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3.3 The Cryosphere - Biology

3.3 The Cryosphere - Biology



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The cryosphere (from the Greek kryos, meaning "cold", "frost" or "ice" and sphaira, meaning "globe”) is all of Earth’s water that exists in solid form, including ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. Given its sensitivity to warming and the visibility of changes in ice extent, the cryosphere is an important component of climate change research and public communication on climate issues. This section will consider the physical changes to the cryosphere in response to warming temperatures across the globe.


Coming in from the cold: potential microbial threats from the terrestrial cryosphere


The terrestrial cryosphere includes 𾆘,000 glaciers and three ice sheets (Pfeffer et al., 2014). The paradigm of cryospheric environments as “germless continents” (Byrd, 1938) has shifted to ecosystems (Kohshima, 1984 Hodson et al., 2008). Indeed, the terrestrial cryosphere constitutes a 𠇏orgotten biome” (Anesio and Laybourn-Parry, 2012) with microbial processes influencing the fundamental dynamics of glacial systems (Edwards et al., 2014).

Nevertheless, in terms of genomic diversity, glacial environments are virtual terra incognita. Recent calculations indicate glacial ice harbors ca. 1 × 10 29 cells worldwide, and ca. 4 × 10 21 cells are eluted by ice melt from non-Antarctic glacial systems annually (Irvine-Fynn and Edwards, 2013). Therefore, it is clear that glacial systems are major reservoirs of microbial genomic diversity.

If I adopt a 𠇌olicentric” view of microbial genomes by crudely assuming that each bacterial or archaeal cell's genome is in the order of 4.6 × 10 6 base pairs in size, a microbial cell budget of a High Arctic glacier surface (Irvine-Fynn et al., 2012) reveals an aeolian import of 1.9 × 10 14 bp m 2 h 𢄡 coupled with a glaciofluvial export of 4.4 × 10 13 bp m 2 h 𢄡 which leads to a net storage of 3.5 × 10 14 bp m 2 h 𢄡 under typical summer conditions. Yet I am only aware of published high-throughput DNA sequencing datasets from less than 30 of the 198,000 glaciers (Pfeffer et al., 2014). Temporal changes in glacial diversity are even less well studied (excepting Hell et al., 2013 Maccario et al., 2014 Stibal et al., 2014). Since most studies sequence marker genes, metagenomic, and phylogenomic coverage is sparse (excepting Simon et al., 2009 Edwards et al., 2013b), and the potential for lateral gene transfer unexplored. Therefore, while glacial systems are potentially massive repositories of genomic diversity they represent virtually unexplored sequence space.

Here I will focus upon the role of glacial systems as reservoirs of genomic diversity in one particular form: the accumulation, storage and release of pathogens. While the notion that mysterious entities inimical to humanity survive in ice is almost cliché in science fiction, the hypothesis that glacial systems act as “genome recyclers” was stated a decade ago (Rogers et al., 2004 Castello and Rogers, 2005 Priscu et al., 2007) and has garnered tacit empirical support. Nonetheless, the role of glacial systems as reservoirs of pathogens of humans, other animals and plants is the most 𠇏requently asked question” in the author's experience of engaging with stakeholders, the general public and scientists in other fields, not to mention deskbound reviewers of risk assessments. With the caveat that cryospheric microbial associated morbidity and mortality is hitherto confined to anecdotal reports of snow algae-associated diarrhea (Fiore et al., 1997) and that there are many pressing priorities in the realm of emerging infectious diseases, it appears that changes in the terrestrial cryosphere potentiate a range of fungal, bacterial and viral threats to human, plant and animal health.


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    Use activity-based exercises to build students’ lab skills

    • Climate Change Lab incorporates the latest climate change data and science with input from key expert contributors in the geoscience community. The lab is designed to help students critically analyze and evaluate what they hear about climate change for an understanding of its potential causes as well as how it affects their lives, the economy, and other life on the planet.

    Provide an enhanced learning experience

    • Cardboard Models and Geo Tools tie into key course content and are located in the middle of the lab manual.

    Ensure both students and teaching assistants are prepared for labs

    • Pre-Lab videos can now be accessed through links embedded in the eText. Pre-Lab videos introduce students to the content, lab materials, and techniques they will be using to complete each lab, saving both students and instructors time during each lab. Students can also access the videos in the Study Area of Mastering Geology.

    Now available with Modified Mastering Geology

    Reach every student with Mastering

    • 3D models allow students to get “virtually hands on” with rocks, minerals, and outcrops by manipulating the models on x,y,z axes and clicking hot spots for guided exploration. These 3D tools transport students to locations around the world and provide hands-on interactions with specimens they otherwise may never see or handle in person. 3D models are embedded in the eText, available in the Mastering Study Area, and assignable with assessment in Mastering Geology.
    • MapMaster 2.0 Interactive Map Activities. Inspired by GIS, these activities allow students to layer various thematic maps to analyze spatial patterns and data at regional and global scales. Now fully mobile and with enhanced analysis tools, MapMaster 2.0 gives students the ability to geolocate themselves in the data and to upload their own data for advanced map making. This tool includes zoom and annotation functionality with hundreds of map layers leveraging recent data from sources such as the PRB, the World Bank, NOAA, NASA, USGS, United Nations, the CIA, and more.
      • Assessment is built around MapMaster 2.0 in Mastering and available to assign.

      2.2 Permafrost and hydrology variables analyzed

      Our analysis focused on the permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere north of 45 ∘ N. This qualitative hydrology comparison was based on the full permafrost domain for each model rather than a common subset among models in order to fully portray the overall changes in permafrost hydrology for participating models. For each model, we define a grid cell as containing near-surface permafrost based on soil temperature where the annual monthly maximum active-layer thickness (ALT) is at or less than the 3 m depth layer depending on the model soil configuration (Fig. 1 McGuire et al., 2016 Slater and Lawrence, 2013). We calculated the depth of maximum ALT by identifying the underlying annual permafrost table depth of continuous monthly temperatures <273.15 K in the top 3 m or equivalent soil layer depth (Fig. 1). Models with a soil configuration at 3 m or less (UWVIC, CoLM, JULES and TEM see Table 1 for descriptions of the models referenced in this paper) follow the same calculation with an exemption for their bottom depth, where a soil depth temperature threshold of <273.5 K was applied to be considered as permafrost this was based on soil temperature trends observed for models with soil depths greater than 3 m and allows models to have an ALT of 3 m when soil configuration is limiting. We assessed how permafrost changes affect near-surface soil moisture, defined here as the soil water content (kg m −2 ) of the 0–20 cm soil layer. We focused on the top 20 cm of the soil column due to its relevance to near-surface biogeochemical processes. We added the weighted fractions for each depth interval to calculate near-surface soil moisture (0–20 cm) to account for the differences in the vertical resolution of the soil grid cells among models (Fig. 1). To better understand the causes and consequences of changes in soil moisture, we examined several principal hydrology variables including evapotranspiration (ET), runoff ( R surface and subsurface), and precipitation ( P snow and rain). Representation of ET, R and soil hydrology varies across participating models and is summarized in Table 2.

      Figure 1Soil hydrologically active column configuration for each participating model. Numbers and arrows indicate full soil configuration of nonhydrologically active bedrock layers. Colors represent the number of layers.

      Table 1Model descriptions and driving datasets.

      a Simulations driven by temporal variability. b Viovy and Ciais ( http://dods.extra.cea.fr/ , last access: 13 March 2016). c Long-wave dataset not from CRUNCEPT4.
      d Sheffield et al. (2006) ( http://hydrology.princeton.edu/data.pgf.php , last access: 13 March 2016).
      e http://www.eu-watch.org/gfx_content/documents/README-WFDEI.pdf (last access: 13 March 2016). f Harris et al. (2014). g Mitchell and Jones (2005) for temperature.
      h Willmott and Matsuura (2001) for wind speed and precipitation with corrections (see Bohn et al., 2013).

      We compared model simulations with long-term (1970–1999) mean monthly discharge data from Dai et al. (2009). We computed model total annual discharge (sum of surface and subsurface runoff) for the main river basins in the permafrost region of North America (Mackenzie, Yukon) and Russia (Yenisey, Lena). In particular, we compared (i) annual runoff anomalies, (ii) correlation coefficients, and (iii) distributions of annual discharge between gauge data and models' simulations for the 30-year period of 1970–1999. Gauge stations from major permafrost river basins used for simulation comparison include (i) Arctic Red, Canada (67.46 ∘ N, 133.74 ∘ W), for Mackenzie River (ii) Pilot Station, Alaska (61.93 ∘ N 162.88 ∘ W), for Yukon River (iii) Igarka, Russia (67.43 ∘ N, 86.48 ∘ E), for Yenisey River and (iv) Kusur, Russia (70.68 ∘ N, 127.39 ∘ E), for Lena River.

      Table 2Hydrology and soil thermal characteristics of participating models.


      Geography-GR (GR)

      Course Description: Major geographic themes applied to selected regions physical environment, human-land relationships, regional analysis.
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      Additional Information: Social & Behavioral Sciences 3C, Geography (GT-SS2).

      GR𧅦  Geography of Europe and the Americas (GT-SS2)  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Examines the physical and human geographies of Europe, including the former Soviet Union, and the Americas from the Southern Cone to Canada. Focus is on the content of these geographies, why they exist, and their current significance supported by extensive map analysis.
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      Registration Information: Credit not allowed for both GR𧅦 and GR 180A1.
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      Additional Information: Diversity & Global Awareness 3E, Geography (GT-SS2).

      GR𧇌  Sustainable Watersheds (GT-SC2)  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Also Offered As: WR𧇌.
      Course Description: Effects of climate, land use, and water use on the sustainability of water quantity and quality.
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      GR𧇒  Physical Geography  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Also Offered As: ESS𧇒.
      Course Description: Energy, mass budget, and human impacts on atmosphere, hydrosphere, and continental land surfaces.
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      GR𧇜  Mapping, Cartography, and Spatial Thinking  Credits: 3 (2-2-0)

      Course Description: Spatial thinking is the science and art of making maps that play a key role in enabling geographers to visualize space and spatial patterns, as well as, convey spatial information to others. Introduction to the science of spatial thinking, including collecting spatial information and making maps, modern geographic information sciences (GIS) that have evolved from cartography, and spatial analysis techniques that are fundamental to Geography.
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      GR𧈯  Mountain Geography  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

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      Course Description: Study, research and practice of global health using an ecological approach that integrates health with spatial thinking. Focuses on a common set of issues which transcends boundaries, both domestic and international, and a set of actions to address the geographic burden of disease. Key principles and concepts, history of global health transitions, common and emerging health issues.
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      GR𧈷  GIS for Social Scientists  Credits: 3 (1-4-0)

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      Course Description: Methods to collect, analyze, display, and model geographic data.
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      GR𧉀  Cultural Geography  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Geographic analysis of cultural phenomena, elements emphasizing human-land relationships and spatial patterns of agriculture, cities, language, religion.
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      GR𧉃  Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation  Credits: 3 (2-2-0)

