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Can we produce sugar using chlorophyll dissolved in ethanol?

Can we produce sugar using chlorophyll dissolved in ethanol?


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I can't find anything about this on the net.

I read in my (high-school) textbook that if plants get sunlight, water and carbon dioxide, and the catalyst called chlorophyll, they can make sugar.

I'm just thinking… We CAN extract chlorophyll by dissolving the boiled leaf in ethanol! So can't we just bubble CO2 in and let the sun shine on it and add some water? Shouldn't that make sugar in the solution?


The mechanism of photosynthesis proceeds via light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions within the chloroplasts (organelles in cells which house the photosynthetic machinery, and indeed chlorophyll itself).

To produce glucose via photosynthesis, you certainly need the pigment chlorophyll - it is necessary but not sufficient by itself. For that, you need the Calvin cycle, which is part of the light-independent reaction within photosynthesis.

The light-dependent reaction requires chlorophyll and uses H2O and sunlight to produce ATP and NADPH, with oxygen as a byproduct. ATP and NADPH are necessary for the Calvin cycle to proceed, which takes atmospheric CO2 and produces glucose and other sugars. This is simplified into basic photosynthetic equation which you are familiar with.

6 CO2 + 6 H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen

Here is an illustration:

The red arrows point to the light-dependent ("light"), and light-independent ("dark") reactions.

Take a look at this slideshow, which answers all your questions with illustrations.

We CAN extract chlorophyll by dissolving the boiled leaf in ethanol! So can't we just bubble CO2 in and let the sun shine on it and add some water? Shouldn't that make sugar in the solution?

Unfortunately you destroy the chloroplast structures during the extraction you describe. These structures, and especially the membranes, are necessary for photosynthesis in its entirety to proceed.


Chlorophyll in Plants

Chlorophyll in plants refers to a pigment molecule that imparts a green colour to the leaves and stems by absorbing a red and blue spectrum of light. The term chlorophyll has originated from the Greek terms “Khloros” (green) and “Phyllon” (leaf).

It plays a fundamental role in photosynthesis by allowing plants to absorb light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Besides plants, chlorophyll pigments also exist in the mesosomes of cyanobacteria and chloroplast of algae.

There are two kinds of chlorophyll pigments (type a and b) that predominates in the plant. Both chl-a and chl-b are light-absorbing pigments that absorb a specific wavelength of white light. Chl-a absorbs dark blue and red light, whereas chl-b absorbs light blue and red-orange light within the visible light spectrum.

This post describes the meaning, discovery, structure, types and interesting facts about chlorophyll pigments. You would also get to know the reason behind the green colour of the chlorophylls.

Content: Chlorophyll in Plants


Experiment

In our experiments 20.0 g of the sugar was dissolved in 100 mL of tap water. Next 7.0 g of Red Star ® Quick-Rise Yeast was added to the solution and the mixture was microwaved for 15 seconds at full power in order to fully activate the yeast. (The microwave power is 1.65 kW.) This resulted in a temperature of about 110 o F (43 o C) which is in the recommended temperature range for activation. The cap was loosened to allow the carbon dioxide to escape. The mass of the reaction mixture was measured as a function of time. The reaction mixture was kept at ambient temperature, and no attempt at temperature control was used. Each package of Red Star Quick-Rise Yeast has a mass of 7.0 g so this amount was selected for convenience. Other brands of baker’s yeast could have been used.

This method of studying chemical reactions has been reported by Lugemwa and Duffy et al. 2,3 We used a balance good to 0.1 g to do the measurements. Although fermentation is an anaerobic process, it is not necessary to exclude oxygen to do these experiments. Lactose and galactose dissolve slowly. Mild heat using a microwave greatly speeds up the process. When using these sugars, allow the sugar solutions to cool to room temperature before adding the yeast and microwaving for an additional 15 seconds.


Biotech breakthrough: Sunlight can be used to produce chemicals and energy

Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have discovered a natural process they describe as reverse photosynthesis. In the process, the energy in solar rays breaks down, rather than builds plant material, as is the case with photosynthesis. The sunlight is collected by chlorophyll, the same molecule as used in photosynthesis. Combined with a specific enzyme the energy of sunlight now breaks down plant biomass, with possible uses as chemicals, biofuels or other products, that might otherwise take a long time to produce. By increasing production speed while reducing pollution, the discovery has the potential to revolutionize industrial production. The research results have now been published in Nature Communications.

