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Buy bacteria for experiment?

Buy bacteria for experiment?


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Where can I buy paracoccus denitrificans? I need it for an experiment. I cannot find online where I can purchase this.


ATCC- you can get most bacterial strains and cell lines there.

Find P. denitrificans here:

www.atcc.org/products/all/13543.aspx


QSL Biology Lab Kit

The QSL Biology Lab Kit provides the hands-on laboratory component of a biology science course. It is coordinated with: A Beka, ACE Ministries, Alpha Omega, Apologia (Wile), BJU Press,Christian Light, Glencoe Science, and Prentice Hall biology texts.

The QSL Biology Lab Kit was designed to make teaching and preparation very convenient. Use with adult supervision, for ages 14 and up.

The kit includes the 275 page QSL Biology Lab Manual which explains each experiment in detail. Included in the kit is virtually everything needed except perishables and a microscope.

Equipment:
10X magnifying glass
150 ml beaker
Blank slides
Concave slides
Cotton swabs
Cork
Cover slips
Dialysis tubing
Dissection kit
Dissection tray (plastic reusable)
Graduated pipette
Iodine stain
Lens paper
Liquid starch
Methylene blue
Pencil
Red food coloring
Rubber bands
Slide case
Tie string
Toothpicks
Yeast

Prepared Slides:
3 types of bacteria
Euglena
Horse ascaris
Onion root tip
Paramecium
Monocot / dicot stem

Preserved specimens:
Cow eye
Crayfish
Earthworm
Fetal pig
Fish (perch)
Frog
Grasshopper

QSL Biology experiments:

1. Microscope: Structure and care

2. Microscope: Magnification

3. Preparing a Slide Using a Wet Mount

5. Cell Lab: Prepare and view a Plant Cell

6. Cell Lab: Prepare and View Parts of a Plant Cell

7. Cell Lab: Prepare and View Animal Cells and Compare them to Plant Cells

8. Cell Lab: Observing Chloroplasts and Cytoplasmic Streaming

9. Cell Lab: A Selectively Permeable Membrane

10. Mitosis Lab (Note: This lab will take more time than most.)

11. Bacteria Lab: Part 1 - Forms of Bacteria

12. Bacteria Lab: Part 2 - Bacteria around us

15. Fungus Lab: Prepare and View Squash Fungus

16. Fungus Lab: Prepare and View Mushroom Structures

17. Fungus Lab: Prepare and View Yeast

18. Plant Lab: Monocot and Dicot Root, Leaf, and Stem

19. Plant Lab: The Parts of a Flower

20. Plant Lab: Internal Structures of Monocots and Dicots

21. Plant Lab: Plant Leaves

22. Dissection: Worm - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

23. Dissection: Crayfish - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

24. Dissection: Grasshopper - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

25. Dissection: Fish - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

26. Dissection: Frog -Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

27. Dissection: Cow Eye - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal

28. Dissection: Fetal Pig - Activity I - External, Activity II - Internal


Buy bacteria for experiment? - Biology

If you are looking to gross out some friends and family (and carry out serious scientific analysis at the same time) you will want to try our bacteria growing kit. It includes everything you need to get started - you just supply water and bacteria (don't worry, it's everywhere.) Perfect for science fair experiments because so many variables can be tested for bacteria growth.

Our Science Fair Kit includes six large (10 cm dia.) plastic Petri dishes, nutrient agar powder, six extra-long wooden shaft cotton swabs, a stirring stick, a plastic beaker, and instructions on how to prepare the agar and conduct your experiment.

The Classroom Kit contains 20 Petri dishes, agar powder, 20 cotton swabs, stirring stick, and instructions. In the right conditions, the bacteria will usually start growing in four to five days.

Apr 18, 2020 Nov 10, 2019 Feb 22, 2019 Jun 17, 2016 Apr 12, 2016 Oct 16, 2015

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to use observations to describe patterns of what living things need to survive.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine witch materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to make observations of living things to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have a common birth, growth, reproduction and death.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation and construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit growth medium to conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit to plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit to conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells, either one cell or many cells different numbers and types of cells.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and difference among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit growth medium to analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to use a model to illustrate cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to use mathematical representation to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in an investigation to apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit to design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems. This process can then be applied for engineering problems.