      Also Offered As: NR𧉃.
      Course Description: Remote sensing systems and applications characteristics of photographic, scanner and radar images imagery interpretations.
      Prerequisite: None.
      Registration Information: Must register for lecture and laboratory. Credit allowed for only one of the following: GR𧉃, GR𧋷, NR𧉃, NR𧋷.
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      Course Description: Spatial distribution of urban areas and the geographic similarities and contrasts that exist between and within them.
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      GR𧉋  Geography of Farming Systems  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Geographic analysis of farming systems worldwide and by region their development over time, human-land relationships, and spatial patterns.
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      GR𧉍  Glaciers and Climate Change  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Glacier mass balance, dynamics, past fluctuations, and glaciers' relation to climate change.
      Prerequisite: GR𧅤 or GR𧇒 or GEOL𧅸 or GEOL𧅺 or GEOL𧅼 or GEOL𧆖.
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      GR𧉙  Geography of Hazards  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

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      Course Description: Species distribution of plants and animals in relation to earth history and environments, evolution, and ecology.
      Prerequisite: GR 000 to 99999 - at least 3 credits.
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      GR𧊐  History of Theory-Anthropology and Geography  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Also Offered As: ANTH𧊐.
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      GR𧊚  Climate Change: Science, Policy, Implications  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Implications and consequences for earth systems including the cryosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and human systems.
      Prerequisite: GR𧅤 to 499 - at least 3 credits.
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      GR𧊟  The Geography of Commodities  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Social relations, international trade, and environmental impacts surrounding the production, transportation, exchange, and consumption of commodities.
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      GR𧊤  Spatial Analysis with GIS  Credits: 4 (3-2-0)

      Course Description: Theory, application of geographic information systems for spatial analysis conceptual basis of GIS, nature and use of geographic data, case studies.
      Prerequisite: GR 000 to 99999 - at least 3 credits.
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      GR𧊮  Land Change Science and Remote Sensing  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Local case studies and global cases of land-use/land-cover changes in rural, peri-urban, and urban areas.
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      Registration Information: Junior standing.
      Term Offered: Spring (even years).
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧊯  Land Change Science Lab  Credit: 1 (0-3-0)

      Course Description: Utilize advanced remote sensing techniques and satellite images, air photos, and ancillary data to investigate land-use and land-cover changes.
      Prerequisite: GR𧉃 or NR𧉃 or GR𧋷 or NR𧋷.
      Registration Information: Must have concurrent registration in GR𧊮.
      Term Offered: Spring (even years).
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧊸  Political Geography  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Also Offered As: POLS𧊸.
      Course Description: Examines the meaning of political space states and nations competition for territory, including methods and justifications the structure of political space focusing on states geopolitics and the state in an era of globalization. Concepts are illustrated by real-world situations.
      Prerequisite: GR𧅤 or POLS𧅥.
      Registration Information: Sophomore standing. Sections may be offered: Online or Mixed Face-to-Face. Credit not allowed for both GR𧊸 and POLS𧊸.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧋀  Forest Biogeography and Climate Change  Credits: 3 (3-0-0)

      Course Description: Forest adaptation and conservation in relation to global change with a focus on climate change.
      Prerequisite: ESS𧇓 or ESS𧈷 or F𧈷 or GR𧅤 or GR𧇒 or ESS𧇒 or GR𧈯 or GR𧉜 or GR𧊚.
      Registration Information: Junior standing.
      Term Offered: Spring (odd years).
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧋢A  Study Abroad--Vietnam: Land Change Science and Remote Sensing  Credits: 3 (0-0-3)

      Course Description: Vietnam specific local case studies of land-use/land-cover changes in rural, peri-urban, and urban areas. Integrate these local cases as examples that relate to global cases looking at the drivers of land-use/land-cover changes. The broader implications of these changes are discussed, and examples of these implications are witnessed through field visits.
      Prerequisite: GR𧅤.
      Registration Information: Sophomore standing. Credit not allowed for both GR𧊮 and GR𧋢A.
      Term Offered: Summer.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      Course Description: Academic-based work experience with selected organizations or agencies. Supervised application of principles of geography.
      Prerequisite: GR𧅤 to 499 - at least 9 credits.
      Terms Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      Course Description: Exploration of the linkages among the human and physical geography sub-fields, geographic techniques, and other natural and social sciences as well as how professional geographers approach issues.
      Prerequisite: None.
      Registration Information: Junior standing. Concurrent registration in one of the following AUCC Category 4A courses for the Major in Geography: GR𧈯, GR𧊚, GR𧊟, or GR𧊮.
      Terms Offered: Fall, Spring.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧋯  Independent Study  Credits: Var[1-3] (0-0-0)

      Course Description:
      Prerequisite: None.
      Terms Offered: Fall, Spring.
      Grade Mode: Instructor Option.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧋷  Remote Sensing and Image Analysis  Credits: 4 (3-3-0)

      Also Offered As: NR𧋷.
      Course Description: Interpretation and analysis of photographic, multispectral scanner, and radar data sensor systems applications to resource management.
      Prerequisite: None.
      Registration Information: Must register for lecture and laboratory. Credit allowed for only one of the following: GR𧉃, GR𧋷, NR𧉃, or NR𧋷.
      Term Offered: Fall.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      Course Description: Species distribution of plants and animals in relation to earth history and environments, evolution, and ecology.
      Prerequisite: None.
      Restriction: Must be a: Graduate.
      Registration Information: Graduate Standing.
      Term Offered: Spring (odd years).
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.

      GR𧍐  Special Topics in Geography  Credits: 3 (0-0-3)

      Course Description: Recent papers from the literature will be used to foster discussion among participants.
      Prerequisite: None.
      Registration Information: Graduate standing.
      Grade Mode: Traditional.
      Special Course Fee: No.


      3.4 Northern vegetation, wildfire, and loss of ecological resilience

      Ecosystem change can have profound effects on hydrological response and land–atmosphere feedbacks, yet the complexity of expected change and the associated uncertainty are often overlooked in hydrological projections. Across the CCRN region, contemporary climate change is already having direct impacts on northern ecosystems, defined here as including the southern Boreal Forest and its transition with the Prairies and the Cordillera. The interior of western Canada has been identified as a region of maximum ecological sensitivity (Bergengren et al., 2011). Forests in the southern Boreal region of western Canada have shown signs of declining productivity and increasing mortality associated with drought stress or insect disturbances, including widespread dieback and mortality of aspen (Hogg et al., 2008), stand fragmentation, and increases in tree mortality of up to 2.5 % yr −1 (Peng et al., 2011). Farther north, remote sensing indices of vegetation greenness indicate that substantial areas of Tundra and northern Boreal Forest have been increasing in vegetation productivity (Ju and Masek, 2016 Keenan and Riley, 2018 Sulla-Menashe et al., 2018). This is largely due to expansion of woody shrubs, such as alders and tall willows (Myers-Smith et al., 2011, 2019 Lantz et al., 2013), infilling of forests near the northern tree line (Lantz et al., 2019), and increases in tree growth rates (Sniderhan et al., 2020). Advancement of the Taiga–Tundra tree line in response to recent trends of climate warming has been more variable (Harsch et al., 2009 Dearborn and Danby, 2018). Lantz et al. (2019) showed infilling of forests below the tree line in the Northwest Territories but no increase in tree density above the tree line in the Tundra. To the south in the Rocky Mountains, Trant et al. (2020) observed widespread upward advance in alpine tree lines and increases in tree density, with changes in growth form from krummholz to erect tree form.

      Climate change alters terrestrial ecosystems broadly through changes to (1) composition (vegetation, soils, and wildlife), (2) configuration and disturbance patterns, and (3) function. This includes structural changes to the current vegetation (above- and below-ground biomass, plant density, canopy height, LAI, and rooting depth) changes to land cover distribution patterns (resulting from changes in the disturbance regime and changes in competition, colonization, ecosystem resilience and vegetation succession following disturbance) and functional changes (surface albedo, snow accumulation and melt, soil freeze and thaw, ET, ecosystem productivity, decomposition, biogeochemical cycling, and wildlife habitat). The direct climatic drivers of vegetation change include rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature- and moisture-induced shifts in plant community function and vegetation distributions. However, over the 21st century the greatest impacts of climate change on vegetation dynamics are expected to be indirect, via increased frequency and intensity of disturbance (wildfire, insect outbreaks, and other landscape-scale disturbances Turetsky et al., 2017) leading to losses of ecosystem resilience. These intensified disturbance processes can cause ecosystems to reach critical tipping points, triggering ecological state change (reviewed by Johnstone et al., 2016). Imposed on the climate-induced changes in vegetation will be the potential for changing human activities (e.g., logging, land clearing for agriculture and mining Landhausser et al., 2010 Hannah et al., 2020), some of which will interact with climate change to accelerate vegetation change.

      Northern ecosystems are expected to be most resilient to disturbances and environmental conditions that are within the historic range of variability and previous adaptation (Keane et al., 2009 Johnstone et al., 2016 Seidl et al., 2016). Many northern ecosystems may be initially resistant to change, because feedbacks associated with long-lived vegetation help to maintain environmental conditions and ecological functions that support ecological stability, even during directional environmental change (Chapin et al., 2004). While fire has been a foundational process in the functioning and ecology of the Boreal Forest for more than 5000 years, an increase in the frequency of high-intensity fires, coupled with a warming climate, may weaken ecosystem resilience and disrupt the historically stable cycles of forest succession. The result may be a regime shift from one plant community to another and from one stability domain to another (Johnstone et al., 2010c, 2016). Wildfire activity has increased in recent decades across the Boreal Forest (Hanes et al., 2019) and there are indications that fires are burning more severely (Turetsky et al., 2011) and deeper into stored legacy carbon (Walker et al., 2019), creating novel conditions for forest regeneration (Johnstone et al., 2010a Pinno et al., 2013). For example, stands may burn at young ages before trees are old enough to generate seeds these events, especially when they occur in combination with unusually dry or warm years, can trigger regeneration failures and cause shifts to non-forested states (Brown and Johnstone, 2012 Whitman et al., 2018). Stand-replacing wildfires initiate new phases of forest regeneration where seedlings may be much more sensitive to climate conditions than in an established stand where canopy trees substantially alter the local microclimate (Johnstone et al., 2010b Davis et al., 2019 Hart et al., 2019). There is consensus that in northern forests, fire frequency and severity will continue to increase (Rogers et al., 2020).

      Projections of future wildfire-induced ecosystem change in the Boreal Forest are challenging and highly uncertain. Increasing fire will result in a younger forest, widespread replacement of black spruce stands, and higher proportions of deciduous broadleaf species or jack pine (e.g., Johnstone et al., 2010a), with greater change in the south than the north. CCRN developed a plausible scenario of post-fire replacement of evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) with deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) across the Boreal Forest, as described in the Appendix, for the purpose of use in hydrological model future projections (Fig. 6). Although this is simply a scenario, and not a projection with an associated confidence level, the resulting forest change due to increasing wildfire is potentially great. For both the mid- and late-century periods, there is a considerable reduction in DBF across the southern parts of the Boreal Plain, as a result of increasing fire and the conversion of forest to grassland. Farther north and west, in the Taiga Plain, the Shield, and the Western Cordillera, there is extensive and progressive replacement of ENF with DBF as a result of both climate and fire-driven changes in forest succession. In reality, DBF and jack pine stands tend to be more resilient to fire (Hart et al., 2019), and less flammable in the case of DBF, and so their expansion may partially counter the increase in fire occurrence expected under a warmer climate.

