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Kidney stones, or kidney stones, are hardened formations in the kidneys or urinary tract resulting from the accumulation of crystals in the urine.
Its presence may go unnoticed, without symptoms, but it can also cause very severe pain that begins in the back and radiates into the abdomen toward the inguinal region. It is a pain that manifests itself in cramps, that is, with a peak of intense pain followed by some relief. In general, these attacks may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and require medical and hospital care.
In addition to clinical evidence (severe pain and signs of blood in the urine), kidney stones can be diagnosed by abdominal X-rays, ultrasound or excretory urography, a more specific urinary tract examination.
- Blood in the urine;
- Suspension or decreased urinary flow;
- More frequent need to urinate;
- Urinary tract infections.
- Contrary to what was recommended in the past, excessive seizures should be avoided during seizures. Excess fluid may increase urine pressure in the kidney and consequently increase pain. Medicines may be indicated only by the physician taking into account the cause of stone formation. During seizures, the use of potent pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs is indicated to relieve pain that is extremely strong, almost unbearable;
- Lithotripsy, that is, bombardment of the stones by shock waves aiming at the fragmentation of the stone, which makes their elimination by urine easier;
- Percutaneous or endoscopic surgery: through the endoscope and through small holes, the stone can be removed from the kidneys after fragmentation;
- Ureteroscopy: Endoscopically allows the removal of stones located in the ureter.
- Drink lots of water regularly. Two to three liters a day. This is the most important measure to prevent kidney stones;
- Use a paper filter when you might be eliminating a calculation. Analysis of its composition may guide the physician in choosing the most appropriate treatment;
- The use of pain medication should be prescribed by the doctor. Some of them are inadvisable for people with stomach problems or for pregnant women;
- Control your intake of protein and calcium rich foods if your calculations are formed by excess uric acid or calcium;
- Do not self-medicate or make your own diagnosis. Seek medical attention, especially if you have severe back or abdomen pain and signs of blood in the urine.
- Insufficient volume of urine, or supersaturated urine of salts;
- Too much calcium, phosphates, oxalates, cystine, or lack of citrate;
- Metabolic disorders of uric acid or parathyroid gland;
- Urinary tract infections;
- Anatomical changes;
- Urinary tract obstruction.