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Chemical and Biological Properties of Element Groups
- Contributed by Ed Vitz, John W. Moore, Justin Shorb, Xavier Prat-Resina, Tim Wendorff, & Adam Hahn
- ChemPRIME at Chemical Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL)
Biologists may feel that the task of remembering properties and reactions of elements is overwhelming. Right now more than 48 million chemical compounds and their properties are on file at the Chemical Abstracts Service of the American Chemical Society  . Anyone who wants information about these substances can look it up, although in practice it helps to have a computer do the looking! Even with a computer&rsquos memory it is hard to keep track of so many facts&ndashno single person can remember more than a fraction of the total.
Fortunately these millions of facts are interrelated in numerous ways, and the relationships help biologists and other non-chemists to remember some important facts. To illustrate this point, we shall present part of the descriptive chemistry of about 20 elements. It will be obvious that certain groups of elements are closely related in simple chemical reactions. Members of each group are more like each other than they are like any member of another group. Because of this close relationship a special name has been assigned to these collections of elements. For simple chemical reactions, it is possible to write general equations which apply to all members of a family of elements, but biologists have taught chemists that many generalizations don't hold in living sytems. In pure chemistry, we'll show that practical laboratory experience with one member gives a fairly accurate indication of how each of the others will behave but in biological systems, even elements which are similar chemically may behave much differently.
5: Ancillary Materials - Biology
Individual PDF chapter files for Explorations: An Open Invitation to Biological Anthropology are available on this website.
Note, the ebook is our recommended textbook modality as it features interactive key terms and other tools.
Link to the ebook
Ancillary materials for this book are available on the Teaching Resources page on this website. These materials include lecture slides and a test bank for faculty. If you (adopting faculty) develop any ancillary materials you would be willing to share as open access materials on this website, please contact us at: [email protected]
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5: Ancillary Materials - Biology
Standards of Learning Assessment Program
Blueprint for the Biology Test
by the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education, James Monroe Building,
Standards of Learning (SOL) Test Blueprint
A test blueprint is a guide for test construction and use. The Standards of Learning (SOL) test blueprints serve a number of purposes. One, they serve as a guide to test developers as they write test questions and construct the SOL tests. Two, they serve as a guide to educators, parents and students in that they show (a) the SOLs covered by the test and which, if any, have been excluded (b) which SOLs are assigned to each reporting category (c) the number of test items in each reporting category and on the total test (d) general information about how the test questions were constructed and (e) the materials that students are allowed to use while taking the test.
How is the test blueprint organized?
There is a blueprint for each test (e.g., grade 3 English, grade 5 mathematics, grade 8 science, U.S. History). Each blueprint contains the following information:
1. Test Development Guidelines: guidelines used by Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement and the members of the Content Review Committees in developing the SOL tests. This section contains three parts:
A. General Considerations lists general considerations that were used in developing the test as well as considerations specific to a particular content area.
B. Item Format lists information on how items for the test are constructed.
C. Ancillary Materials lists any materials (e.g., calculators, rulers, protractors, compasses, dictionaries) that students are allowed to use while taking each test.
2. Blueprint Summary Table: a summary of the blueprint which displays the following information:
reporting categories for each test
number of test items in each reporting category
Standards of Learning (SOLs) included in each reporting category. SOLs are identified by numbers and letters that correspond to the original SOL document (letters are assigned to the "bullets" in the original document)
SOLs which are excluded from the SOL test
number of operational items on the test
number of field-test items on the test and
total number of items (operational and field-test items) on the test.
3. Expanded Blueprint: provides the same information as the Blueprint Summary Table except that the full text of each SOL is included. In addition, SOLs that are excluded from the test are categorized by the reason they were not included.
What is a reporting category?
Each test covers a number of SOLs. In the test blueprint, SOLs are grouped into categories that address related content or skills. These categories are labeled Reporting Categories. For example, a Reporting Category for the Grade 5 Mathematics test is "Computation and Estimation." Each of the SOLs in this reporting category addresses computation using addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division or require the student to estimate the answer to a problem. When the results of the SOL tests are reported, the scores will be presented in terms of scores for each Reporting Category and a total test score.