      Figure 6Changing DBF cover fractions over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins in the 21st century. The approach involved a simple yet ecologically based projection with expert-guided modifications to impose restrictions on the rates of species colonization and requirements for wildfire to trigger change (Appendix). Projections were made in 45-year increments from the base period (centered at 1995 but using the 2005 base map) to represent the 2040 (mid-century) and 2085 (late-century) periods.

      Insects represent another form of disturbance with high potential for disrupting forest successional patterns, and may also lead to the replacement of black spruce stands by mixed-wood and deciduous species (Pureswaran et al., 2015). Forest insects may expand northwards if warmer winter temperatures increase potential rates of population growth (Post et al., 2009 Bentz et al., 2010). For the first time, pest populations of mountain pine beetle have been found in the Northwest Territories (GNWT, 2013). Likewise, unusual outbreaks of spruce bark beetle in the Yukon and Alaska have been associated with warm winter temperatures that allow increased insect survival through the winter (Berg et al., 2006). In some cases, forests have exhibited high levels of resilience to new disturbance conditions, as in the rapid recovery to bark beetle outbreaks in the southwestern Yukon (Campbell et al., 2019).

      Across the northern and alpine tree line and tundra areas, displacement of shrubs by ENF and larch forest will occur in areas where sparse forest cover exists (e.g., Mamet et al., 2019), while above the tree lines, shrub expansion into tundra environments will likely continue with warmer temperatures and increasing water availability. Large shifts in tree line position are not expected over the 21st century due to both biological and geological constraints. At the northern tree line, the limited reproductive capacity of the tree species results in low seed availability, which restricts the rate of tree expansion into tundra ecosystems (Brown et al., 2019 Harsch et al., 2009), although this is dependent on the nature of the tree line, as expanded upon in Harsch et al. (2009). Similarly, the advance of the alpine tree line is restricted by geological and geomorphological controls such as avalanching, soil limitations, slope configurations that generate harsh winds, and other seed establishment and growth-limiting factors (Macias-Fauria and Johnson, 2013 Davis and Gedalof, 2018). Northern and montane shrub tundra areas will expand and continue the greening trend, with conversion of dwarf-shrub and graminoid-dominated tundra to tall-shrub tundra, resulting in more and taller shrubs, and an increase in LAI for existing patches. At fine scales, the rate and location of shrub expansion are very heterogeneous due to combined moisture and nutrient-driven responses (Wallace and Baltzer, 2019). For instance, although most infilling and recruitment is expected to occur in valley bottoms, low-lying areas, and other locations with sufficient water availability, excess moisture can carry nutrients downslope. Shrub Tundra is also susceptible to disturbance-induced changes. Large fires can occur in Tundra environments (Mack et al., 2011), and increased fire activity may occur if temperatures cross climate thresholds that have regulated fire activity in the past (Young et al., 2017) or as fuel accumulates due to shrub expansion. Permafrost thaw also affects shrub colonization (see Sect. 3.5). Shrub expansion can have multi-directional hydrological impacts (Grünberg et al., 2020), including shrub–snow interactions (Sect. 3.2) and increasing ET (Sect. 3.1), warmer soils, greater thaw depth, and thermokarst and subsidence, altering supra-permafrost layer storage, flow paths, and lake development (Sect. 3.5).

      In addition to the forest cover change scenario, CCRN developed a plausible scenario of 21st century shrub expansion into Tundra, Grassland, and Barren areas, described in the Appendix and shown in Fig. 7. While there is uncertainty and this does not represent a confident projection, prolific shrub growth over the Boreal and Taiga Cordillera, the southern Arctic, and the Taiga Shield ecological regions is expected. The gradual expansion northward is evident through the increase in shrub cover along the northern part of the Mackenzie River Basin and the movement of this growth zone to higher latitudes later in the century.

      Figure 7Changing shrub cover fractions over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins in the 21st century derived from CCRN expert-guided modifications to climate-based projections using the methodology of Rehfeldt et al. (2012) (Appendix). Projections were made in 45-year increments from the base period (centered at 1995 but using the 2005 base map) to represent the 2040 (mid-century) and 2085 (late-century) periods.


      Abstract

      The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is often described as a region with one of the largest warming trends on Earth since the 1950s, based on the temperature trend of 0.54 °C/decade during 1951–2011 recorded at Faraday/Vernadsky station. Accordingly, most works describing the evolution of the natural systems in the AP region cite this extreme trend as the underlying cause of their observed changes. However, a recent analysis (Turner et al., 2016) has shown that the regionally stacked temperature record for the last three decades has shifted from a warming trend of 0.32 °C/decade during 1979–1997 to a cooling trend of − 0.47 °C/decade during 1999–2014. While that study focuses on the period 1979–2014, averaging the data over the entire AP region, we here update and re-assess the spatially-distributed temperature trends and inter-decadal variability from 1950 to 2015, using data from ten stations distributed across the AP region. We show that Faraday/Vernadsky warming trend is an extreme case, circa twice those of the long-term records from other parts of the northern AP. Our results also indicate that the cooling initiated in 1998/1999 has been most significant in the N and NE of the AP and the South Shetland Islands (> 0.5 °C between the two last decades), modest in the Orkney Islands, and absent in the SW of the AP. This recent cooling has already impacted the cryosphere in the northern AP, including slow-down of glacier recession, a shift to surface mass gains of the peripheral glacier and a thinning of the active layer of permafrost in northern AP islands.


      Impacts of climate change FAQ

      How do rising levels of carbon dioxide affect plants and global crop growth?

      Human-caused emissions directly affect plants, as higher CO2 levels generally increase photosynthesis and plant growth. It is almost certainly because of this &lsquofertilising&rsquo effect that land ecosystems take up more than a quarter of the CO2 emitted by human activities [1] .

      Some crops, especially in temperate regions, are expected to grow faster and have higher yields as a result of such increases in CO2. However, because raised CO2 levels are also the cause of climate change, their impacts on plants are not straightforwardly positive. While crops in temperate regions could benefit from warmer weather during their growing season as a result of global warming, the effect of climate change impacts such as droughts and heat-stress are expected to have net negative impacts on crops in many warmer regions of the world [2] .

      Photosynthesis depends directly on the amount of light absorbed by leaves, and higher CO2 levels help plants use the light they absorb more efficiently to convert CO2 into biomass [3] . In addition, it also makes plants use water more efficiently. This improved efficiency increases vegetation cover &ndash which further increases the amount of light plants absorb. These effects are part of the reason for an increase in green vegetation cover that can be seen from space although intensive human use of land for growing crops, particularly in China and India, is also contributing to this &lsquoglobal greening&rsquo, and could account for up to a third or more of observed net increase in global vegetation cover [4] .

      Scientists have explored the effects of CO2 through experiments on ecosystems, including both forests and food crops. They show that increasing CO2 by a further 150&ndash200 parts per million &ndash up from today&rsquos level of around 410 parts per million &ndash increases the rate of photosynthesis in leaves growing under natural light conditions by around 12% on average [5],[6] .

      However, whether specific plants are able to grow faster as CO2 levels rise also depend on several other factors. Some plants &ndash so-called C4 plants, including many tropical grasses, maize and sugarcane &ndash have a mechanism that concentrates CO2 inside their leaves. This means higher CO2 concentrations will not increase their rates of photosynthesis and their growth. This is why yields for maize are not generally expected to increase [7] &ndash except in dry areas where crops are not artificially supplied with water, and where the increased efficiency in using water (due to raised CO2) will benefit growth. Plants&rsquo ability to grow faster in response to increased CO2 concentrations also depends on whether they can access the extra nutrients they need to grow more [8] .

      Non-C4 crops, like wheat, soybean and rice, can grow more in rising CO2 concentrations. In one sense, this phenomenon makes increasing CO2 levels &lsquogood&rsquo for agriculture. On the other hand, risingCO2 levels are causing climate change, which is likely to have a harmful effect on crop growth, for example through heat-stress, especially in regions that are already warm. Future scenarios for crop yields suggest that we will see a mixed outcome, with higher average agricultural production in some regions, but increased risks of crop damage in other regions, particularly in the developing world [9] .

      The effects of raised CO2 concentrations on natural ecosystems are also not straightforwardly &lsquogood&rsquo or &lsquobad&rsquo. Rising CO2 levels tend to increase tree cover in grasslands, for example, which is &lsquogood&rsquo for removing carbon from the air but &lsquobad&rsquo for grazing animals, as savannas become less grassy. And as raised CO2 levels makes plant water use more efficient, plant coverage can increase so much that it ends up using as much or even more water than before &ndash which can add to the pressures on fresh water supplies in ecosystems with limited water [10] .

      That a higher level of CO2 has some positive effects on plant life does not change the fact that continued climate change will have increasingly harmful effects on many aspects of human activity across the globe, including crop growth and agriculture in warmer regions. The outcomes of policies to limit these impacts will take time to come into effect, which makes action towards net-zero emissions an urgent priority.

      References

      [1] Le Quéré, C. et al. (2018) Global carbon budget 2018. Earth System Science Data 10, 2141&ndash2194

      [2] Liu, B. et al. (2018) Global wheat production with 1.5 and 2.0˚C above pre-industrial warming. Global Change Biology 25, 1428&ndash1444

      [3] Cernusak, LA et al. (2019) Robust response of terrestrial plants to rising CO2. Trends in Plant Science 24, 578&ndash586

      [4] Chen, C., Park, T., Wang, X. et al. (2019). China and India lead in greening of the world through land-use management, Nat Sustain 2, 122&ndash129 doi:10.1038/s41893-019-0220-7

      [5] Ainsworth, E. A. and Long, S.P. (2005). What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytologist 165, 351-71

      [6] Broberg, M.C. et al. (2019) Effects of elevated CO2 on wheat yield: non-linear response and relation to site productivity. Agronomy 9, 243

      [7] Leakey, A. D. B. (2006) Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought. Plant Physiology 140, 779-790

      [8] Terrer, C. et al. (2016) Mycorrhizal association as a primary control of the CO2 fertilization effect. Science 353, 72-74

      [9] Deryng, D. et al. (2014). Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures. Environmental Research Letters 9, 034011

      [10] Ukkola, A. M. et al. (2015) Reduced streamflow in water-stressed climates consistent with CO2 effects on vegetation. Nature Climate Change 6, 75&ndash78

      How does climate change lead to sea level rise, and how will this impact coastal cities?

      As the world warms, ice sheets and glaciers on land melt and flow into the ocean. The ocean itself also warms and expands, as it absorbs significant amounts of the heat trapped by the greenhouse gas effect. These changes cause the sea level to rise.

      Sea level rise continues to speed up as human-induced global warming increases. Sea levels were rising at a rate of around 8cm per 100 years in the late nineteenth century, 21cm per 100 years in the mid-twentieth century, and now up to around 32cm per 100 years. Future sea level rise depends on how quickly we reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

      However, the time lag between temperature rises and the melting of ice means we are already &lsquolocked in&rsquo to a certain amount of future sea level rise. In a scenario where emissions are reduced rapidly and the rise in global temperatures stay below 2°C, sea level rise will still reach 29&ndash59 cm in the next hundred years with respect to 1986-2005 levels [1] . This is because the effect of CO2 already in the atmosphere has a time lag it heats the atmosphere slowly.

