos very disconcerting.&rdquo

Vaccine researchers had assumed that novel mRNA COVID vaccines would behave like &ldquotraditional&rdquo vaccines and the vaccine spike protein &mdash responsible for infection and its most severe symptoms &mdash would remain mostly in the vaccination site at the shoulder muscle. Instead, the Japanese data showed that the infamous spike protein of the coronavirus gets into the blood where it circulates for several days post-vaccination and then accumulated in organs and tissues including the spleen, bone marrow, the liver, adrenal glands, and in &ldquoquite high concentrations&rdquo in the ovaries.

&ldquoWe have known for a long time that the spike protein is a pathogenic protein. It is a toxin. It can cause damage in our body if it gets into circulation,&rdquo Bridle said.

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is what allows it to infect human cells. Vaccine manufacturers chose to target the unique protein, making cells in the vaccinated person manufacture the protein which would then, in theory, evoke an immune response to the protein, preventing it from infecting cells.

A large number of studies has shown that the most severe effects of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, such as blood clotting and bleeding, are due to the effects of the spike protein of the virus itself

&ldquoWhat has been discovered by the scientific community is the spike protein on its own is almost entirely responsible for the damage to the cardiovascular system, if it gets into circulation,&rdquo Bridle told listeners.

Lab animals injected with purified spike protein into their bloodstream developed cardiovascular problems, and the spike protein was also demonstrated to cross the blood brain barrier and cause damage to the brain.

A grave mistake, according to Bridle, was the belief that the spike protein would not escape into the blood circulation. &ldquoNow, we have clear-cut evidence that the vaccines that make the cells in our deltoid muscles manufacture this protein &mdash that the vaccine itself, plus the protein &mdash gets into blood circulation,&rdquo he said.

Bridle cited the recent study which detected SARS-CoV-2 protein in the blood plasma of 11 of 13 young healthcare workers that had received Moderna&rsquos COVID-19 vaccine, including three with detectable levels of spike protein. A 'subunit' protein called S1, part of the spike protein, was also detected. Spike protein was detected an average of 15 days after the first injection. One patient had spike protein detectable on day 29, one day after an injection, which disappeared two days later.

Effects on heart and brain

Once in circulation, the spike protein can attach to specific ACE2 receptors that are on blood platelets and the cells that line blood vessels. &ldquoWhen that happens it can do one of two things: it can either cause platelets to clump, and that can lead to clotting. That&rsquos exactly why we&rsquove been seeing clotting disorders associated with these vaccines. It can also lead to bleeding.&rdquo Bridle also said the spike protein in circulation would explain recently reported heart problems in youths who had received the shots.

&ldquoThe results of this leaked Pfizer study tracing the biodistribution of the vaccine mRNA are not surprising, but the implications are terrifying,&rdquo Stephanie Seneff, a senior research scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told LifeSiteNews. &ldquoIt is now clear&rdquo that vaccine content is being delivered to the spleen and the glands, including the ovaries and the adrenal glands. &ldquoThe released spike protein is being shed into the medium and then eventually reaches the bloodstream causing systemic damage. ACE2 receptors are common in the heart and brain, and this is how the spike protein causes cardiovascular and cognitive problems,&rdquo Seneff said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently announced it was studying reports of &ldquomild&rdquo heart conditions following COVID-19 vaccination, and last week 18 teenagers in the state of Connecticut alone were hospitalized for heart problems that developed shortly after they took COVID-19 vaccines.

AstraZeneca&rsquos vaccine was halted in a number of countries and is no longer recommended for younger people because of its link to life-threatening and fatal blood clots, but mRNA COVID vaccines have been linked to hundreds of reports of blood clotting events as well.

FDA warned of spike protein danger

Pediatric rheumatologist J. Patrick Whelan had warned a vaccine advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration of the potential for the spike protein in COVID vaccines to cause microvascular damage causing damage to the liver, heart, and brain in &ldquoways that were not assessed in the safety trials.&rdquo

While Whelan did not dispute the value of a coronavirus vaccine that worked to stop transmission of the disease (which no COVID vaccine in circulation has been demonstrated to do), he said, &ldquoit would be vastly worse if hundreds of millions of people were to suffer long-lasting or even permanent damage to their brain or heart microvasculature as a result of failing to appreciate in the short-term an unintended effect of full-length spike protein-based vaccines on other organs.&rdquo


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