The petrochemical industry is indispensible for the functioning of society. However, it remains problematic for both environment and climate. Danish researchers based at the University of Copenhagen have now made a breakthrough with the potential to transform the way we use our Earth's natural resources:

"This is a game changer, one that could transform the industrial production of fuels and chemicals, thus serving to reduce pollution significantly," says University of Copenhagen Professor Claus Felby, who heads the research.

Faster production, decreased energy consumption and less pollution

"It has always been right beneath our noses, and yet no one has ever taken note: photosynthesis by way of the sun doesn't just allow things to grow, the same principles can be applied to break plant matter down, allowing the release of chemical substances. In other words, direct sunlight drives chemical processes. The immense energy in solar light can be used so that processes can take place without additional energy inputs," says Professor Claus Felby.

Postdoc David Cannella, a fellow researcher and discoverer, explains that, "the discovery means that by using the Sun, we can produce biofuels and biochemicals for things like plastics - faster, at lower temperatures and with enhanced energy-efficiency. Some of the reactions, which currently take 24 hours, can be achieved in just 10 minutes by using the Sun."

What reverse photosynthesis is all about

Researchers have discovered that monooxygenases, a natural enzymes also used in industrial biofuel production, multiply their effectiveness when exposed to sunlight:

"We use the term "reverse photosynthesis" because the enzymes use atmospheric oxygen and the Sun's rays to break down and transform carbon bonds, in plants among other things, instead of building plants and producing oxygen as is typically understood with photosynthesis", says Postdoc Klaus Benedikt Møllers

Researchers do not yet know how widespread "reverse photosynthesis", using light, chlorophyll and monooxygenases, is in nature, but there are many indications that fungi and bacteria use reverse photosynthesis as a "Thor's hammer" to access sugars and nutrients in plants.

The breakthrough is the result of collaborative, multidisciplinary research at the Copenhagen Plant Science Centre that spans the disciplines of plant science, biotechnology and chemistry.

"Reverse photosynthesis" has the potential to break down chemical bonds between carbon and hydrogen, a quality that may be developed to convert biogas-plant sourced methane into methanol, a liquid fuel, under ambient conditions. As a raw material, methanol is very attractive, because it can be used by the petrochemicals industry and processed into fuels, materials and chemicals.

Additional research and development is required before the discovery can directly benefit society, but its potential is, "one of the greatest we have seen in years," according to Professor Claus Felby.

For further information contact:

Professor Claus Felby, mobile: + 45 40898932, email: mailto:[email protected]

Postdoc David Cannella + 45 42709498, email: mailto:[email protected]

Postdoc Klaus Benedikt Møllers + 45 81714721, email: mailto:[email protected]

The result can be recreated by following this recipe:

    You take a large sugar molecule to be oxidized. Broken down from straw and wood, for example. (biomass)

Everything is mixed in a test tube and exposed to sunlight. The biomass is then completely or partially broken down. In practice, this means that it becomes easier to break down larger sugar molecules into smaller constituents, which can then be used as clean energy in ethanol production for cars and ships, plastics, biogas, methanol, etc. Without sunlight, it would take hours or days to achieve the same transformation. The process takes only five minutes when exposed to sunlight.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.


Making Ethanol

Related Topics:
More Lessons for IGCSE Chemistry
Math Worksheets

A series of free IGCSE Chemistry Activities and Experiments (Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry).

Reactions of Alcohols
Describe how alcohol can be made by hydrating ethene.
Describe how alcohol can be made by fermentation from sugar.
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods.

Hydration of Ethene to get Ethanol
Ethene + steam &rarr ethanol
Sulfuric acid is the catalyst.
Advantage:
Very pure ethanol is made - no need to purify.
Disadvantage:
Ethene comes from oil which is not renewable.
High temperature needed which is expensive.

Fermentation
Yeast converts sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Advantage:
Sugar is renewable since it comes from plants.
Cool temperatures (40°C) which saves money.
Disadvantage:
The ethanol is impure. We have to purify it which costs money.

The fermentation of glucose using yeast
Beer and wine are produced by fermenting glucose with yeast. Yeast contains enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The ethanol produced is toxic to the yeast and eventually reaches a level that kills the yeast. This happens when the alcohol is about 12-14% depending on the type of yeast used.

Try the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice various math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.

We welcome your feedback, comments and questions about this site or page. Please submit your feedback or enquiries via our Feedback page.


Can we produce sugar using chlorophyll dissolved in ethanol? - Biology

Be sure to write about what you are learning in the lab section of your notebook. You will be expected to answer questions about the lab activity during the lab self test and lab quiz. It helps to have your text and coloring books open beside you for support.