      If emissions continue as they are, and ice-sheets respond to this in an expected manner, sea levels could rise by up by 1 m by 2100 compared to 1986-2005 levels [2] . This would bring serious risks for coastal regions around the world, including low-lying islands and major cities like Shanghai, Alexandria and Miami. More than half of the world&rsquos largest cities lie along the coast [3] , and just over 1 billion people live in coastal areas within 10 metres of sea level [4] . Adaptation measures can help protect these areas against serious risks of flooding if they go beyond maintaining today&rsquos standards of protection and prepare for rising sea levels [5] .

      The largest threat of future sea level rise comes from the possibility that the massive ice sheets in the Antarctic and Greenland could melt. In particular, the West Antarctic ice sheet is thought to be vulnerable to collapse. It rests on a bed more than 2 km below sea level and contains enough ice to raise global sea levels by around 3.5 m. In total, there is enough ice on the planet to raise sea levels by 70 m. It is difficult to predict at what level of warming this kind of dangerous change could occur, however the risk grows as global temperatures increase.

      Time series of global mean sea level from January 1993&ndashMay 2019. Source: World Meteorological Organisation. (2019). The State of the Global Climate in 2018, Geneva, Switzerland. Data source: European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative

      References

      [1] IPCC. (2019).: Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, H.-O. et al. D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. In press.

      [2] IPCC. (2019). Chapter 4: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [Pörtner, H.-O. et al. (eds.)]. In press.

      [3] Pelling, M. and Blackburn, S. (eds) (2013). Megacities and the Coast: Risk, Resilience and Transformation. Routledge: Earthwatch.

      [4] Kulp, S.A., Strauss, B.H. (2019). New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding. Nature Communications 10, 4844 IPCC, 2019: Summary for Policymakers. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.- O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. In press

      [5] Hallegatte, S., Green, C., Nicholls, R.J. and Corfee-Morlot, J., 2013. Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature climate change, 3(9), p.802.

      How will climate change impact our society?

      Climate change impacts our society by disrupting the natural, economic and social systems we depend on. This disruption will affect food supplies, industry supply chains and financial markets, damage infrastructure and cities, and harm human health and global development.

      The impacts of climate change are already here. Global sea levels have risen 19cm since the beginning of the twentieth century, increasing the risk of flooding for many coastal cities and communities [1] . Heatwaves and droughts are becoming more common and more intense in many parts of the world, causing harm to human health and more heat-related deaths. Climate change is also affecting food security as rain and heat patterns change. In Southern Europe and some parts of Africa, Asia and South America, crop yields are declining [2] .

      In the UK, climate change is making some extreme weather events more frequent and more serious. The winter floods in 2013-14, which cost the economy £450 million in insured losses, occurred due to record rainfall in England and Wales [3] and were made more likely by climate change [4] . The European summer heatwave in 2018, which led to wildfires in parts of the UK, was made around 30 times more likely by climate change. Scientists now expect 12% of UK summers to experience the same levels of heat. Before global warming, the risk was less than 0.5% [5] .

      As the planet gets warmer, the impacts of climate change will grow. If emissions are not decreased and global warming reaches 4°C by 2100, sea levels in the UK could increase by around 1 m [6] , which would put 3.3 million people at risk of flooding by 2050 [7] . Global food supply would also be less secure as extreme weather events and habitat degradation disrupt supply chains. This could lead to higher food prices and up to 183 million more people in the world facing hunger [8] .

      Every bit of warming matters, and vulnerable populations and communities across the world have the greatest difficulty coping with the impacts. Even just half a degree of warming can make the difference between dangerous and manageable effects. By limiting global warming to 1.5°C instead of 2°C, for example, 420 million fewer people would be frequently exposed to extreme heatwaves, and 10 million fewer people would be at risk of flooding from rising sea levels [9] .

      These risks and impacts are not evenly distributed, and some regions of the planet will feel the effects of climate change more severely than others depending on their location and ability to adapt. However, because both the climate system and our human societies are globally interconnected, the effects of climate change will impact all countries, companies and communities in some way.

      References

      [1] Church, J.A. et al. (2013). Sea Level Change. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F. et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

      [2] IPCC. (2019). Summary for Policymakers. In: IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse gas fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems.

      [3] Kendon, M. et al. (2015) State of the UK Climate 2014. Met Office, Exeter, UK.

      [4] Schaller, N. et al. (2016) Human influence on climate in the 2014 southern England winter floods and their impacts. Nature Climate Change, 6, 627&ndash634


      Cenozoic mean greenhouse gases and temperature changes with reference to the Anthropocene

      Cenozoic greenhouse gases (GHG) variations and warming periods underscore the extreme rates of current climate change, with major implications for the adaptability and survivability of terrestrial and marine habitats. Current rise rate of greenhouse gases, reaching 3.3 ppm CO2 per year during March 2015–2016, is the fastest recorded since the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Event (PETM) when carbon release to the atmosphere was about an order of magnitude less than at present. The ice core evidence of concentration of (GHG) and temperatures in the atmosphere/ocean/cryosphere system over the last 740 kyr suggests that the rate of rise in GHG over the last

      260 years, CO2 rates rising from 0.94 ppm yr −1 in 1959 (315.97 ppm) to 1.62 ppm yr −1 in 2000 (369.52 ppm) to 3.05 ppm yr −1 in 2015 (400.83 ppm), constitutes a unique spike in the history of the atmosphere. The reliance of pre-740 kyr paleoclimate estimates on multiple proxies, including benthic and plankton fossils, fossil plants, residual organic matter, major and trace elements in fossils, sediments and soils, place limits on the resolution of pre-upper Pleistocene paleoclimate estimates, rendering it likely recorded mean Cenozoic paleoclimate trends may conceal abrupt short-term climate fluctuations. However, as exemplified by the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and earlier GHG and temperature spikes associated with major volcanic and asteroid impact events, the long-term residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere extends the signatures of abrupt warming events to within detection limits of multiple paleoproxies. The mean post-1750 temperature rise rate (approximately

      0.008 °C per yr where temperature is not masked by sulfur aerosols) exceeds those of the PETM (approximately

      0.0008–0.0015 °C per yr) by an order of magnitude and mean glacial termination warming rates (last glacial termination [LGT]

      0.0004 °C per yr) by near to an order of magnitude. Consistent with previous interglacial peaks an increasing likelihood of collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation is threatening a severe stadial event.


      Graduate Courses

      BS/MS Course

      SIOG 228. Research Seminar (2)

      A three-quarter required sequence for BS/MS earth sciences students to prepare students for thesis writing. Prerequisites: current earth sciences BS/MS student. Department stamp required.

      Graduate

      The SIO Department offers graduate courses across three broad curricular areas:

      • Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP)
      • Geosciences of Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO)
      • Ocean Biosciences Program (OBP)

      Graduate courses are organized under the following course prefixes:

      • SIOC: COAP courses
      • SIOG: GEO courses
      • SIOB: OBP courses
      • SIO: courses not specific to one program

      SIOC 200A. Computational Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing I (4)

      Overview of ocean acoustics. Acoustics Wave Equation with some analytic solution techniques. Ray Methods. Introduction to Spectral and Normal Modes methods. Introduction to beamforming, including matched field processing. Computer programs will be constructed on all subjects covered. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Kuperman

      SIOC 200B. Computational Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing II (4)

      Continuation of SIOC 200A. Range dependent propagation models, including adiabatic and coupled mode models and parabolic equations. More advanced topics in matched field processing. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 200A or SIO 200A or consent of instructor. Kuperman

      SIOC 200C. Computational Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing III (4)

      Continuation of SIOC 200B. Modeling interference such as ambient noise. Time domain methods. Matched field tomography, nonlinear optimization methods, and geophysical inversion. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 200B or SIO 200B or consent of instructor. Kuperman

      SIOC 201. Geological Record of Climate Change (4)

      Introduction to geological archives the tools for paleoclimate reconstruction and a sampling of important issues from the geological record, including the development of “greenhouse” and “icehouse” worlds, the origin and evolution of glacial cycles, and the origin of “millennial scale” climate variability. Prerequisites: chemistry and physics required for graduate admission to SIO, SIO 101 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. Charles

      SIOC 202A–B. Fundamentals of Wave Physics (4𔃂)

      This two-quarter sequence is designed to introduce a broad background of students to basic principles of wave physics, including generation, propagation, dispersion, refraction, diffraction, reflection, waveguides, etc. A variety of wave motions of environmental relevance, including acoustic, ocean surface and internal (SIOC 202A), optical and seismic (SIOC 202B) are used to illustrate these principles. In-class experiments, data collection, and analysis exercises are incorporated. Prerequisites: calculus and partial differential equations. Kuperman, Melville, Stramski, Gerstoft

      SIOC 203A. Introduction to Applied Mathematics I (4)

      Review of exact methods for ordinary differential equations. Expansions about regular and irregular singular points. Introduction to asymptotic expansions. Approximate methods for nonlinear differential equations. Regular and singular perturbation theory. Additional topics depending upon the interests of the instructor. Coscheduled with MAE 294BA. Prerequisites: MATH 110, MATH 120A, or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 203B. Introduction to Applied Mathematics II (4)

      Asymptotic methods: method of steepest descent (if not covered in I) WKB, method of multiple scales, boundary layer theory. Elements of complex analysis. Coscheduled with MAE 294B. Prerequisites: MAE 294A or SIOC 203A or SIO 203A or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 203C. Introduction to Applied Mathematics III (5)

      Partial differential equations: characteristics, similarity solutions, Green’s functions, images, wave equation, diffusion equation, Laplace’s equation. Applications to continuum mechanics, potential fields, and transport phenomena such as diffusion, linear and nonlinear waves, Burger’s equation, shocks, and other topics. Other topics according to the interests of the instructor. Coscheduled with MAE 294C. Prerequisites:graduate standing and MAE 294B or SIOC 203B or SIO 203B or SIOC 215B or SIO 215B or consent of instructor. W. Young

      SIOC 204. Underwater Acoustics (4)

      Theory of radiation, transmission, and scattering of sound with special application to ocean acoustics. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Buckingham

      SIOC 205. Estuarine and Coastal Processes (4)

      The course focuses on estuarine and coastal physical dynamics and biogeochemical/ecosystem impacts. Topics are adjusted for student interest, but include turbulence and the bottom boundary layer, tides (origin and propagation), estuary types, tidally averaged dynamics, temporal variation, stratification, lateral processes and fronts, dispersion mechanisms, sediment transport, estuarine productivity (nutrients, oxygen, and eutrophication), estuarine ecosystems, river plumes, and coastal upwelling. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Giddings

      SIOC 206. Land Surface Hydrology (4)

      Advanced introduction to natural processes that govern water occurrence and transport over the land surface. Principles of global hydrologic cycle and land-surface water balance, runoff and fluvial geomorphology, infiltration and subsurface water flow, evaporation and plant transpiration. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 207A. Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing (4)

      Discussion of discrete-time signals and systems, Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DFT) and window functions, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) and Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters and their implementations, finite word length effects, applications to data acquisition and analysis. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hodgkiss

      SIOC 207B. Digital Signal Processing I (4)

      Discrete random signals conventional (FFT based) spectral estimation. Coherence and transfer function estimation model-based spectral estimation linear prediction and AR modeling, Levinson-Durbin algorithm and lattice filters, minimum variance spectrum estimation. Coscheduled with ECE 251A. (Recommended Prerequisites: ECE 153 in addition to either ECE 161 or 161A and SIOC 207A or SIO 207A or equivalent background.) Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hodgkiss, Rao