Are some SOLs assigned to more than one reporting category?
"Bullets" under a particular SOL are sometimes coded to different reporting categories. For example, the Science SOL 2.7a which deals with the effects that weather and seasonal changes have on the growth and behavior of living things is assigned to the reporting category "Life Processes and Living Systems" in the Grade 3 Science test. However, SOL 2.7b which deals with the effects of weather and seasonal changes on weathering and erosion of the land surface is assigned to the reporting category "Earth/Space Systems and Cycles." Each "bullet" is assigned to only one reporting category.
Why are some SOLs not tested on the SOL tests?
In some content areas, there are SOLs that do not lend themselves to multiple-choice testing. For example, in English, the oral language SOLs cannot be appropriately assessed in a multiple-choice format. In other cases, an SOL listed in one content area is covered by a similar SOL in another content area. For example, English SOL 4.9 which addresses the use of available technology to research a topic is covered by a similar SOL at grade 5 (Computer/Technology SOL C/T 5.3).
At the end of the blueprint for each test, the SOLs not tested are listed in "SOLs Excluded from Testing." In the expanded blueprint the SOLs excluded from testing are categorized by the reason they are not being tested.
Will all SOLs listed in the blueprint be assessed each time the SOL tests are given?
Due to the large number of SOLs in a content area for a grade span, every SOL will not be assessed on every SOL test form. By necessity, to keep the length of a test reasonable, each test will sample from the SOLs within a reporting category. However, every SOL is eligible for inclusion on each form of an SOL test.
Biology Test Development Guidelines
1. All items included in this test will address the knowledge and skills specified in the 1995 Virginia Standards of Learning in Biology.
2. The items will be free of stereotyping or bias directed at a particular age, gender, economic status, racial, ethnic or religious group, or geographic region.
3. The test will be untimed.
4. There is no penalty for guessing. Students will be scored on the number of correct answers out of the total number of operational items on the test.
5. The questions will be appropriate in terms of understandings and experiences that accompany an active science program.
6. Information will be presented through written text or through visual materials such as graphs, tables, models, or other illustrations.
7. Questions will require students to apply previously acquired knowledge and/or to use information that is provided in a prompt.
8. Measurements will be given in SI (metric), or English units where appropriate.
9. Students will be permitted scratch paper at any time during the test.
10. Students will be permitted to use 4-function calculators during the test.
11. Students will be permitted to use standard (e.g., inches) and metric rulers during the test.
1. Each item will be a multiple-choice item containing four choices. Choices such as "None of the above," "All of the above," and "Not here" will not be used.
2. Answer choices will be given as written text, numerical expressions including appropriate units, graphics, or other appropriate expressions.
3. Artwork used as part of the question will occur above the question unless the size or format of the artwork lends itself to another arrangement for the sake of clarity.
Life: The Science of Biology, 10th Edition
Biology is a constantly changing scientific field. New discoveries about the living world are being made every day, and more than 1 million new research articles in biology are published each year. Beyond the constant need to update the concepts and facts presented in any science textbook, in recent years ideas about how best to educate the upcoming generation of biologists have undergone dynamic and exciting change.
Although we and many of our colleagues had thought about the nature of biological education as individuals, it is only recently that biologists have come together to discuss these issues. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and College Board AP Biology Program not only express concern about how best to instruct undergraduates in biology, but offer concrete suggestions about how to design the introductory biology courseâ&euro&rdquoand by extension, our book. We have followed these discussions closely and have been especially impressed with the report â&euro&oeligVision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Educationâ&euro (visionandchange. org). As participants in the educational enterprise, we have answered the reportâ&euro&trades call to action with this textbook and its associated ancillary materials.
The â&euro&oeligVision and Changeâ&euro report proposes five core concepts for biological literacy:
2. Structure and function
3. Information flow, exchange, and storage
4. Pathways and transformations of energy and matter
These five concepts have always been recurring themes in Life, but in this Tenth Edition we have brought them even more â&euro&oeligfront and center.â&euro
â&euro&oeligVision and Changeâ&euro also advocates that students learn and demonstrate core competencies, including the ability to apply the process of science using quantitative reasoning. Life has always emphasized the experimental nature of biology. This edition responds further to these core competency issues with a new working with data feature and the addition of a statistics primer (Appendix B). The authorsâ&euro&trade multiple educational perspectives and areas of expertise, as well as input from many colleagues and students who used previous editions, have informed the approach to this new edition.