Suggested Science Idea(s)

Students can use the Bacteria Growing Kit in a variety of investigations. The kit provides opportunities to develop simple and complex studies of bacteria with a control growing medium, agar.

By growing bacteria populations, students at all grade levels gain evidence and concrete examples through observation for analysis.

The materials in this kit are a launching point for many Life Science investigations, simple and complex.

* NGSS is a registered trademark of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards were involved in the production of, and do not endorse, this product.


Experiments

Figure below shows a laboratory experiment involving plants. An experiment is a special type of scientific investigation that is performed under controlled conditions, usually in a laboratory. Some experiments can be very simple, but even the simplest can contribute important evidence that helps scientists better understand the natural world. An example experiment can be seen here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVRBDRAsP6U or here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F10EyGwd57M. As many different types of of experiments are possible, an experiment must be designed to produce data that can help confirm or reject the hypothesis.

A laboratory experiment studying plant growth. What might this experiment involve?

In this experiment, a scientist is conducting research (and taking notes) while looking through a microscope.

Medicine From the Ocean Floor

Scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz are looking to perhaps the largest resource yet to be explored for its medical potential: the ocean. And they are taping this resource with some state-of-the-art technology. These scientists are using robots to sort through thousands of marine chemicals in search of cures for diseases like cholera, breast cancer, and malaria. These experiments are described in the following KQED links:

  • www.kqed.org/quest/blog/2009/. e-ocean-floor/
  • www.kqed.org/quest/radio/medicine-from-the-ocean-floor
  • science.kqed.org/quest/slides. oor-slideshow/

Variables

An experiment generally tests how one variable is affected by another. The affected variable is called the dependent variable. In the plant experiment shown above, the dependent variable is plant growth. The variable that affects the dependent variable is called the independent variable. In the plant experiment, the independent variable could be fertilizer&mdashsome plants will get fertilizer, others will not. The scientists change the amount of the independent variable (the fertilizer) to observe the effects on the dependent variable (plant growth). An experiment needs to be run simultaneously in which no fertilizer is given to the plant. This would be known as a control experiment. In any experiment, other factors that might affect the dependent variable must be controlled. In the plant experiment, what factors do you think should be controlled? (Hint: What other factors might affect plant growth?)

Sample Size and Repetition

The sample in an experiment or other investigation consists of the individuals or events that are studied, and the size of the sample (or sample size) directly affects the interpretation of the results. Typically, the sample is much smaller than all such individuals or events that exist in the world. Whether the results based on the sample are true in general cannot be known for certain. However, the larger the sample is, the more likely it is that the results are generally true.

Similarly, the more times that an experiment is repeated (which is known as repetition) and the same results obtained, the more likely the results are valid. This is why scientific experiments should always be repeated.

Bio-Inspiration: Nature as Muse

For hundreds of years, scientists have been using design ideas from structures in nature. Now, biologists and engineers at the University of California, Berkeley are working together to design a broad range of new products, such as life-saving milli-robots modeled on the way cockroaches run and adhesives based on the amazing design of a gecko's foot. This process starts with making observations of nature, which lead to asking questions and to the additional aspects of the scientific process. Bio-Inspiration: Nature as Muse can be observed at www.kqed.org/quest/television. nature-as-muse.

Super Microscopes

Microscopes are arguably one of the most important tools of the biologist. They allow the visualization of smaller and smaller biological organisms and molecules. With greatly magnified powers, these instruments are becoming increasingly important in modern day research. See the following KQED videos for additional information on these remarkable tools.


Sample 4 Lab 6a Transformation

Introduction:
Genes are transferred between bacteria by way of conjugation, transduction, or transformation. Conjugation takes place when the genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another of a different mating type. Transduction requires the presence of a virus to act as a vector, or a carrier to transfer small pieces of the DNA from one bacterium to another. Transformation involves the transfer of genetic information into a cell by directly taking up the DNA. This lab uses transformation to insert a specific gene into a plasmid so that the cell takes on those characteristics for which the gene codes.