      SIOC 207C. Digital Signal Processing II (4)

      Adaptive filter theory, estimation errors for recursive least squares and gradient algorithms, convergence and tracking analysis of LMS, RLS, and Kalman filtering algorithms, comparative performance of Wiener and adaptive filters, transversal and lattice filter implementations, performance analysis for equalization, noise canceling, and linear prediction applications. Coscheduled with ECE 251B. (Recommended Prerequisites: ECE 251A or ECE 251AN.) P rerequisites: graduate standing ECE 251A (for ECE 251B) SIOC 207B or SIO 207B (for SIOC 207C). Hodgkiss

      SIOC 207D. Array Processing (4)

      The coherent processing of data collected from sensors distributed in space for signal enhancement and noise rejection purposes or wavefield directionality estimation. Conventional and adaptive beamforming. Matched field processing. Sparse array design and processing techniques. Applications to acoustics, geophysics, and electromagnetics. Coscheduled with ECE 251D. (Recommended Prerequisites: ECE251A or ECE 251AN.) Prerequisites: graduate standing ECE 251C (for ECE 251D) SIOC 207C or SIO 207C (for SIOC 207D). Hodgkiss

      SIOC 208. Seminar in Applied Ocean Sciences (1)

      Topics in applied ocean sciences. One-hour seminar. (S/U grades only). Staff

      SIOC 209. Special Topics (1𔃂)

      Within the next few years, lectures on various special subjects will be offered by members of the staff. The emphasis will be on topics that reveal the interdependence of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes operating in the oceans. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOC 210. Physical Oceanography (4)

      Physical description of the sea physical properties of seawater, methods and measurements, boundary processes, regional oceanography. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Talley

      SIOC 211A. Ocean Waves I (4)

      Propagation and dynamics of waves in the ocean, including the effects of stratification, rotation, topography, wind, and nonlinearity. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hendershott

      SIOC 211B. Ocean Waves II (4)

      Propagation and dynamics of waves in the ocean, including the effects of stratification, rotation, topography, wind, and nonlinearity. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 211A or SIO 211A and SIOC 214A or SIO 214A or consent of instructor. Melville

      SIOC 212A. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics I (4)

      The equations of motions for rotating stratified flow and their application to the atmospheric and oceanic dynamics Ekman layer dynamics, potential vorticity dynamics, the quasigeostrophic approximation, theories of the wind-driven oceanic circulation, theories of the atmospheric Hadley circulation, geostrophic adjustment, and baroclinic instability. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. MacKinnon

      SIOC 212B. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II (5)

      The equations of motion for rotating stratified flow and their application to the atmospheric and oceanic dynamics Ekman layer dynamics, potential vorticity dynamics, the quasigeostrophic approximation, theories of the wind-driven oceanic circulation, theories of the atmospheric Hadley circulation, geostrophic adjustment, and baroclinic instability. Prerequisites : graduate standing and SIOC 212A or SIO 212A and SIOC 214A or SIO 214A or consent of instructor. Cessi

      SIOC 213. Turbulence and Mixing (4)

      Mixing mechanisms, their identification, description, and modeling. Introduction to turbulence, semi-empirical theories, importance of coherent structures, effects of stratification and rotation on turbulent structure, entrainment and mixing. (S/U grades permitted.) Prerequisites:graduate standing or consent of instructor. Armi

      SIOC 214A. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (4)

      A survey of classical problems in fluid mechanics and approximate techniques of analysis. Topics include conservation equations, straight laminar flows, low and high Reynolds number laminar flow, stability of laminar flows, turbulent flow. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hendershott

      SIOC 214B. Environmental Fluid Dynamics (4)

      Single-layer flows with a free surface two-layer flows, including exchange flows in harbors, estuaries, seas, and buildings. Continuously stratified flows with meteorological and oceanographic applications. Topographic effects, plumes, jets, and thermals. Planetary boundary layers. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Armi

      SIOC 215A. Applied Mathematics for Oceanographers I (4)

      Intended for first-year graduate students who seek a quantitative way to describe how the ocean works: vector analysis, complex quantities, Fourier and Laplace transforms, ordinary differential equations, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equations, initial and boundary value problems, Heat and Laplace equations. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 215B. Applied Mathematics for Oceanographers II (4)

      An introduction to the mathematical description of waves, beginning with a description of the linear oscillator, and followed by normal modes, the flexible string, membranes, water waves, ray theory, method of characteristics, and basic linear algebra. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 215A or SIO 215A or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 215C. Applied Mathematics for Oceanographers III (4)

      An introduction to Perturbation theory, including regular and singular expansions, Poincare’s method, two-scale method, the WKB approximation and boundary layer theory. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 215A or SIO 215A and SIOC 215B or SIO 215B or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 216A. Introduction to the Physics of Complex Systems (4)

      Emergent complex behavior in nonlinear, dissipative, open dynamical systems will be investigated by studying fundamental properties and their manifestation in examples drawn from the physical and biological sciences. Topics to include fractals, chaos, self-organization, artificial life, and neural networks. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Werner

      SIOC 216B. Applied Complexity (4)

      A project-based course focusing on applying methods from the study of complex systems to messy, real-world physical, biological, or social problems. Projects will encompass choosing a problem, writing a proposal, carrying out research, writing up and presenting results, and working collaboratively. Prerequisites: SIO 216 or SIOC 216 or SIOC 216A and graduate standing or consent of instructor. Werner

      SIOC 217A. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I (4)

      Thermodynamics and statics of dry and moist air, atmospheric composition, Earth radiation budget, vertical structure of the atmosphere, global energy balance, thermodynamic feedbacks in the climate system. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (Letter grades only.) Russell

      SIOC 217B. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences II (4)

      Fluid dynamics of the atmosphere derivation of governing equations from the laws of physics, scale analysis, conservation principles, theoretical and observed structure of midlatitude synoptic systems gradient wind and thermal wind approximations, geostrophic and quasigeostrophic approximations potential vorticity, Rossby waves, climate and weather phenomena such as jet streams and cyclones. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 217A or SIO 217A or consent of instructor. Eisenman

      SIOC 217C. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences III (4)

      Radiative, physical, and dynamical processes that govern the mean state, variability, and change of the atmosphere and climate, including greenhouse gases, clouds and aerosols, convection and precipitation, general circulation, and coupled atmosphere-ocean interactions. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 217A or SIO 217A and SIOC 217B or SIO 217B, or consent of instructor. Norris

      SIOC 217D. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences IV (4)

      Atmospheric chemistry that impacts climate change, including photochemical reactions, ozone chemistry, and aerosol evolution in the troposphere and stratosphere. Atmospheric applications of catalytic cycles, heterogeneous chemistry, and microphysical processes will include the ozone hole, urban smog, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Prerequisites: SIOC 217A or SIO 217A and SIOC 217B or SIO 217B and SIOC 217C or SIO 217C. Russell

      SIOC 218. Cloud Dynamics and Climate (4)

      Cloud identification, cloud properties, dynamical processes governing formation and dissipation of different cloud types, impact of clouds on radiation flux and climate. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOC 217A or SIO 217A and SIOC 217B or SIO 217B. Nongraduate students may enroll with consent of instructor.

      SIOC 218A. Observational Techniques in Oceanography (4)

      The course teaches practical knowledge of oceanographic methods, sensors, and platforms, with a focus on physical observations. Uses mixture of lectures, online information, lab demonstrations, practical exercises, student presentations, and manufacturers’ visits. Prerequisites: graduate standing basic knowledge of physical oceanography and physical principles. For graduate students in an oceanographic discipline, and graduate or third- or fourth-year undergraduate students in physics or engineering with an interest in ocean observations.

      SIOC 218B. Observational Techniques in Oceanography: At-Sea Practicum (4)

      Practicum focused on preparing for and carrying out on-site fieldwork using state-of-the art methods (e.g., executing mooring-based data collection with physical, chemical, biological sensors). Teaches ship/deck skills, sensor and mooring preparation, cruise planning/execution, data analysis, cruise-report preparation. Prerequisites: graduate standing basic knowledge of oceanography and data analysis. For graduate students in an oceanographic discipline, and graduate students in physics or engineering with an interest in ocean observations.

      SIOC 219. Special Topics in Physical Oceanography (1𔃂)

      Example topics are case histories and methods in physical oceanography, theories of the ocean circulation, numerical methods in large-scale ocean and atmospheric models, and natural electromagnetic phenomena in the earth and the oceans. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOC 220. Observations of Large-Scale Ocean Circulation (4)

      General circulation of the oceans tropical, subtropical, and high-latitude current systems of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans and marginal seas ocean heat flux and thermohaline circulations observational basis of large-scale dynamics. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Roemmich

      SIOC 221A. Analysis of Physical Oceanographic Data (A) (4)

      Fundamental elements of analysis of geophysical and oceanographic time series, including sampling problems, least squares techniques, spectral analysis, interpretation of series, design of experiments. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. Pinkel

      SIOC 221B. Analysis of Physical Oceanographic Data (B) (4)

      Techniques for analysis of physical oceanographic data involving many simultaneous processes, including probability densities, sampling errors, spectral analysis, empirical orthogonal functions, correlation, linear estimation, objective mapping. Prerequisites: SIOC 221A or SIO 221A or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Rudnick

      SIOC 221C. Data Analysis Laboratory (4)

      This course is to give students practical experience with analysis techniques. Students complete three projects. Topics include empirical orthogonal functions, objective mapping, complex demodulation, inference of geostrophic flow, minimization of CTD salinity spiking, isolation of wind-driven currents, wavelets. Prerequisites: SIOC 221A or SIO 221A and SIOC 221B or SIO 221B or consent of instructor. (S/U grades only.) Gille

      SIOC 222. Underwater Bioacoustics (4)

      Introductory course to familiarize a broad spectrum of participants to underwater sound and its relationship to underwater animals. Basic physics of sound propagation, use of sound to study underwater animals, and the sounds made by the animals themselves for echolocation and communication will be covered. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 223. Proposal Writing and Oceanographic Experiment Design (4)

      Students will use concepts developed in class to develop ideas for an observational experiment, culminating in the writing of an NSF-style proposal and oral presentation of the proposed project. This effort will include identification of a tractable scientific problem, background research, development of an appropriate measurement program, and the writing of a compelling science proposal. Course will provide an opportunity to synthesize scientific, technical, and practical concepts presented in class. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 224. Numerical Modeling of the Climate System (4)

      Introduction to the methods used in numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere survey of numerical methods, introduced in the context of a series of example problems overview of the equations represented in general circulation models (GCMs) of the atmosphere and ocean, and additional numerical methods used in these models adjoint methods for state estimation, analysis of GCM output, and other related topics. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 225. Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions (4)

      Melting of glaciers and ice shelves by the ocean has emerged as a driver of rapid ice loss from Greenland and Antarctica, and hence sea level rise. In turn, melting of Greenland and Antarctica impacts ocean circulation and marine ecosystems. This interdisciplinary course covers basic glacier and ice sheet dynamics, fjord and ice shelf cavity circulation, melting of ice in the ocean and the current state of observations, models and theories of ice sheet ocean interactions at both hemispheres. Recommended preparation: Some introduction to physical oceanography and introductory calculus is helpful. The course is designed for an interdisciplinary group of students. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 228. Machine Learning for Physical Applications (4)

