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Vitamins are substances used in small doses by cellular metabolism. Almost always act as coenzymes of important enzymatic systems of our metabolism.
As we do not produce them - the exception is vitamin D, which depends for its synthesis on exposure to the sun, we need to obtain them from the food we eat, often raw, as some are very sensitive to high temperatures, which cause your inactivation. The most commonly used vitamins are divided into two groups:
- Fat soluble, whose absorption by the intestine is facilitated by the existence of lipids in the diet. They are vitamins A, D, E and K;
- Water soluble, which are absorbed in aqueous solution. These are B vitamins and vitamin C.
|Vitamins||Top Sources||Deficiency Diseases|
|A (Retinol or Axeroftol)||Green and yellow vegetables; fish liver oil; egg yolk; milk.||Hemeralopia (night blindness), xerophthalmia (total corneal dryness blindness), dry and scaly skin, decreased resistance to infections.|
|D (Calciferol)||Fish liver oil; egg yolk; produced on the skin by the action of sunlight.||Rickets (bending of bones due to calcium deficiency).|
|E (Alfatocopherol)||Green vegetables; vegetable oils; cereals; beef liver.||Anemia (decreased red blood cells)|
|K (Naphthoquinone)||Green vegetables; produced by bacteria in the gut.||Weakening of the blood clotting process, leading to bleeding.|
|B¹ (Thiamine)||Cereals; vegetables; walnuts, beef liver.||Beriberi (weakness and inflammation of the nerves)|
|B² (Riboflavin)||Milk; vegetables; egg; cheese.||Skin cracking; Visual impairment.|
|B³ (Niacin or Nicotinamide)||Beef; cereals; fish; yeast.||Pellagra (diarrhea and skin lesions)|
|B6 (Pyridoxine)||Cereals; egg yolk; beef liver.||Anemia; convulsions (agitated and disordered muscle contractions independent of will).|
|B¹² (Cyanocobalamin)||Bovine liver; eggs; milk; meat; fish; oysters||Anemia; nervous system injuries.|
|C (Ascorbic Acid)||Citrus and other fruits (tomatoes, acerola, camu-camu); potato; vegetables.||Scurvy (internal bleeding and joint edema); gingivitis; nosebleeds.|
|Biotin||Bovine liver; milk; cereals; yeast; produced by intestinal bacteria.||Fatigue; depression; nausea; skin lesions.|
|Folic acid||Vegetables; wheat germ; fruits; yeast; beef liver.||Anemia|
|Pantothenic acid||Beef; cereals; eggs; vegetables; yeast; Walnuts||Injuries to the nervous and digestive systems.|