Plasmids are small rings of DNA that do carry genetic information. They can transfer genes, like genes for antibiotic resistance, which can occur naturally within them, or plasmids can act as carriers or vectors for introducing foreign DNA from other bacteria, plasmids, or even eukaryotes into recipient bacterial cells. Restriction endonucleases can be used to cut and insert pieces of foreign DNA into the plasmid vectors. If these plasmid vectors also carry genes for antibiotic resistance, transformed cells containing plasmids that carry the foreign DNA of interest in addition to the antibiotic resistance gene can be easily selected from other cells that do not carry the gene for antibiotic resistance. They are usually extrachromosomal. This means they exist separately from the chromosome. Some plasmids replicate only when the bacterial chromosome replicates, and usually exist only as single copies within the bacterial cell, but still others replicate on their own, autonomously. There can be anywhere from ten to two hundred copies within a single bacterial cell. There are specific plasmids called R plasmids that carry genes for resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, kanamycin, or tetracycline.

The bacterium Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is an ideal organism for the molecular geneticists to manipulate and has been used extensively in recombinant DNA research. It is a common inhabitant of the human colon and can easily be grown in suspension culture in a nutrient medium such as Luria broth, or in a petri dish of Luria broth mixed with agar, or nutrient agar. The single circular chromosome of E. coli contains about five million DNA base pairs, only one-six hundredth of the haploid amount of DNA in a human cell. Also, the E. coli cell may contain small plasmids, discussed earlier. The plasmids are broken up with calcium chloride, and the wanted gene is inserted and the bacteria can be grown on the nutrient or with an antibiotic to see if the gene has transformed the bacteria so that they are resistant to the antibiotics.

Materials:
The materials needed in this lab were two Luria agar plates, two Luria agar plates with ampicillin, two 15mL tubes, one inoculating loop, one bacterial spreader, several sterile micropipettes, calcium chloride, Luria broth, pAMP solution, a Bunsen burner, hotplate, ice, and a water bath.

Methods:
Mark one of the sterile 15mL tubes “+” and the other “-“, the plus tube obviously having the plasmid added to it while the other tube does not receive any. Using a sterile micropipette, add 250 microliters of ice cold 0.05M CaCl2 to each tube. Transfer a large 3mm colony of E. coli from the starter plate to each of the tubes using a sterile inoculating loop. Try to get the same amount of bacteria into each tube. Be careful not to transfer any agar. Vigorously tap the loop against the wall of the tube to dislodge the cell mass. Mix the suspension by repeatedly drawing in and emptying a sterile micropipette with the suspension. Add ten microliters of pAMP solution directly into the cell suspension in the tube labeled with a plus sign. Mix by tapping the tube. This solution contains the antibiotic resistance plasmid. Keep both of these tubes in ice for about 15 minutes. While the tubes are on ice, obtain two LB agar plates and two LB/Amp agar plates. Label each plate on the bottom as follows: one LB agar plate “LB+” and the other “LB-.” Label one LB/Amp plate “LB/Amp+” and the other plate “LB-.” A brief pulse of heat facilitates entry of foreign DNA into the E. coli cells. Heat-shock cells in both the + and – tubes by holding in a water bath of 42 degrees Celsius for ninety seconds. It is essential that cells be given a sharp and distinct shock so take the tubes directly from the ice to the water bath. Immediately return the tubes to the ice after ninety seconds. Use a sterile micropipette to add 250 microliters of Luria broth to each tube. Mix by tapping the tube. Any transformed cells are now resistant to ampicillin because they contain the gene. Place 100 microliters of the + cells on the LB+ plate and on the LB- plate, the other cells should be placed. Immediately spread the cells using a sterile spreading rod. This can be accomplished by running the rod through the Bunsen burner and allowing to cool by touching it to the agar on the part of the dish away from the bacteria. Spread the cells and once again run the rod through the fire to sterilize the rod. Allow the plates to set for several minutes, then tape the plates together and incubate inverted overnight.