Do you like this book? Please share with your friends, let's read it !! :)
MTA Ancillary Agreement: Ancillary Agreement for Plasmids Containing FP Materials
Please consult the UBMTA for definitions of MATERIAL, RECIPIENT and RECIPIENT SCIENTIST regarding this transfer of the MATERIAL.
By agreeing to this Ancillary Agreement, the RECIPIENT and RECIPIENT SCIENTIST acknowledge the following:
1) The Regents of the University of California, through its San Diego campus (UCSD) is the owner of certain GFP and RFP materials ("FP MATERIAL"), and retains ownership rights to FP Material incorporated in any derivative materials made by the RECIPIENT. FP Material is covered by certain issued patents and pending patents owned by UCSD and other third parties.
2) The RECIPIENT and RECIPIENT SCIENTIST understand that the FP MATERIAL is experimental in nature and may have hazardous properties. UCSD MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS AND EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. THERE ARE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER PROPRIETARY RIGHTS.
Except to the extent prohibited by law, the RECIPIENT assumes all liability for damages which may arise from its use, storage or disposal of FP MATERIAL. UCSD will not be liable to the RECIPIENT for any loss, claim or demand made by the RECIPIENT, or made against the RECIPIENT by any other party, due to or arising from the use of FP MATERIAL by the RECIPIENT, except to the extent permitted by law when caused by the gross negligence or willful misconduct of UCSD as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction.
The distribution of the FP MATERIAL by Addgene is not meant to carry with it, and does not grant any license, express or implied, under any patent.
In the event of any conflict between this Ancillary Agreement and the UBMTA, this Ancillary Agreement shall take precedence.
Unit 1: Basic Chemical and Biological Principles
1. Cells and Organisms
2. Basic Genetics
3. DNA, RNA, and Protein
4. Genes, Genomes, and DNA
5. Manipulation of Nucleic Acids
Unit 2: The Genome
6. The Polymerase Chain Reaction
7. Cloning Genes for Analysis
8. DNA Sequencing
9. Genomics and Systems Biology
New Chapter to cover metagenomics, symbiosis, epigenomics etc
Unit 3: The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
10. Cell Division and DNA Replication
11. Transcription of Genes
12. Processing of RNA (moved to Unit 4)
13. Protein Synthesis
14. Protein Structure and Function
15. Proteomics: Global Analysis of Proteins
Unit 4: Regulating Gene Expression
16. Regulation of Transcription in Prokaryotes
17. Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
12. Processing of RNA (moved from Unit 3)
18. Regulation at the RNA Level
New Chapter on Genome defense (RNAi and CRISPR). Would include their use in genetic analysis and genome editing
19. Analysis of Gene Expression (Transcriptome)
Unit 5: Subcellular Life Forms
22. Mobile DNA
Unit 6: Changing the DNA Blueprint
23. Mutations and Repair
25. Bacterial Genetics
26. Molecular Evolution
- I. 1. Reference Information
- II. The Process of Science
- III. Themes and Concepts of Biology
- IV. Cell Structure and Function
- V. Membranes and movement of molecules
- VI. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions
- VII. How cells obtain energy
- VIII. Photosynthesis
BI101: Survey of Cellular Biology is intended for one term of the introductory biology course for non-science majors taught at many two- and four-year colleges. The concepts of cellular biology, as they apply to the study of life, are introduced, including parts of a cell, metabolism, and homeostasis.
This textbook incorporates the mandates found in Vision and Change and focuses on the non-content aspects of biology education that are just as important. Additionally, this book explicitly teaches the general education outcomes that we have identified as important for this class. This textbook pulls together biology content resources that are accessible for our community college non-major biology students, as well as resources to provide them with explicit instruction in the quantitative literacy, communication, and information literacy general education outcomes as they relate to the biology content they are learning.