The Absorption Spectrum of the Phycobilin Extract

An absorption spectrum is a measure of the light absorbing capacity of a substance across the entire range of wavelengths (colors). In this experiment we measured the absortion spectrum of the pigment phycobilin extracted from a sample of coralline algae.

Using a Spectrophotometer to Measure Light Absorption

A spectrophotometer is a device that measures the relative amount of light absorbed by a sample dissolved in a liquid solvent.

  1. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the light absorbed by a sample of phycobillin extract in a special tube placed in its sample port.
  2. The spectrophotometer had a Transmittance and Absorbance (T/A) Meter which had a scale that allowed us to read the amount of light that was transmitted by (passed through) the sample or its reciprocal, the amount of light absorbed by the sample.
  3. The spectrophotometer had a wavelength control that allowed us to set the wavelength (color) of the light that passed through the sample.
  4. The spectrophotometer also had 0% and 100% controls to set it up.
  1. Observe the photograph of the spectrophotometer and familiarize yourself with its parts.
  2. Observe the photograph of the spectrophotometer Transmittance and Absorbance (T/A) Meter and familiarize yourself with how to read its scale .
  3. Note: You can read both the Transmittance (red upper scale) and Absorbance (blue lower scale) from the same meter.
  4. Note: the Transmittance and Absorbance scales run opposite to each other. As transmittance increases absorbance declines and vice versa. This is because the light that is transmitted by (passes through) a sample is not absorbed by it and vice versa.

Running the Spectrophotometer

The raw phycobilin extract was diluted to a concentration that would absorb the proper amount of light to read within the limits of the spectrophotometer T/A meter scale. Then the absorbance of the phycobilin sample was measured at a series of wavelengths (colors) across a range of visible light wavelengths from 400nm (violet) to 700nm (deep red).

Running the Spectrophotometer:

  1. We determined the absorbance spectrum of the pigment solution by obtaining absorbance readings at 25 nm intervals of wavelength starting with 400 nm and continuing to 700 nm.

Recording the Absorption Spectrum of Phycobilin

Record the absorbance of the phycobilin sample for wavelengths at 25nm intervals from 400nm to 700nm.

  1. Produce a table of wavelengths, colors, and absorbances in your lab notebook like the one you see below or print it out and fill it in.
  2. Read the spectrophotometer meter for each wavelength of light by clicking the wavelengths in the first column of the table below and reading the lower absorbance scale of the T/A meter that appears.
  3. Record the absorbances in the last column of your table.

Graphing the Absorption Spectrum of Phycobilin

Create a graph of absorbance versus wavelength was created for the phycobilin absorption spectrum.

  1. Produce a bar chart of wavelengths versus absorbances in your lab notebook.
  2. You can configure it like the chart below or y ou can print it out and complete it by filling in the cells next to each wavelenght to create bars.

Analyzing the Absorption Spectrum of Phycobilin

Examine the absorption spectrum data for the phycobilin sample to determine the relationship between absorbance and wavelength.


Chromatography Plant Pigments

Chlorophyll often hides the other pigments present in leaves. In Autumn, chlorophyll breaks down, allowing xanthophyll and carotene, and newly made anthocyanin, to show their colors.
The mix of pigments in a leaf may be separated into bands of color by the technique of paper chromatography. Chromatography involves the separation of mixtures into individual components. Chromatography means “color writing.” With this technique the components of a mixture in a liquid medium are separated. The separation takes place by absorption and capillarity. The paper holds the substances by absorption capillarity pulls the substances up the paper at different rates. Pigments are separated on the paper and show up as colored streaks. The pattern of separated components on the paper is called a chromatogram.

Gather leaves from several different plants. CAUTION: Avoid poisonous plants. Autumn leaves from deciduous trees are especially interesting. Sort the leaves by kind (maple, etc.) and color. Review a diagram of a plant cell . Find the grana and the chloroplasts of the cell.

Safety goggles
Chromatography solvent (92 parts Petroleum ether to 8 parts acetone)
Chromatography paper (or filter paper) about 1 cm x 15 cm
Ethyl alcohol
Fresh spinach
Test tube
Test tube rack
Scissors and Ruler
Fresh leaves of plants
Glass stirring rod
Paper clip
Cork (to fit test tube)
Mortar and pestle
Sand (optional)
10-ml Graduated cylinder

Leaves should be grouped by kind (maple, etc.) and color. Work with a spinach leaf and with one or more other types. CAUTION: Chromatography solvents are flammable and toxic. Have no open flames maintain good ventilation avoid inhaling fumes.