Buy bacteria for experiment? - Biology

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to use observations to describe patterns of what living things need to survive.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine witch materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to make observations of living things to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have a common birth, growth, reproduction and death.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation and construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

Students can use the Petri Dishes growth medium to conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

Students can use the Petri Dishes to plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model.

Students can use the Petri Dishes to conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells, either one cell or many cells different numbers and types of cells.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and difference among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

Students can use the Petri Dishes growth medium to analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to use a model to illustrate cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to use mathematical representation to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

Students can use the Petri Dishes in an investigation to apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.

Students can use the Petri Dishes to design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems. This process can then be applied for engineering problems.

Suggested Science Idea(s)

Students can use the Petri Dishes in a variety of investigations. The kit provides opportunities to develop simple and complex studies of bacteria with a control growing medium, agar.

By growing bacteria populations, students at all grade levels gain evidence and concrete examples through observation for analysis.

The materials in this kit are a launching point for many Life Science investigations, simple and complex.

* NGSS is a registered trademark of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards were involved in the production of, and do not endorse, this product.


Hands-on Activity Bacteria Are Everywhere!

Figure 1. These colorful bacterial colonies were grown from bacteria present on human hands.

Engineering Connection

The word bacteria often brings up negative connotations related to illness and disease. However, many bacteria are beneficial to humans and useful (even essential), as well. Biological, environmental and biochemical engineers must have a thorough understanding of bacteria in order to use these organisms in devising new treatments for diseases, better oil spill clean-up, and the production of alternative energy forms. Biochemical engineers genetically modify the DNA in bacteria to produce "designer proteins," and proteins to treat diseases, such as cancer or to act as new materials enabling the conversion of solar energy to useable electricity. Bacteria are also used by environmental engineers as an ecologically-friendly way to digest (literally, to eat) the carbohydrates in oil from off-shore oil spills. Knowledge of the growth rates of bacteria is essential for these types of engineers in order to use the microorganisms in valuable ways for human and ecological life.

Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to:

  • Describe the potential positive and negative roles bacteria play in our lives.
  • Determine, based on data analysis, the best way to keep bacteria off our hands.
  • Plot data and determine their significance.
  • Explain generally where bacteria can be found.
  • Describe the conditions and requirements that bacteria need to survive.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source e.g., by state within source by type e.g., science or mathematics within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science

MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells, either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. (Grades 6 - 8)

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Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.

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MS-LS2-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. (Grades 6 - 8)

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In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction.

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Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.

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Common Core State Standards - Math
  • Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. (Grade 5) More Details

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International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
  • Biotechnology applies the principles of biology to create commercial products or processes. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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State Standards
New York - Science
  • Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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Materials List

  • 3 Petri dishes (10 cm diameter) filled with tryptic soy agar see preparation instructions in the Procedure section
  • 3 cotton-tipped swabs (1 per sample) , one per student
  • assorted colored pencils and/or markers

To share with the entire class:

  • sink with hand soap
  • paper towels
  • antibacterial gel
  • 75 ml tryptic soy agar (TSA) available for $31 (20-kit supply) from Carolina Biological Supply Company at: http://www.carolina.com/biological-media-kits/tryptic-soy-agar-media-kit/821040.pr?catId=&mCat=&sCat=&ssCat=&question=tryptic+soy+agar+media+kit
  • digital camera and computer
  • ImageJ® software available for free at http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/download.html

Worksheets and Attachments

More Curriculum Like This

Students look at the components of cells and their functions. The lesson focuses on the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Students learn which contaminants have the greatest health risks and how they enter the food supply. While food supply contaminants can be identified from cultures grown in labs, bioengineers are creating technologies to make the detection of contaminated food quicker, easier and more effective.

Introduction/Motivation

Have you ever noticed blobs of mold or strangely colored microorganisms around your house? These strange organisms might have shown up in suspicious looking food or in a pink ring around the water in a (dirty) toilet bowl. Well, microorganisms are all around us, and we can even study how quickly they grow.

At the end of this activity, you will know what specific factors influence the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria, and know what effects these various factors have on bacteria. People generally think that bacteria are bad for us or dirty, but in reality, many different types of bacteria are essential and beneficial to us.