      Machine learning has received enormous interest. To learn from data we use probability theory, which has been the mainstay of statistics and engineering for centuries. The class will focus on implementations for physical problems. Topics include Gaussian probabilities, linear models for regression, linear models for classification, neural networks, kernel methods, support vector machines, graphical models, mixture models, sampling methods, and sequential estimation. Students may not receive credit for both SIOC 228 and ECE 228. Prerequisites:graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 235. Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate (4)

      The class discusses ocean-atmosphere interaction dynamics that cause climate to vary in space and time, and form the physical basis for predicting year-to-year climate variability and projecting future climate change in the face of global warming. Prerequisites: graduate standing, SIO 210 or SIOC 210 and SIO 211A or SIO 211B or SIO 212A or SIO 212B or SIO 217A or SIO 217B or SIOC 211A or SIOC 211B or SIOC 212A or SIOC 212B or SIOC 217A or SIOC 217B or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 237A. Introduction to Ocean Optics (4)

      Overview of ocean optics. Concepts in radiometry. Inherent and apparent optical properties. Radiative transfer equation. Light absorption and scattering by seawater constituents. Optics of air-water interface. Light fields within and leaving the ocean. Optics of marine particles. Measurement methods and instrumentation. Recommended preparation: basic physics and differential calculus. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Stramski

      SIOC 237B. Ocean Color Remote Sensing (4)

      Overview of ocean color satellite missions. Concepts in radiometry. Inherent and apparent optical properties. Radiative transfer equation. Solar radiation and elements of atmospheric optics. Propagation of light across the sea surface and within the ocean. Light absorption and scattering by seawater. Water-leaving radiance and remote-sensing reflectance. Ocean color algorithms and applications. Recommended preparation: basic physics and differential calculus. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Stramski

      SIOC 237C. Optical-Biological Interactions in the Ocean (4)

      This is a course on the interactions of underwater light with marine plankton and animals. Topics include basic physics of interaction of light and matter, optical properties of marine plankton, optical and biological effects associated with interactions of light with marine organisms, and optical methods and their applications to the study of ocean biology. Course meetings consist of approximately 75 percent lectures by instructor and 25 percent student presentations and discussions of selected papers. Renumbered from SIO 237C. Students will not receive credit for SIOC 237C and SIO 237C. Recommended preparation: basic physics and biology. (Letter grades only.) Stramski

      SIOC 241. Advanced Signal Processing for Structural Vibrations and Acoustics (4)

      Review basic fluid and elastic wave propagation in infinite and finite media. Introduce signal and array-processing methods for localization, medium inversion, and nondestructive testing based on the underwater, seismic, and radar literature. Renumbered from SIO 241, students will not receive credit for SIOC 241 and SIO 241. Recommended preparation: calculus through differential equations, linear algebra MATLAB experience strongly desired. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Kuperman

      SIOC 250. Advanced Atmospheric Dynamics (4)

      Advanced topics in atmospheric dynamics not covered in the SIO 217 sequence, including baroclinic instability, mechanisms driving the general circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere, tropical waves, hurricanes and mesoscale phenomena, teleconnections, and spatially coherent patterns of variability. Prerequisites: SIOC 212A or SIO 212A or SIOC 217B or SIO 217B or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 251. Radiation in the Atmosphere (4)

      This graduate-level core course in radiation provides an introduction to basic laws, radiative transfer under clear sky conditions, scattering by individual particles, multiple scattering, radiative properties of clouds and aerosols, the global energy budget, and applications to satellite meteorology. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (Letter grades only.) Evan

      SIOC 254. Science of Climate Change (4)

      This course will provide the scientific basis for understanding climate change. The focus will be on the twentieth century and understanding the various natural and anthropogenic factors and feedback processes that are contributing to the observed climate changes, including extreme events. The students will develop a climate model and explore ways to slow down future changes. Prerequisites: SIOC 217A or SIO 217A or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 261. Nearshore Physical Oceanography (4)

      This course will cover the basic physics of the nearshore region spanning the surf zone to the inner shelf. Topics covered will include wave shoaling, shoaling and breaking, radiation stress and vortex force formalisms, wave setup, wave driven currents in the surf zone and inner shelf, undertow, infragravity waves, basics of sediment transport, and transport and mixing. Prerequisites: SIOC 202A or SIOC 211A or SIOC 214A or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 267. Biogeochemistry (4)

      Examines quantitatively the impact of the biota on the chemistry of the atmosphere and ocean. Emphasis given to isotopes as tracers of biogeochemical processes. Attention given to paleoclimatic and paleoatmospheric data from ice cores to reveal mechanisms. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Severinghaus, R. Keeling

      SIOC 290S. Climate Math and Science (6)

      The course will introduce key physical and biogeochemical concepts needed to understand the Earth’s climate system. The overview will provide a foundation for examining the physical evidence of climate change. Mathematical methods will be presented to reinforce the scientific concepts. Students will complete group papers and presentations and lead discussions on assigned readings. SIOC 290S is a required course in the curriculum of the master of advanced studies—climate science and policy. (Letter grades only.) Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 291S. Introduction to Climate Policy (6)

      The course will focus on policy solutions to climate change and introduce key topics in state, national, and international environmental law and policy. The energy system as well as energy policy will be examined, providing essential foundation for understanding California’s renewable energy policy goals and how we may get there. Students will complete group papers and presentations and lead discussions on assigned readings. This course will include a one-week field trip (Letter grades only.) Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 292. Introduction to Climate Science and Policy (4)

      This course explores the interaction between climate science, policy, and the larger culture. (S/U grades permitted). Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 293. Ocean-Atmosphere Processes and Climate Variability (4)

      We will examine the general structure of the ocean and atmosphere and consider processes and interactions that contribute to climate variability. We will describe dominant climate modes of variability, such as ENSO, and evaluate processes driving climate changes on longer timescales, such as ice ages and deglaciation. Finally, we will explore how climate system processes and feedbacks modulate the impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and how they may be impacted in a warming climate. Prerequisites: SIOC 290S and graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOC 296. Climate Science and Policy Forum (1)

      This required course for MAS-CSP students will focus on the development of MAS Capstone Projects and discussions covering climate science and policy issues, including informal student presentations on political, economic, historical, educational, and natural science issues related to climate science and policy. (Letter grades only.) May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: graduate standing.

      SIOC 299. Climate Science and Policy Capstone Project (6󈝶)

      Building on the knowledge and experience gained from the entire curriculum of the master’s in climate science and policy (MAS-CSP) program, students will design and present a specific climate science and policy project. May be taken for credit one time for a maximum of ten units. (S/U grades only.) Prerequisites: graduate standing. Only students registered in MAS-CSP program.

      SIOG 221. Problems in Plate Tectonics (4)

      This course builds upon classic concepts in plate tectonics with an emphasis on practical implementation of tools that are applicable to a wide range of earth science problems. Topics include plate reconstructions, quantitative seafloor analysis, potential field methods, and earthquake data analysis. Includes an introduction to shell scripting, the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), and LaTeX. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOG 222. Introduction to Industry Reflection Seismic Methods (4)

      Seismic methods history land and marine seismic sources and receivers seismic wave types basics of reflection data processing and imaging vertical seismic profiling well logs, 1-D synthetics, seismic-well ties reflection data facies and fluids interpretation in geological settings emerging reflection seismic methods. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Srnka, Leonard

      SIOG 223A. Geophysical Data Analysis I (4)

      Probability and statistics and their application to make inferences from geophysical data: point processes, distributions, maximum likelihood estimation, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals, least squares, density estimation, interpolation and smoothing. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOG 223B. Geophysical Data Analysis II (4)

      Analysis of geophysical measurements, especially time series, Fourier theory digital signal processing, and spectral analysis. Prerequisites: graduate standing and SIOG 223A or SIO 223A or consent of instructor. Agnew

      SIOG 224. Internal Constitution of the Earth (4)

      An examination of current knowledge about the composition and state of the Earth’s interior revealed by geophysical observations. Seismic velocity and mass density distributions equations of state phase changes energy balance and temperatures constraints on composition from extraterrestrial samples and exposed rocks spherical and aspherical variations of properties. Recommended preparation: calculus and differential equations, basic chemistry and physics. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Masters, Stegman

      SIOG 225. Physics of Earth Materials (4)

      Mathematics and physics of continuous media, focusing on geophysical problems. Topics include deformation, stress, conservation laws, elasticity, attenuation, viscoelasticity, fracture mechanics, and porous media. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Agnew, Fialko

      SIOG 227A. Introduction to Seismology (4)

      Introduction to seismometers and seismograms stress and strain potentials and the wave equation geometrical ray theory and travel times in layered media representation of seismic sources WKBJ and synthetic seismograms seismic hazards and other applications of seismology. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Shearer

      SIOG 227B. Advanced Seismology I (4)

      Introduction to low-frequency digital data continuum mechanics and the equations of motion free oscillation solutions construction of Earth models excitation of free-oscillations and source mechanism retrieval array processing of long-period data modelling aspherical structure surface waves. Prerequisites: SIOG 227A or SIO 227A or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Masters

      SIOG 227C. Advanced Seismology II (4)

      High-frequency wave propagation methods for computing synthetic seismograms, including WKBJ, reflectivity and finite differences body-wave spectra attenuation of body waves source physics reflection and refraction seismology seismic tomography. Prerequisites: SIOG 227A or SIO 227A and SIOG 227B or SIO 227B or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOG 229. Gravity and Geomagnetism (4)

      Introduction to potential theory, with applications to gravity and geomagnetism. Topics include the geoid, spherical harmonics, Laplace’s equation, the Dirichlet problem on a sphere, and Fourier methods. Gravity anomalies and geomagnetic field modeling and sources are discussed also, paleomagnetic observations. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) C. Constable

      SIOG 230. Introduction to Inverse Theory (4)

      Solution of linear and nonlinear inverse problems in geophysics by optimization techniques such as norm minimization and linear programming. Construction of models by regularization inference by bounding functionals. Illustrations from gravity, geomagnetism, and seismology. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) C. Constable

      SIOG 231. Introduction to EM Methods in Geophysics (4)

      Introduction to electromagnetic methods for both global geophysics and applied/exploration methods. Covers history of EM induction, conduction in rocks, binary mixing laws, self potential, induced polarization, DC resistivity, magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, elementary inverse methods, global conductivity structure, and marine EM methods. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) S. Constable

      SIOG 232. Ethical and Professional Science (2)

      Review and group discussion of professional behavior and survival skills in the earth and ocean sciences, including ethics, data management, plagiarism, authorships, preparing proposals, public speaking, conflict of interest, working with industry. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades only.) C. Constable, S. Constable

      SIOG 233. Introduction to Computing at SIO (4)

      Introduction to the SIO computing environment and common software tools in geophysics and other disciplines. Topics include UNIX, MATLAB, Postscript, GMT, LaTex, HTML, and a scientific programming language such as C or Fortran90. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Shearer, Tauxe

      A general course on the dynamics and kinematics of the solid earth based on the text of Turcotte and Schubert. Topics include plate tectonics, heat flow, lithospheric cooling, flexure, viscous flow, gravity, crustal dynamics, and other related topics. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Sandwell

      SIOG 236. Satellite Remote Sensing (4)