1. Cut a strip of filter paper or chromatography paper so that it just fits inside a 15-cm (or larger) test tube. Cut a point at one end. Draw a faint pencil line as shown in figure 1. Bend a paper clip and attach it to a cork stopper. Attach the paper strip so that it hangs inside the tube, as shown. The sides of the strip should not touch the glass.

2. Tear a spinach leaf into pieces about the size of a postage stamp. Put them into a mortar along with a pinch or two of sand to help with grinding. Add about 5 ml ethyl alcohol to the leaf pieces. Crush leaves with the pestle, using a circular motion, until the mixture is finely ground. The liquid in which the leaf pigments are now for paper chromatography dissolved is called the pigment extract.

3. Use a glass rod to touch a drop of the pigment extract to the center of the pencil line on the paper strip. Let it dry. Repeat as many as 20 times, to build up the pigment spot. NOTE: You must let the dot dry after each drop is added. The drying keeps the pigment dot from spreading out too much.

4. Pour 5 ml chromatography solvent into the test tube. Fit the paper and cork assembly inside. Adjust it so that the paper point just touches the solvent (but not the sides of the tube). The pigment dot must be above the level of the solvent. Watch the solvent rise up the paper, carrying and separating the pigments as it goes. At the instant the solvent reaches the top, remove the paper and let it dry. Observe the bands of pigment. The order, from the top, should be carotenes (orange), xanthophylls (yellow), chlorophyll a (yellow-green), chlorophyll b (blue-green), and anthocyanin (red). Identify and label the pigment bands on the dry strip. Write the species of leaf on the strip as well.
Record the species, external color, and chromatogram pigments in the DATA TABLE of your report sheet.

5. Each pigment has an Rf value, the speed at which it moves over the paper compared with the speed of the solvent.

Rf = Distance moved by the pigment / Distance moved by the solvent

Measure the distance in cm from the starting point (pencil line) to the center of each pigment band. Then measure the entire distance traveled by the solvent. Remember, the starting point for the solvent is also the pencil line and the ending point for the solvent is the top edge of the paper. Do the required divisions and record your Rf values in the DATA TABLE of your report sheet.

6. Wash the mortar and pestle thoroughly, using a little alcohol to remove any remaining pigment.


Making fuel from bacteria

In the search for the fuels of tomorrow, Swedish researchers are finding inspiration in the sea. Not in offshore oil wells, but in the water where blue-green algae thrive.

The building blocks of blue-green algae &ndash sunlight, carbon dioxide and bacteria &ndash are being used by researchers at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm to produce butanol, a hydrocarbon-like fuel for motor vehicles.

The advantage of butanol is that the raw materials are abundant and renewable, and production has the potential to be 20 times more efficient than making ethanol from corn and sugar cane.

Using genetically-modified cyanobacteria, the team linked butanol production to the algae&rsquos natural metabolism, says Paul Hudson, a researcher at the School of Biotechnology at KTH who leads the research. &ldquoWith relevant genes integrated in the right place in cyanobacteria&rsquos genome, we have tricked the cells to produce butanol instead of fulfilling their normal function,&rdquo he says.

The team demonstrated that it can control butanol production by changing the conditions in the surrounding environment. This opens up other opportunities for control, such as producing butanol during specific times of day, Hudson says.

Hudson says that it could be a decade before production of biofuel from cyanobacteria is a commercial reality.

&ldquoWe are very excited that we are now able to produce biofuel from cyanobacteria. At the same time we must remember that the manufacturing process is very different from today's biofuels,&rdquo he says. &ldquoWe need to improve the production hundredfold before it becomes commercially viable.

Already, there is a demonstrator facility in New Mexico, U.S. for producing biodiesel from algae, which is a more advanced process, Hudson says.

One of Sweden's leading biotechnology researchers, Professor Mathias Uhlén at KTH, has overall responsibility for the project. He says that the use of engineering methods to build genomes of microorganisms is a relatively new area. A bacterium that produces cheap fuel by sunlight and carbon dioxide could change the world.

Hudson agrees. &ldquoOne of the problems with biofuels we have today, that is, corn ethanol, is that the price of corn rises slowly while jumping up and down all the time and it is quite unpredictable,&rdquo he says. &ldquoIn addition, there is limited arable land and corn ethanol production is also influenced by the price of oil, since corn requires transport.