When we study bacteria closely, we find that they fascinating organisms. They have special features that make them ideal organisms for scientists and engineers to use in a wide ranage of applications ranging from medicine to environmental and energy engineering. One of these features is that bacteria grow very quickly. On average, bacteria reproduce every 20 minutes, which each bacterium does by splitting into two identical copies of the parent. That means that one bacterium turns into two, those two split into four, which then split into eight, and so on. If each split takes only 20 minutes, it does not take long before we have millions of bacteria. Scientists use this knowledge to their advantage to grow large quantities of these organisms for a variety of purposes. Another important feature of bacteria is that they do not need much to thrive: all they need for growth is air, water and a carbon source (such as sugar). Different strains of bacteria have adapted to survive in very harsh climates, such as high altitudes, deep in the ocean, and at very cold or hot temperatures. All of these features allow scientists and engineering to use them in a wide range of applications.

Not only do these organisms affect the exterior and interior of our bodies, but bacteria such as E. coli are also used by biochemists and engineers to produce important proteins for therapeutic purposes through biosynthesis. Biosynthesis refers to the process by which cells, such as bacteria, put together simple molecules to make more complex ones. It is the process of biosynthesis that E. coli use to make new proteins that pharmaceutical companies then sell as treatments for various illnesses.

Engineers also add bacteria to biofuel to create useable energy and remove waste from fermentation by-products while generating electricity. And, scientists and engineers modify different types of bacteria to act as clean-up agents for oil spills: the bacteria are able to break down oil compounds to simplify its removal from seas and oceans.

This activity demonstrates that bacteria are found everywhere and that it is difficult to kill bacteria, even after washing our hands and applying antibacterial hand sanitizer. Using image processing software called ImageJ®, you will estimate how many bacteria collected from different surfaces grow over time.

Procedure

Through this activity, students study three different conditions under which bacteria are found and compare the growth of the individual bacteria from each source: 1) an unwashed hand, 2) a hand washed with soap and water, and 3) a hand sanitized with antibacterial hand gel. Students take swab samples of one of their team member's hands under each of the three conditions and streak the swabs on Petri dishes containing agar gel, which supports bacterial growth. After a week, the three samples in Petri dishes show growth, giving students an opportunity to quantitatively compare the amount of bacteria growing from each test condition.

Quantitative analysis of these samples, via photographs taken of the Petri dishes at different time points, is conducted by analyzing the images through special imaging software. In addition to monitoring the quantity of bacteria from the different conditions, students also record the growth of bacteria over time, which is an excellent tool to study binary fission and the reproduction of unicellular organisms.

Bacteria are unicellular organisms that reproduce by a process called binary fission, meaning that each singular bacterium splits into two after its genetic material is duplicated. This method of replication is asexual, since the bacterium does not need a partner's genetic material to be able to reproduce. Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms, which mean they are cells that have no nucleus. The time it takes for bacteria to complete binary fission, on average, is 20 minutes. In order to grow, bacteria need three things: water, air and a carbon source (sugar, for example). Most bacteria have optimal growth at a temperature of 37 °C, or 98.6 °F (the temperature of a healthy human body). Bacteria can grow in a wide range of different environments, and since they do not carry out photosynthesis, they can grow with or without sunlight.

Researchers use two methods to count bacteria:

  • Shine a light through a liquid media with bacteria growing, and measure how much light is scattered by the sample. More scattering means more bacteria.
  • Use a cell counter, which uses software connected to a microscope, to look at a sample of media with bacteria. The software counts the number of bacteria.
  • Gather materials and make copies of the worksheets and pre/post assessments.
  • Prepare TSA plates: Preparation instructions: add 10 g tryptic soy agar (TSA) to 250 ml water in a microwaveable container. Microwave the solution for about 3 minutes (until boiling). Pour the hot solution into the Petri dishes, so that you just cover the bottom completely. Let Petri dishes stand for 20 minutes while the agar solidifies. (Note: 250 ml TSA solution will make 30 Petri dishes adjust quantities appropriately depending on how many dishes you want to prepare.)
  • Label three Petri dishes for each group by using a marker to write the group number/name and class on the lids. Also, clearly mark the following on each of the three lids: unwashed, washed, sanitized.