      Satellite remote sensing provides global observations of Earth to monitor environmental changes in land, oceans, and ice. Overview physical principles of remote sensing, including orbits, electromagnetic radiation, diffraction, electro-optical, and microwave systems. Weekly labs explore remote sensing data sets. Graduate students will also be required to write a term paper and do an oral presentation. Coscheduled with SIO 135. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Sandwell

      This course covers topics in space geodesy related to the recovery and interpretation of crustal deformation measured by the Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The topics rotate yearly depending on the needs of the mostly geophysics graduate students. The course involves weekly meetings and discussions of papers. Students are also encouraged to participate in optional field trips to perform geodetic surveys. Prerequisites:graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades only)

      SIOG 238. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations (4)

      The course will discuss main numerical methods used to solve boundary and initial value problems involving partial differential equations, such as finite differences, finite elements, and boundary elements. The emphasis will be on practical implementation of the commonly used tools and algorithms. Examples from geophysical applications will be provided. Recommended preparation: calculus and linear algebra. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Fialko

      SIOG 239. Special Topics in Geophysics (1𔃂)

      Special course offerings by staff and visiting scientists. Example topics are seismic source theory, geophysical prospecting methods, dislocation theory and seismic mechanisms, tectonic interpretation of geodetic data, and dynamo theory. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOG 240. Marine Geology (4)

      Introduction to the geomorphology, sedimentation, stratigraphy, volcanism, structural geology, tectonics, and geological history of the oceans. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Castillo, Charles, Gee

      SIOG 241. Geological Field Methods for Geophysicists (1)

      This course is intended for precandidacy geophysics students who have little practical geological experience. We will learn to use: Brunton compasses, GPS, topographic and geological maps and airphotos, and proper note-taking habits. We will explore the geology of Fossil Canyon (near Ocotillo), learn to determine age relationships and how to read the rock record for clues about the geological history of the area, including the opening of the Gulf of California. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Tauxe

      SIOG 242. Rates and Dates: Applications of Modern Geochronology Methods (4)

      This course is designed to give students an understanding of the science behind numerical dating techniques in geological, archaeological, and environmental science contexts. This course will provide a background in the physics of radioactive decay and natural radiation sources and the geochemistry necessary for measurement that are critical to radiometric dating methods, and nonradiometric alternatives. Prerequisites: graduate standing.

      SIOG 243. Material Characterization (4)

      Survey course in materials characterization geared in the earth, environmental, planetary, oceanographic, and biological sciences. Emphasis placed on surface analysis techniques. The course will introduce theoretical framework for spectroscopy, diffraction, and imaging methods used in structural and compositional characterization of materials. Techniques covered include SEM, TEM, IR, and Raman spectroscopy, laser ablation ICP-MS, etc. A term project will incorporate hands-on experience using SEM. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Van Allen

      SIOG 244. Shape and Structure of the Ocean Floor (4)

      Description and explanation of the structural geomorphology of oceanic crust, and of the tectonic and volcanic processes responsible for it. Description and interpretation of deep-sea sedimentary landforms (e.g., deep-sea fans, drifts, bedforms) and of the bottom currents that shape them. Offered in alternate years. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Lonsdale

      SIOG 246. Global Tectonics and Basin Formation (4)

      Plate tectonics of the crust and upper mantle, examining a variety of environments from ridge crests to continental margins, including plate interiors, with an emphasis on basin formation in these tectonic settings. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Cande, Driscoll

      SIOG 247. Rock Magnetism and Paleomagnetism (4)

      Rock magnetism and acquisition of magnetic remanence in geological materials as well as laboratory procedures and data analysis (isolating remanence components and statistical approaches). The paleomagnetic literature will be used to illustrate applications in geological and geophysical problems. Recommended preparation: one year each of college-level physics and geology mathematics through calculus. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Tauxe

      SIOG 249. Special Topics in Marine Geology (1𔃂)

      Special course offerings by staff and visiting scientists. (S/U grades only.) Staff

      SIOG 251. Whole Earth Geochemistry (4)

      A geochemical overview of Earth materials and chemical processes involved in the Earth’s evolution. Topics include formation and differentiation of the Earth, linkages between the solid Earth and the atmosphere/ hydrosphere, and isotope and trace element composition of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Graduate students, additionally, must submit a term paper in one aspect of work discussed during the quarter to be presented orally in class. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hilton

      SIOG 252A. Introduction to Isotope Geochemistry (4)

      Radioactive and stable isotope studies in geology and geochemistry, including geochronology, isotopes as tracers of magmatic processes, cosmic-ray produced isotopes as tracers in the crust and weathering cycle, isotopic evolution of the crust and mantle. Graduate level requires student presentation. Conjoined with SIO 144. Prerequisites: graduate-level standing or consent of instructor. Castillo, Keeling

      SIOG 252B. Advanced Isotope Geochemistry I (4)

      An advanced treatment of noble gas and stable isotope geochemistry. Offered in alternate years with SIO 252C. Prerequisites: SIOG 252A or SIO 252A. Castillo, Keeling

      SIOG 252C. Advanced Isotope Geochemistry II (4)

      An advanced treatment of radiogenic and cosmogenic isotope geochemistry. Offered in alternate years with SIO 252B. Prerequisites: SIOG 252A or SIO 252A and SIOG 252B or SIO 252B.

      SIOG 253. Interactions of Oceanic Plates and the California Margin (4)

      How the geology of Alta and Baja California has been shaped, especially in the past 30MYR, by changing patterns of ocean plates and microplates that have subducted beneath the North American Margin, slid obliquely past it, and captured continental crust. Prerequisites: graduate standing, or consent of instructor. Lonsdale

      SIOG 255. Paleobiology and History of Life (6)

      An introduction to the major biological transitions in Earth history from the origins of metabolism and cells to the evolution of complex societies. The nature and limitations of the fossil record, patterns of adaptation and diversity, and the tempo and mode of biological evolution. Laboratories and substantial field component complement and extend lecture material. Program and/or materials fees may apply. Graduate students, additionally, will give oral presentation or research paper. Coscheduled with SIO 104. Prerequisites: graduate-level standing or consent of instructor. R. Norris

      SIOG 255A. Topics in Paleobiology and History of Life (3)

      Lecture topics on the major transitions in the evolutionary history of life, including origin of metabolisms, microbes, major eukaryote radiations, ecosystems, and societies. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. R. Norris

      SIOG 257. Seminar in Petrology (4)

      Discussion of current research in petrology and mineralogy. (S/U grades permitted.)

      SIOG 260. Marine Chemistry (4)

      Chemical description of the sea the distribution of chemical species in the world oceans, and their relationships to physical, biological, and geological processes. Aluwihare, Barbeau, Dickson, Martz

      SIOG 261. Introduction to Rheology of Solid Earth (4)

      This course provides a framework for understanding the intrinsic properties of rocks (mineralogy, diffusion, deformation). It explores fundamental aspects of geological processes with an emphasis on the interpretation of geophysical data. The course focuses on micro-, rock-, and planet-scale mechanisms. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. A. Pommier

      SIOG 263. Aqueous Chemistry (4)

      This course emphasizes the chemical principles that control basic aqueous chemistry in marine systems. The focus will be to show that the geochemistry of the various elements in sea water and biological systems can be understood as a consequence of basic general chemical concepts such as electron structure, chemical bonding, and group and periodic properties. Recommended preparation: undergraduate chemistry equivalent to UC San Diego CHEM 6 sequence. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Dickson

      SIOG 264. Ocean Acidification (4)

      This course covers the fundamentals of ocean acidification including the chemical background, past and future changes in ocean chemistry, biological and biogeochemical consequences including organism and ecosystem function, biodiversity, biomineralization, carbon dissolution, and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the oceans. May be coscheduled with SIO 143. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOG 267. Marine Chemistry Laboratory (4)

      Applies modern and classic techniques for analysis of seawater chemistry, introducing concepts of signal transduction, calibration, and measurement quality control, instrument communications, data processing. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. T. Martz

      SIOG 268. Seminar in Geochemistry and Marine Chemistry (2)

      Student seminars on topics related to geochemistry and the chemistry of the marine environment. (S/U grades only.) Staff

      SIOG 269. Special Topics in Marine Chemistry (1𔃂)

      Special course offerings by staff and visiting scientists. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOG 270. The Archaeology of Climate Change—Social Adaptation and Vulnerability in Temporal Perspective (4)

      (Cross-listed with ANTH 270.) This seminar studies the dynamics of climate change and human responses through time. Topics include research methods in socioecodynamics, human responses to change in different sociopolitical and economic contexts, and lessons from the past that can inform the present. Students may not receive credit for ANTH 270 and SIOG 270. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOG 275. Paleoethnobotany (6)

      (Cross-listed with ANTH 275.) This course provides an introduction to the fundamentals of practicing archaeobotany. How do archaeobotanists identify ancient plant remains in sites and how can we use this information to understand human subsistence and forestry regimes, animal feeding patterns, and climate change? Program or materials fees may apply. Students may not receive credit for ANTH 275 and SIOG 275. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOB 218. Ocean Law and Policy (4)

      This course provides an overview of key laws and policies governing US and international ocean and coastal waters, examines timely case studies of policies in practice, brings a variety of perspectives to illustrate complexities of policy making, and combines lectures with student presentations and in-class exercises. Reading materials are assigned, including statutes, case law, media publications, and law review articles. Students will develop critical thinking, writing, and public speaking skills. Prerequisites:graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOB 242A. Marine Biotechnology I: Tools and Methods (4)

      The course will explore cutting-edge techniques as it applies to genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and the bioinformatics needed to analyze such data sets. Next generation sequencing, state-of-the-art mass spectrometry, and NMR techniques and bioinformatic challenges. Students may not receive credit for SIO 242A and SIO 242. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Gaasterland, L. Gerwick

      SIOB 242B. Marine Biotechnology II: Applications (4)

      This course will explore the diverse biotechnological applications of marine science. Topics will include natural product drug discovery, biomaterials, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, aquaculture, and extremophiles. Students may not receive credit for SIO 242B and SIO 242. Prerequisites:SIOB 242A or SIO 242A or consent of instructor. Bartlett, Jensen

      SIOB 242C. Marine Biotechnology III: Introduction to Bioinformatics (4)

      Introduction to Unix commands and scripting techniques required for command line interaction with open source bioinformatics tools, including installation, configuration, and use for genome and transcriptome sequencing and assembly, gene expression analysis, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein binding site identification through ChIPseq. Emphasis is on how the bioinformatics tools work, how to use them, and their application to DNA and RNA data sets. Recommended preparation: prior programming skills will help the student gain more from the course. Students may not receive credit for SIO 242C if they have previously taken SIO 242. Prerequisites:SIOB 242A or SIO 242A and SIOB 242B or SIO 242B or consent of instructor.