&ldquoFuel based on cyanobacteria requires very little ground space to be prepared. And the availability of raw materials - sunlight, carbon dioxide and seawater - is in principle infinite,&rdquo Hudson says.

He adds that some cyanobacteria also able to extract nitrogen from the air and thus do not need any fertilizer.

The next step in the research is to ensure that cyanobacteria produce butanol in larger quantities without it dying of exhaustion or butanol, which they cannot withstand particularly well. After that, more genes will have to be modified so that the end product becomes longer hydrocarbons that can fully function as a substitute for gasoline. And finally, the process must be executed outside of the lab and scaled up to work in industry.

There are also plans to develop fuel from cyanobacteria that are more energetic and therefore particularly suitable for aircraft engines.

The project is formally called Forma Center for Metabolic Engineering, and it involves researchers Chalmers University in Sweden. It has received about EUR 3 million from the nonprofit Council Formas.


Separating leaf pigments using thin-layer chromatography

This article presents a simple laboratory experiment to understand leaf pigments. Students use thin-layer chromatography to separate the various pigments that are present in two different leaf extracts. They identify each pigment and determine whether the two extracts have any pigments in common. The experiment is suitable for students aged 11–16 and takes 1–2 hours to complete.

Note that we used leaves from Epipremnum aureum (commonly known as devil’s ivy) and Ficus benjamina (commonly known as weeping fig), but any species could be used for the leaf extracts. You might also like to carry out the experiment using a brightly coloured flower, such as those in the Petunia genus, and also a yellow or orange leaf.


Leaves of Epipremnum aureum, commonly known as devil’s ivy
Joydeep/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0


Leaves of Ficus benjamina, commonly known as weeping fig
JM Garg/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 3.0

For the thin-layer chromatography, we use a combined mobile phase of hexane, acetone and trichloromethane (3:1:1) as it provides the best separation result. However, it requires part of the activity to be carried out inside a fume hood by the teacher. This mobile phase separates the pigments most clearly, but you could adapt the activity to use mobile phases of hexane or ethanol alone, which the students can carry out themselves. Both hexane and ethanol successfully separate the pigments, but the distinction between each pigment is not as clear as when the combined solvent is used.

Materials

  • Leaf samples (e.g. E. aureum and F. benjamina), cut into pieces measuring approximately 2 cm x 2 cm
  • Thin-layer chromatography plates (10 cm x 5 cm) pre-coated with silica gel
  • Organic solvent comprised of:
    • 3 parts hexane, C6H14
    • 1 part acetone, (CH3)2CO
    • 1 part trichloromethane, CHCl3

    Safety note

    A lab coat, gloves and eye protection should be worn. The solvents used in this experiment are flammable, so they must not be used near flames. The combined solvent (hexane, acetone and trichloromethane) must only be used inside a fume hood due to the volatility, smell and health risks associated with it.

    Procedure

    The following steps should be carried out by the students:

    1. Place your first leaf sample in the mortar. Pipette 1 ml of acetone into the mortar and use the pestle to grind the sample until the leaf is broken down.
    2. Transfer the mixture to a well of the spotting tile using the pipette.
    3. Wash the mortar and pestle, and repeat steps 1–2 using the second leaf sample. Use a new pipette to add 1 ml of acetone and use this pipette to transfer the mixture to a new well of the spotting tile.
    4. Take the chromatography plate and draw a horizontal line 1.5 cm from the bottom using a pencil. Take care not to touch the plate with your fingers.
    5. Using your first pipette (take care not to mix up which pipettes were used for each leaf sample), draw up some of your first leaf sample. Apply a single, small drop to the pencil line on the left hand side of the chromatography plate. Make sure to leave enough space to fit the second sample on the right hand side.
    6. Wait a few seconds until it dries, and apply a second drop on the same spot. Continue until you have added around 10 drops.
    7. Using your second pipette, repeat steps 5 and 6 for the second leaf sample by adding it to the right hand side of the plate.
    8. Allow the plate to dry completely.

    The following steps must be carried out by the teacher:

    1. Inside the fume hood, combine the solvents in the following proportions: hexane, acetone and trichloromethane, 3:1:1.
    2. Add the combined solvent to the beaker. You should add only a shallow layer of solvent, so that the pencil line on the chromatography plate will not be submerged.
    3. Place the chromatography plate vertically into the beaker, with the pencil line at the bottom, and cover the beaker with a watch glass. Students can watch as the solvent moves up the plate and the pigments separate.
    4. Wait until the solvent has travelled roughly 6 cm from the starting point (this will take approximately 15–30 minutes) before removing the plate from the beaker, leaving it inside the fume hood.
    5. Use a pencil to quickly mark the furthest point reached by the solvent. Allow the plate to dry completely before removing it from the fume hood.