Figure 2. Students streak plates with sample bacteria found on their hands.

Inform students that samples of bacteria will be collected from the surface of their hands and the bacterial will be grown over time. To reduce experimental error, take samples from only one student's hand, but under three different conditions:

  • unwashed hand
  • hand washed with soap and water
  • hand sanitized with antibacterial hand gel

Part I: Streaking the Plates

  1. Instruct students to choose one student in each group for each of the following roles: Sample Student (provides the hand samples), Swabber (collects the swabbing samples), the Supervisor (makes sure the correct Petri dish is being used) and the Washer (oversees the washing and sanitizing of the sample student's second hand). Note: To reduce experimental error, it is important to have all samples come from the same person.
  2. Hand out three pre-labeled Petri dishes to each group ask students to notice how each lid is labeled.
  3. Direct students to begin with the "unwashed" Petri dish. From the Sample Student, a second group member, the Swabber, should gently rub a cotton swab on the surface of that student's palm. Be sure the Swabber does not lay down the cotton swab.
  4. The Supervisor, a third group member, should open the "unwashed" Petri dish containing agar.
  5. The Swabber should gently rub the cotton swab sample taken from the unwashed hand back and forth on the agar. Remind Swabbers to be very careful not to apply too much pressure when doing this, so as to not tear the agar.
  6. The Supervisor should close the Petri dish.
  7. Instruct the fourth group member, the Washer, to carefully wash one hand of the Sample Student's hands with soap and water. (Note: Groups should approach the sink one at a time to avoid cross contamination.)
  8. The Swabber and Supervisor should repeat steps 4-6 for this hand being careful to streak the dish labeled "washed."
  9. Finally, the Washer should apply hand sanitizer to the Sample Student's other hand (the hand that was not washed in the previous step). Allow the hand to air dry until all gel has evaporated.
  10. Instruct students to repeat Steps 4-6 for this hand, except being careful to streak the plate labeled "sanitized" this time.

If computing resources are limited, collect the data and demonstrate to the class how this part of the activity is done.

If computing resources permit, and students are able to process the images themselves, present the following ImageJ® instructions to them.

    Take a photo of each plate approximately four days after streaking. Save each file to your computer, naming it descriptively (such as, "unwashed_day4.jpg" or "sanitized_day5.jpg"). Figure 3. ImageJ® analyzes the size of the circular black particles (colonies) and expresses it as a fraction of the area analyzed.

Vocabulary/Definitions

aerobic respiration: Respiration that requires oxygen.

anaerobic respiration: Respiration that does not require oxygen.

bacteria: A unicellular microorganism with no nucleus.

colony: A visible cluster of bacteria.

eukaryotic: A cell that has a nucleus.

fission: One cell divides into two, which is how bacteria reproduce.

photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy to fuel an organism's activities.

prokaryotic: A cell that lacks a nucleus.

Assessment

Pre-Activity Survey – Instruct students to individually complete Pre-Assessment Bacteria Surveys. Review their answers to gauge their comprehension.

Worksheet – Have students use the Where's My Bacteria? Worksheet to guide the activity. They should work on the worksheets within their groups only, no sharing of answers across groups. And, each student should complete his/her own worksheet. Review their data, graphs and answers to gauge their mastery of the subject matter.

Post-Activity Survey – Instruct students to individually complete Post-Assessment Bacteria Surveys. Review their answers to gauge their depth of comprehension.

Safety Issues

  • As soon as the plates have been streaked and the Petri dish lid replaced, apply two pieces of tape to keep the lids connected however any closure should not be made air-tight.
  • Keep the Petri dish plates away from students until the time of data analysis. No student, at any time, should touch the agar or the bacteria. When taking pictures, open the lid briefly and replaced it immediately.
  • When the activity is complete and pictures have been taken of all samples, immediately discard the Petri dishes in a trash container that is securely away from the student population.