      SIOB 243. Ecological and Medicinal Aspects of Natural Products (2)

      This course will provide the foundation of the natural products sciences, including ethnobotanical uses of plants, ecological interactions and contemporary drug screening programs, and will increase awareness of the pervasiveness of natural products in pharmaceutical and other commercial products. Students may not receive credit for SPPS 281 and SIOB 243. W. Gerwick

      SIOB 262. Marine Chemical Biology Seminar (2)

      Students will give seminars on current research topics that span the interface of marine chemistry and marine biology. Topics will include natural products chemistry, biotechnology, biogeochemistry, and biochemistry relating to marine systems. May be taken for credit eighteen times. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades only.) Fenical, W. Gerwick, Moore

      SIOB 264. Special Topics in Marine Natural Products Chemistry (4)

      This course provides the foundation for advanced study in the field of marine natural products chemistry. Topics vary from the history of natural products to the organic chemistry of terpenes, alkaloids, acetogenins, and other natural product classes. Varying by topic quarterly, this class is given each quarter and may be repeated. Prerequisites: one-year general organic chemistry. (S/U grades only.) Fenical, W. Gerwick, Moore

      SIOB 265. Marine Chemical Ecology (4)

      Chemistry is the language by which most marine organisms communicate with each other and the environment. While we have yet to learn how to interpret much of this dialogue, it has become clear that natural products play pivotal roles in virtually every biotic process and interaction in the ocean. This course will broadly address the topic of marine chemical ecology, both at the macro-organism and microbiological scales. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOB 269. Interdisciplinary Forum for Environmental Research (2)

      This course provides students from diverse disciplines with a common language to address problems related to the environment and conservation. The purpose is to promote collaboration and communications across departments and the course is open to all graduate students. Students who take the course for credit are expected to serve in the coordinating group to invite speakers and promote events across campus. May be taken for credit up to three times. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades only.) Staff

      SIOB 270. Pelagic Ecology (4)

      An analysis of the concepts and theories used to explain the biological events observed in the water column. Alternate years. Prerequisites: SIOC 210 or SIO 210 and SIOB 280 or SIO 280 or consent of instructor. Ohman, A. Allen

      SIOB 270A. Fisheries Oceanography (4)

      Aspects of marine ecology relevant to the reproduction, survival, and distribution of commercially important marine species. Alternate years only. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Checkley

      SIOB 271. Marine Zooplankton (5)

      Lectures and laboratories treating the morphological, behavioral, and life history variations of the principal phyla of planktonic invertebrates and heterotrophic protists. Constraints of life at low Reynolds numbers principles of allometry growth processes of heterotrophic organisms. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Ohman

      SIOB 272. Advanced Statistical Techniques (4)

      An interactive overview of statistical methods, focusing on approaches common within the life sciences. Emphasis on the conceptual and logical basis of statistical methods. Topics include treatment of controlled experimental data through to model fitting and exploration of observational data. Recommended preparation: SIO 187, BIEB 100, or equivalent introductory statistics/ biostatistics course. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Sandin

      SIOB 273. Professional Ethics in Science (2𔃂)

      A seminar on the historical and contemporary ethics and ethos of scientific research, based on published documents. Given in alternate years. Prerequisites: graduate standing and consent of instructor. Department stamp required. Dayton, Leichter

      SIOB 274. Natural History Below the Tides (6)

      Exposure to local underwater habitats by scuba with basic material to comply with AAUS certification. Lectures and shore dives in local coastal habitats (protected bay and outer coast sites). Aids students in diving research by providing experience with SIO scientists. Prerequisites:department stamp required. Students must qualify to take the SIO dive course. This includes a physical exam as well as swimming and diving proficiency. Dayton, Leichter

      SIOB 275A. Benthic Ecology (4)

      Evolution and maintenance of benthic communities from the terrestrial margins to the deep sea. Special emphasis will be placed on physical and biological scaling and processes determining patterns of distribution and abundance interrelationships between community structure and population phenomena, including trophic relationships, reproductive and recruitment patterns, succession, and life history biology. Offered in alternate years with SIOB 275B. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Leichter, Levin

      SIOB 276. Quantitative Theory of Populations and Communities (4)

      An introduction to the quantitative tools and conceptual issues underlying the study of the dynamics and structure of ecological systems. Recommended preparation: three quarters of calculus. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Sugihara

      SIOB 276L. Quantitative Ecology Project Lab (4)

      A laboratory complement to SIOB 276, to apply quantitative tools to conceptual issues underlying the study of the dynamics and structure of ecological systems. Prerequisites:graduate standing, SIOB 276 or SIO 276 and consent of instructor. Department stamp. Sugihara

      SIOB 277. Deep-Sea Biology (4)

      The ecology, zoogeography, taxonomy, and evolution of deep-sea organisms, with emphasis on the benthos. Course includes one day cruise to the San Diego Trough to examine deep sea organisms (700� meters) (two-hour steam from Point Loma). Offered alternate years. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Levin

      SIOB 278. Seminar in Ocean Biosciences (2)

      Presentations of reports, review of literature, and discussion of current research in the marine biological and oceanographic sciences. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOB 279. Ecology Seminar in Biological Oceanography (1)

      Weekly seminar for students in the biological oceanography curricular group. Lectures given by visiting scientists, resident staff, and students. May be taken for credit eighteen times. Prerequisites: graduate standing. (S/U grades only) Staff

      SIOB 280. Biological Oceanography (4)

      The biology and ecology of marine plankton, nekton, and benthos. Emphasis will be on processes regulating species, community, and ecosystem patterns and changes, including productivity, trophic relationships and species interactions with the physical, chemical, and geological environment. One or more field trips. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Franks or Checkley, Levin

      SIOB 281. Marine Physiology (4)

      Biochemical and physiological mechanisms of adaptation of organisms to the marine environment. Special emphasis is on biological responses to temperature, salinity, carbon dioxide, pH and bicarbonate levels. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Tresguerres

      SIOB 282. Phytoplankton Diversity (4)

      Molecular, biochemical, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on the diversity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phytoplankton. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Palenik

      SIOB 283. Phycology: Marine Plant Biology (5)

      Lecture and laboratory course emphasizing the biology, ecology and taxonomy of marine plants and seaweeds. Laboratory work mainly involves examination, slide preparation and dissection of fresh material collected locally. An oral presentation on a current research topic is required. Program or course fee may apply. Graduate students, additionally, are required to write a research paper. Offered in alternate years. May be coscheduled with SIO 183. Renumbered from SIO 283. Students may not receive credit for SIO 283 and SIOB 283. Program or materials fees may apply. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. J. Smith

      SIOB 284. Marine Invertebrates (6)

      Course emphasizing the diversity, evolution and function morphology of marine invertebrates. Laboratory work involves examination of live and prepared specimens. An oral presentation on a current research topic is required. Graduate level additionally requires a research paper with extensive literature review and critical analyses. Program or course fee may apply. Prerequisites:graduate standing or consent of instructor. Rouse

      SIOB 285. Physical-Biological Interactions (4)

      Physical and biological processes affecting growth and patchiness of plankton. Concepts and equations from physical oceanography will be presented and explored in a biological context. Ideas will be treated both theoretically and with examples from the literature. Prerequisites: SIOC 210 or SIO 210 or consent of instructor. Franks

      SIOB 286. Marine Science, Economics, and Policy (4)

      This course investigates global issues in marine conservation and potential policy solutions. The approach is interdisciplinary, fast-paced, and discussion oriented. Students will become acquainted with sufficient background in marine biology, ecology, marine and conservation economics, international law, and policy as preparation for participation in discussion on real-world issues in marine conservation. Topics and instructors change each quarter. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOB 287A. Marine Microbial Ecology (4)

      Recent developments in the study of marine bacteria. Emphasis will be on biochemical and physiological adaptations of marine bacteria to the ocean environment. Bacterial metabolism, growth, and death will also be discussed in the context of trophic interactions and flows of material and energy in marine ecosystems. Molecular biology techniques used in the study of bacterial ecology will also be discussed. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. (S/U grades permitted.) Azam

      SIOB 289. Pollution, Environment, and Health (4)

      The goal is to understand the scope of the pollution problem facing the planet. Students will learn the properties of chemicals in the environment and survey the biological mechanisms that determine their accumulation and toxicity. Graduate students will also be required to write a research paper. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hamdoun

      SIOB 290. Marine Biology (4)

      An introduction to the field of marine biology, especially to the diversity of marine organisms at all taxonomic levels and their adaptations to the marine environment. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. N. Holland

      SIOB 291. Biology Graduate Research Presentations (2)

      Graduate students in the biological sciences present research in a seminar or poster format. Class participants provide oral and written feedback on presentations. Required of second through fourth year students in the marine biology curricular group. Open to all SIO graduate students. (S/U grades only.)

      SIOB 292. Communicating Science to Informal Audiences (4)

      Graduate science students will develop fundamental communication and instructional skills through the understanding and application of learning theory, interpretive techniques, and pedagogical practices, including the development of an education/outreach plan to support a competitive research proposal. May be coscheduled with SIO 180. Renumbered from SIO 292. Students may not receive credit for SIO 292 and SIOB 292. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

      SIOB 293. Applications of Phylogenetics (6)

      Overview of the computer-based methods for constructing phylogenetic trees using morphological and molecular data. Lectures and labs cover evolutionary and ecological transformations, biodiversity measurements, biogeography, systematics and taxonomy. An independent project and presentation are required. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Rouse

      SIOB 294. Biology of Fishes (5)

      The comparative evolution, morphology, physiology, and ecology of fishes. Special emphasis on local, deep-sea, and pelagic forms in laboratory. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hastings

      SIOB 295. Behavior and Ecology of Fishes (4)

      The course will review recent literature on the behavior and ecology of fishes with emphasis on phylogenetic interpretations of character evolution and/or implications for conservation biology. Topics covered may include habitat selection, foraging strategies, reproductive biology, ontogeny of behavior, speciation, radiations, macroecological patterns, specialized behaviors. Course is a mixture of lectures on the background of topics and student presentations. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Hastings

      SIOB 296. Special Topics in Ocean Biosciences (1𔃃)

      Example topics are reproduction in marine animals, adaptation to marine environments, larval biology, marine fisheries, macromolecular evolution, physical chemical topics in physiology, philosophy of science. Prerequisites: graduate standing. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIOB 297. Marine Biology Seminar (1)

      Lectures given by visiting scientists and resident staff and students. May be taken for credit eighteen times. Prerequisites: graduate standing. (S/U grades only.) Staff

      SIOB 298. Special Studies in Marine Sciences (1𔃂)

      Reading and laboratory study of special topics under the direction of a faculty member. Exact subject matter to be arranged in individual cases. Prerequisites: graduate standing. (S/U grades permitted.) Staff

      SIO 295S. Introduction to Marine Biodiversity and Conservation—Seminar (8)

      Lectures on ecological, economic, social, and legal issues related to marine biodiversity and case studies on socioeconomic and legal issues. Students are expected to attend field trips at sea and to various sites around San Diego County as a part of the corequisite course. Students who have taken SIO 295 may not receive credit for SIO 295S. Corequisites: SIO 295LS. Prerequisites: MAS students only consent of instructor.

      SIO 295LS. Introduction to Marine Biodiversity and Conservation—Lab (8)

      Laboratory work on major biological taxa, field trips on biodiversity in situ, computer labs for informatic tools. Students are expected to attend field trips at sea and to various sites around San Diego County as a part of the course. Students who have taken SIO 295L may not receive credit for SIO 295LS. Corequisites: SIO 295S. Prerequisites: MAS students only consent of instructor.

      SIO 500. Teaching Apprenticeship (1𔃂)

      This practicum for graduate students provides experience in teaching undergraduate oceanography courses. Prerequisites: department approval. (S/U grades only.) Staff

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