    The following steps should be carried out by the students:

    1. Photograph the chromatogram as soon as it is dry. The colours will fade within a few hours. Print out a copy of the photograph for your notes.
    2. Using the chromatogram photo, try to work out how many pigments are present in each leaf extract.
    3. Now look at the chemical structures of different pigments (see figure 1). Can you determine which pigment is which (see the explanation section for more guidance)? Write down your answers.
    4. Measure the distances travelled by the solvent and the pigments, and calculate the retardation factor (Rf) using the following equation:
      Rf = (distance travelled by pigment) / (distance travelled by solvent)

    Record your results in a table. Compare these to the values in table 1: were your answers correct?

    Figure 1: Chemical structures of photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a and b, β-carotene, and violaxanthin (a xanthophyll pigment). Polar groups circled in blue, nonpolar groups circled in red. (Click to enlarge)
    Nicola Graf

    Explanation

    The different pigments in a leaf extract are separated based on their affinities for the stationary phase (the silica on the thin-layer chromatography plate – a polar substance) and the mobile phase (the solvent – a nonpolar substance). Compounds with a high affinity for the solvent (i.e. nonpolar compounds) will move much further than compounds with a high affinity for silica (i.e. polar compounds).

    In our example (see figure 2), both leaf extracts contained four pigments. Pigment 4 moved a shorter distance than pigment 1, indicating that pigment 4 is more polar and pigment 1 is less polar. By looking at the chemical structures of different pigments and the polar and nonpolar groups, students can try to identify the pigments in each of the leaf extracts.

    They will need to know that, of the functional groups present in the pigments in figure 1, alcohol groups are the most polar, ester and ether groups the least polar, and aldehyde and ketone groups are in between. From this, we can deduce that carotenes are the least polar pigments (no polar groups), and xanthophylls are the most polar (two alcohol groups, one at each end of the molecule). Therefore, pigments 1 and 2 are likely to be carotenes, and pigment 4 is likely to be a xanthophyll. Pigment 3 is likely to be chlorophyll, since it is more polar than carotenes but less polar than xanthophylls. You can observe the characteristic green colour from chlorophyll on the chromatogram.


    Figure 2: Chromatograms and corresponding Rf values for two leaf samples (E. aureum and F. benjamina) using a mobile phase of hexane, acetone and trichloromethane
    Josep Tarragó-Celada

    Now look at the Rf values, which range between 0 and 1, with 0 being a pigment that does not move at all, and 1 indicating a pigment that moves the same distance as the solvent. The Rf value varies depending on the solvent used, but the general order of the pigments (from the highest to the lowest Rf value) usually remains the same, because the nonpolar compounds move further than the polar compounds. Rf values for various pigments (using hexane, acetone and trichloromethane (3:1:1) for the solvent) are shown in table 1.

    Table 1: Rf values for a variety of plant pigments, calculated from a chromatogram using hexane, acetone and trichloromethane (3:1:1) for the mobile phase (Reiss, 1994).
    Pigment Rf value
    β-carotene 0.98
    Chlorophyll a 0.59
    Chlorophyll b 0.42
    Anthocyanins 0.32-0.62
    Xanthophylls 0.15-0.35

    Discussion

    After the experiment, you can ask your students some of the following questions to gauge their understanding of plant pigments and thin-layer chromatography.


    Gentlemen, how to get rid of chlorophyll?

    I have recently finished passing a certain solvent through some organic matter.

    the quicker the passthough and colder the solvent the yellower the end result.

    it took some trial and error but i got about 6-7 litres of solvent with the good stuff suspended in the liquid.

    thing is i had limited solvent and so had to do several passes with the same litre bottle meaning ive got very dark liquid left over with about 6 washes worth of stuff suspended in the liquid. get me?

    6 litres x 6 washes each. oooof is there a limit to the amount of good stuff the solvent can hold?

    as in how you can only really get 2.5 kilos of sugar suspended in a liter of water kinda thing?

    is it possible to get rid of the dark green colour? the cholophyll i mean. how? what is winterisation? is it just putting stuff n the freezer?

    for my next trick if i am still a free man is to get everything and just freeze it, this is the best low tech method im taking it?