Troubleshooting Tips

For optimal bacterial growth, place the Petri dishes in well-ventilated warm locations, between 22 ⁰C (72 ⁰F) and 37 ⁰C (99 ⁰F.)

Activity Scaling

  • For lower grades, omit analysis of the images and simply examine the bacterial growth by eye. Compare the three samples to each other to obtain a relative quantization of the amount of bacterial growth in the Petri dishes.
  • For upper grades, take images of the samples more frequently for quantifiying and plotting. Expect the resulting plots to show an exponential growth of bacteria over time. Mathematically fit the data exponential curves and perform regression to determine how closely the experimental data matches the theoretical predictions.

Copyright

Contributors

Supporting Program

Acknowledgements

This activity was developed by the Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) Program funded by National Science Foundation GK-12 grant no. 0741714. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Additional support was provided by the Central Brooklyn STEM Initiative (CBSI), funded by six philanthropic organizations.


Buy bacteria for experiment? - Biology

Plasmid Identification Chart


Does the plasmid below contain. an ampicillin-resistance gene? an kanamycin-resistance gene? a green flourescent proteingene?
Plasmid 1 Yes No No
Plasmid 2 n/a n/a No
Plasmid 3 Yes No Yes

Conclusion: Through the lab, it was determined that the plasmid assigned to our group was the plasmid with the ampicillin resistance gene. This is because there was bacterial growth on the pAMP plate. The results specifically support the first hypothesis that mentions ampicillin. A source of error that we prevented was if the bacteria just did not grow even without antibiotics. That is the reason why we used controls (the bacteria growing on the LB plates). There are other sources of error that could have occurred. One source of error could have been not getting enough plasmid DNA on the inoculating loops. Another source of error could have been not spreading the plasmid as well with the glass beads. Maybe if six beads were used instead of four then more colonies would have grown. The results show that the lab was successful because plasmid one was able to be determined.


Bacteria Science Experiment

Growing bacteria cultures requires a few things:

  • Agar plates
  • Sterile cotton swabs
  • Bottled water
  • Tape
  • A heat source

I ordered this agar plate set because it included 10 agar plates and the sterile cotton swabs. I had everything else at home, so this was an easy bacteria science experiment to set up.

The procedure is fairly straight forward.

  1. Label the cover of the agar plates with the surface you intend to swab.
  2. Unwrap a sterile cotton swab and pour on a little bottled water.
  3. Swab the surface you want to test.
  4. Rub the cotton swab on the agar plate.
  5. Place the labelled lid on top and tape it shut.
  6. Turn the sealed agar plate upside down so that the name is on the bottom. This lets you observe the bacteria growth without the label being in the way.
  7. Repeat as many times as you would like, using a new agar plate and clean cotton swab with each surface.
  8. Place the bacteria cultures in a warm place. Ideally, the temperature should be kept between 85 and 100 degrees. We placed our tray of cultures in front of a space heater in the guest room. The room stayed pretty toasty with the door shut. I always turned the space heater off when we went to bed, for safety reasons, but the bacteria grew even with the cooler overnight temperature.

We chose surfaces that we thought might harbor bacteria, even though they looked clean.

  • Dirty hands
  • Clean hands (we expected this to be bacteria-free)
  • Refrigerator handle
  • Door handle
  • Cell phone
  • TV Remote
  • Toilet Seat
  • Kitchen faucet
  • Trash can
  • Light switch

We looked at our germ farm each day, but let the bacteria science experiment grow for 3 full days before recording our results.


Effect of Clorox on Bacteria

Students will learn how to plate samples on Petri dishes, measure bacterial colonies and evaluate the effectiveness of different cleaning agents. They will also consider the behavioral implications of their findings. Do people wash hands in the bathroom in public places?

Research Questions:

  • Are there more germs on the inside or outside handle of a public restroom? If people wash hands inside, there should theoretically be fewer germs inside.
  • Are there more germs on the doors of a public restroom than the bathroom in your home?
  • How effectively do Clorox wipes kill bacteria?
  • How effectively does rubbing alcohol kill bacteria?
  • What can be done to minimize germs in public restrooms?