    Aaronnoraa

    Member

    is it possible to get rid of the dark green colour? the cholophyll i mean. how? what is winterisation? is it just putting stuff n the freezer?

    for my next trick if i am still a free man is to get everything and just freeze it, this is the best low tech method im taking it?

    You could winterize to help with the waxes but from what I gather you will lose a significant amount of terpenes by doing so. I recently posted a method to clean up green ISO extractions with a simple procedure using butane that you may be better off trying instead. If you winterize you will likely still end up with green oil and the amount of effect the winterizing will have would depend on whether or not you winterize with the solvent you currently have your extract dissolved in (I'm guessing ISO?) or if you were to evaporate and re-dissolve in ethanol, which works better than ISO for that process.

    Here's the post about my method-

    All you would need to do this process is butane, gloves, safety glasses and an appropriate bottle. You will want to evaporate your solvent first leaving just your dark oil to use with this process.

    If you have any questions about that process feel free to ask and I'll be happy to help.

    Chris Edward

    Well-Known Member

    6 washes?
    Ouch, but I understand, you work with what you have…
    Next time try to keep it at around 2-3 washes, after that you're getting more and more chlorophyll and wax and less THC and CBD.

    It may have better to do this in small batches, so the amount of solvent would be enough. Once it was washed and filtered twice, you could return it to the freezer for an hour before the next batch of “plant material”…

    Solvents do have a limit to the amount of goodies they will hold on it, I am not sure what this is to be honest, it is defiantly solvent dependant.
    Unless you put a pound through that liter, I highly doubt you got close to the threshold though.

    As far as the green color, sure you can get rid of it, but not unless you have some lab equipment.
    There’s a couple of ways you could do this, either using a separation flask or in a centrifuge.
    Both are tedious and expensive and you would need to know exactly what you are doing or not only would you be wasting your time but money as well…
    Don’t worry, over time the cholorphyll with turn olive green. As the solvent evaporates the oil will turn sort of an olive-drab green to doo-doo-brown anyway so unless someone shines a light on it and knows what they are looking for, they won’t notice…
    You’re not going to get the bright amber yellows like the commercial oils, extracts, and shatters. That takes even more expensive lab equipment.

    Proper winterization cannot be achieved in a home freezer, but you can get close and 99% of the time that's good enough.

    Like you said, next time, freeze everything. The solvent, the “plant material”, the containers, everything. If you can put the solvent in a container that retains cold longer or do small batches, every little thing helps.

    To be honest, I have had vape from the same strain, using a mix with as much chlorophyll kept out as possible and one where everything was mixed at room temp and to be honest, besides the one that was mixed at room temp looking like pine tar, if your vape pen, equipment, whatever is good (doesn’t taste like the coil) you probably won't notice the difference. Depending on your vape juice, you may notice it will be a little harsher on the throat, but nothing like a joint or a bong hit.

    Just remember if you just smoked the “plant” material, you'd get the chlorophyll.

    Fadedawg

    Well-Known Member

    I have recently finished passing a certain solvent through some organic matter.

    the quicker the passthough and colder the solvent the yellower the end result.

    it took some trial and error but i got about 6-7 litres of solvent with the good stuff suspended in the liquid.

    thing is i had limited solvent and so had to do several passes with the same litre bottle meaning ive got very dark liquid left over with about 6 washes worth of stuff suspended in the liquid. get me?

    6 litres x 6 washes each. oooof is there a limit to the amount of good stuff the solvent can hold?

    as in how you can only really get 2.5 kilos of sugar suspended in a liter of water kinda thing?

    is it possible to get rid of the dark green colour? the cholophyll i mean. how? what is winterisation? is it just putting stuff n the freezer?

    for my next trick if i am still a free man is to get everything and just freeze it, this is the best low tech method im taking it?

    Getting rid of chlorophyll is tougher than waxes. I suggest adding enough citric acid to turn the solution bright yellow, and then filtering through bentonite clay bleaching filters.

    You can also fractionally distill it.

    Cronict1

    Member

    I actually have Citric acid, this will turn my good stuff yellow?

    i have access to a centrifuge also what speed should i run it at and for what time?

    so what your telling me is i can actually go full on RSO style then clarify with butane/hexane to get the maximum efficiency?

    im after a smooth smoke. and yellow colour

    The Hippy

    Well-Known Member

    Aaronnoraa

    Member
    To go from the first picture to the second took less than 2 hours and required nothing more than a can of butane, a sturdy bottle, gloves and safety glasses. You can't see it since it's so dark, but if spread thin enough for light to pass the material in the first picture was green.

    Cold$moke

    Well-Known Member
    One of my favorite pictures the stuff i made was meh ok
    Im trying to get better lol
    Just everclear nothing fancy

    Fadedawg

    Well-Known Member

    I actually have Citric acid, this will turn my good stuff yellow?

    i have access to a centrifuge also what speed should i run it at and for what time?

    so what your telling me is i can actually go full on RSO style then clarify with butane/hexane to get the maximum efficiency?

    im after a smooth smoke. and yellow colour

    Winterizing is dissolving a concentrate extracted with a non polar solvent, into a polar solvent and lowering the temperature so that the fats and waxes precipitate out, so they can be removed by filtration.

    I'll ask Pharmer Joe what speed he runs his centrifuge.

    Ummm, that wasn't me. You can improve it some with a Pentane, Hexane, Butane (alkane) wash, and more by adding a brine wash, but it won't take all the chlorophyll out and it will still be darker that one that has been degummed with citric acid and filtered through bentonite bleaching filters.

    Fadedawg

    Well-Known Member

    Chris Edward

    Well-Known Member

    @cronict1,
    Are you more concerned with the color of your extract or the smoke quality?
    It seems everyone wants to make their extracts look like the lab extracts that commercially produced, but it isn't necessary, unless you are planning to sell it.

    If you smoked a joint you would get all these "bad" chemicals as well, plus carbon.

    Honestly though if your vaping equipment is good, the smoke will be smooth.
    I am currently smoking straight RSO thinned with WAX Liquidizer in a Kanger protank3 and it isn't any different than the highly purified extracts I have smoked.
    The thinned RSO looks greenish brown and cloudy and you cannot see through it, but other than that it is smooth to smoke and gets me plenty high.
    I decarbed the cannabis before turning it into RSO.

    We spend so much valuable time emulating the big guys. If these companies are so interested in your health, which is why they supposedly filter out all the "contaminants", then explain why they then choose to use cheap cartridges which off gas more terrible things then the cannabis could ever.

    MikeGanja

    Well-Known Member

    MikeGanja

    Well-Known Member

    Getting rid of chlorophyll is tougher than waxes. I suggest adding enough citric acid to turn the solution bright yellow, and then filtering through bentonite clay bleaching filters.

    You can also fractionally distill it.

    Chris Edward

    Well-Known Member

    Fadedawg

    Well-Known Member

    Gb123

    Well-Known Member

    Bublonichronic

    Well-Known Member

    6 washes?
    Ouch, but I understand, you work with what you have…
    Next time try to keep it at around 2-3 washes, after that you're getting more and more chlorophyll and wax and less THC and CBD.

    It may have better to do this in small batches, so the amount of solvent would be enough. Once it was washed and filtered twice, you could return it to the freezer for an hour before the next batch of “plant material”…

    Solvents do have a limit to the amount of goodies they will hold on it, I am not sure what this is to be honest, it is defiantly solvent dependant.
    Unless you put a pound through that liter, I highly doubt you got close to the threshold though.

    As far as the green color, sure you can get rid of it, but not unless you have some lab equipment.
    There’s a couple of ways you could do this, either using a separation flask or in a centrifuge.
    Both are tedious and expensive and you would need to know exactly what you are doing or not only would you be wasting your time but money as well…
    Don’t worry, over time the cholorphyll with turn olive green. As the solvent evaporates the oil will turn sort of an olive-drab green to doo-doo-brown anyway so unless someone shines a light on it and knows what they are looking for, they won’t notice…
    You’re not going to get the bright amber yellows like the commercial oils, extracts, and shatters. That takes even more expensive lab equipment.

    Proper winterization cannot be achieved in a home freezer, but you can get close and 99% of the time that's good enough.

    Like you said, next time, freeze everything. The solvent, the “plant material”, the containers, everything. If you can put the solvent in a container that retains cold longer or do small batches, every little thing helps.

    To be honest, I have had vape from the same strain, using a mix with as much chlorophyll kept out as possible and one where everything was mixed at room temp and to be honest, besides the one that was mixed at room temp looking like pine tar, if your vape pen, equipment, whatever is good (doesn’t taste like the coil) you probably won't notice the difference. Depending on your vape juice, you may notice it will be a little harsher on the throat, but nothing like a joint or a bong hit.

    Just remember if you just smoked the “plant” material, you'd get the chlorophyll.