While we all know that germs are everywhere, people tend to be the most germ-conscious in public bathrooms &ndash and theoretically wash their hands before leaving. By inoculating Petri dishes from swabs of the interior and exterior door handles, students learn whether which is truly cleaner. Clorox is a bacteriocidal agent. With a high pH, it is often recommended for killing germs on surfaces. Rubbing alcohol serves a similar function. Both are bacteriocidal agents, meaning that they kill bacteria. They can be distinguished from bacteriostatic agents that merely inhibit division of the bacteria.

Materials:

  • individually sealed sterile cotton swabs (at least eight)
  • Pre-filled Petri dishes (at least eight)
  • Clorox wipes
  • Rubbing alcohol (optional)
  • Paper towels to use for cleaning with rubbing alcohol (optional)
  • Gloves
  • Camera
  • Hand sanitizer, such as Purel or another comparable brand

Most materials are readily available at home and in the grocery store. Petri dishes can be ordered on-line from vendors such as Edmund Scientific or obtained from educational supply house.

Experimental Procedure:

  1. Mark the outside of the packages of sterile cotton swabs &ldquoInside,&rdquo &ldquoOutside,&rdquo &ldquoInside Clean,&rdquo and &ldquoOutside Clean&rdquo with a pencil, taking care not to break the sterile seal or tear the wrapper. Mark four of your Petri dishes the same way with a Sharpie marker. Keep the Petri dishes sealed.
  2. Go to a public bathroom in a big store where there is a lot of foot traffic. Bring your Petri dishes, hand cleaner, sterile, individually sealed sterile cotton swabs and Clorox wipes with you. Leave the Petri dishes in the car, but bring the sterile cotton swabs, hand cleaner, gloves and Clorox wipes into the store.
  3. When you arrive at the bathroom, wash your hands with the hand cleaner.
  4. Carefully unpeel the two halves of one short end of the sterile sealed swab package labeled &ldquoInside&rdquo for about a half inch. Be sure to open the end of the package where the stick, not the swab, is located.
  5. Remove the swab and thoroughly swab the inside of the door. Carefully slide the used swab back inside the package and fold the packaging shut.
  6. As you did in step #3, carefully unpeel the two halves of one end of the sterile labeled &ldquoOutside&rdquo about a half inch.
  7. Remove the swab and thoroughly swab the outside of the door. Return the swab to the package labeled &ldquoOutside&rdquo and fold the end of the package shut.
  8. Scrub the inside and outside handles with Clorox wipes. Wear your cleaning gloves, if needed.
  9. Repeat steps 3 through 6, using the swabs labeled &ldquoInside Clean&rdquo and &ldquoOutside Clean.&rdquo
  10. When you get to the car, carefully open one of the Petri dishes. Matching the label on the dish with the label on the swab, stroke the swab over the surface of the agar, make sure you expose most of the agar to the tip of the swab. This is called inoculating the Petri dish. Cover the dish immediately when done. Do not open the dish again.
  11. Repeat step 10, using all of the swabs and Petri dishes.
  12. Bring all the Petri dishes home and leave them in a location where they will not be disturbed.
  13. Repeat the experiment with the bathroom door at home.
  14. Examine all your Petri dishes every day for a week. Count the colonies in each dish. Which had the most cultures &ndash the inside or outside of the door? What does this say about people&rsquos behavior? How clean was your home bathroom? How effective was the Clorox in removing germs? Take photos of the cultures for your poster board.
  15. You can also repeat the same experiment using rubbing alcohol to clean the door handle.

Terms/Concepts: Bacteriocidal vs. bacteriostatic, Bacterial growth, Sterile technique, Petri dishes, Growing bacterial colonies

Dyer, Betsey Dexter. A Field Guide to Bacteria. Cornell University Press. (2003)

Wearing, Judy. Bacteria: Staph, Strep, Clostridium, and Other Bacteria (A Class of Their Own). Crabtree Publishing Company. (2010)

Journal Articles

Rutala, William, et al. &ldquoAntimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products against Potential Human Pathogens&rdquo. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 21. January, 2000.

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