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Will breathing through mouth result in any disorders?

Will breathing through mouth result in any disorders?


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My nose is slightly bent. When I was born, I had an issue with breathing. My mom said that doctors had inserted a breathing tube in one of my nostrils. This tube may have caused the deformation. From childhood, I breathe through my mouth. Will there be an any problems in the future? Do I have to take any treatment? Please suggest.


Mouth Breathing: Physical, Mental and Emotional Consequences

Breathing is one of the most vital functions of the human body. Every breath we take can have a positive or negative impact on our bodies depending on how it is performed and it has been well established that normal breathing should be achieved through the nose. However, it may be detoured to the oral cavity in the presence of an airway obstruction. 35

During normal breathing, the abdomen gently expands and contracts with each inhalation and exhalation. There is no effort involved, the breath is silent, regular, and most importantly, through the nose. Abnormal breathing or mouth breathing on the other hand is often faster than normal, audible, punctuated by sighs, and involves visible movements of the upper chest. This type of breathing is normally only seen when a person is under stress, but for those who habitually breathe through their mouths, the negative side effects of stress and over-breathing become chronic. Habitual mouth breathing has serious implications on an individual’s lifelong health, including the development of the facial structures. This article explores the benefits of nasal breathing over mouth breathing, and provides a self-help exercise to help decongest the nose.

1. Nasal breathing and the Importance of Nitric Oxide
Nasal breathing has been well documented to providing various benefits. The nose is equipped with a complex filtering mechanism which purifies the air we breathe before it enters the lungs. 11Breathing through the nose during expiration helps maintain lung volumes and so may indirectly determine arterial oxygenation. 28

One of the most important reasons for nasal breathing, is due to the production of nitric oxide (NO). 9NO exists in the human breath, but little is known about its site of origin or enzyme source. Most NO in normal human breath derives locally from the nose where it can reach high levels during breath-holding. 39This incredible molecule, is said to be produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and is believed to play a vital role in many biological events including regulation of blood flow, platelet function, immunity, and neurotransmission. 18Although this gas is produced in minute amounts, when it is inhaled through the nose into the lungs, it will follow the airstream to the lower airways and the lungs where it aides in increasing arterial oxygen tension hence enhancing the lungs capacity to absorb oxygen. 18Nitric Oxide also plays an important role in reducing high blood pressure, maintaining homeostasis, immune defense and neurotransmission. 6

2. Effects of Mouth Breathing
Habitual mouth breathing, conversely involves an individual breathing in and out through the mouth for sustained periods of time, and at regular intervals during rest or sleep.

It is well documented that mouth breathing adults are more likely to experience sleep disordered breathing, fatigue, decreased productivity and poorer quality of life than those who nasal-breathe. 16,22,23 In children, the harmful effects of mouth breathing are far greater, since it is during these formative years that breathing mode helps to shape the orofacial structures and airways.
Children whose mouth breathing is left untreated for extended periods of time, can set the stage for lifelong respiratory problems and including, a less attractive face to name a few. As a result, malocclusions such as a skeletal Class II or Class III, along with a long lower face height (characterized as “long face syndrome”), and high palatal vaults may also be noted. 14These resultant craniofacial alterations associated with mouth breathing can significantly aggravate or increase the risk of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea in both children and adults.

A study conducted by Fitzpatrick et al, demonstrated the critical role of the soft palate in determining oral or nasal airflow. The study showed that during mouth breathing, the soft palate will tend to move posteriorly against the posterior pharyngeal wall, thus closing the nasopharyngeal airway. Whereas, during nasal breathing, the soft palate moves inferiorly and anteriorly until it lays against the dorsum of the tongue, thus closing the oropharyngeal airway.

The opening of the mouth during sleep in normal subjects and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was also documented in this study. Mouth opening, even in the absence of oral airflow, has been shown to increase the propensity to upper airway collapse. The two most likely explanations for the latter finding are that jaw opening is associated with a posterior movement of the angle of the jaw and compromise of the oropharyngeal airway diameter, and that posterior and inferior movement of the mandible may shorten the upper airway dilator muscles located between the mandible and hyoid and compromise their contractile force by producing unfavorable length-tension relationships in these muscles. 10Therefore, it is of utmost importance to address mouth breathing accordingly.

Unfortunately, it has been noted that there is a lack of awareness regarding the negative impact of airway obstruction via mouth breathing on normal facial growth and physiologic health and as a result, may be confused for (ADD) and hyperactivity. 14According to the National Sleep Foundation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to a variety of sleep problems. Children and adults behave differently as a result of sleepiness. Adults usually become sluggish when tired while children tend to overcompensate and speed up. For this reason, sleep deprivation is sometimes confused with ADHD in children. Children may also be moody, emotionally explosive, and/or aggressive as a result of sleepiness. In a study involving 2,463 children aged 6-15, children with sleep problems were more likely to be inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive, and display oppositional behaviors. 35,37,5

Another study published in the International Journal of Pediatrics investigating the long-term changes to facial structure caused by chronic mouth breathing noted that this seemingly ‘benign’ habit “has in fact immediate and/or latent cascading effects on multiple physiological and behavioral functions.” 29Therefore, with this in mind, mouth breathing can have a tremendous impact on the mental and physical health of children as it can be associated with the restriction of the lower airways, poor quality of sleep, reduced cognitive functioning and a lower quality of life. 5

3. Prevalence, Causes and Physical Manifestations of Mouth Breathing
Brazilian researchers investigating the prevalence of mouth breathing in children ages three to nine found that a 55% random selection of 370 subjects were mouth-breathers. 2Reported causes of mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis (81.4%), enlarged adenoids (79.2%), enlarged tonsils (12.6%), and obstructive deviation of the nasal septum (1.0%). The main clinical manifestations of mouth-breathers were: sleeping with the mouth open (86%), snoring (79%), itchy nose (77%), drooling on the pillow (62%), nocturnal sleep problems or agitated sleep (62%), nasal obstruction (49%), and irritability during the day (43%). 3Although allergic rhinitis is considered one of the leading causes of respiratory obstruction it is of utmost importance to note that upon the first onset of nasal congestion, a feeling of air deprivation occurs, causing the individual to switch to mouth breathing. 4

Another study conducted by Pereira et al, demonstrated that orofacial changes were noted in mouth breathers such as: half-open lip and lower tongue position, lip, tongue and cheek hypo-tonicity, and tongue interposition between the arches during deglutition and phonation. 26

3.1 Effect of Low Tongue Position
A mouth breather carries the tongue in a low downward position, creating an airspace which allows the person to breathe more freely and as a result it can lead to abnormal tongue activity. This abnormal tongue activity, can exert an excessive force upon the dentition during swallowing, contributing to malocclusions in children and leading to periodontal disease and atypical myofascial pain in adulthood. 12,33 This displacing force and misdirection of the tongue, can additionally contribute to microscopic changes in the attachment apparatus leading to increased tooth mobility and advancing periodontal disease.

Furthermore, this low tongue resting posture can contribute to various morphological changes to the orofacial structures and consequently, Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMDs) may develop as well. “OMDs are disorders pertaining to the face and mouth and may affect, directly and indirectly, chewing, swallowing, speech, occlusion, temporomandibular joint movement, oral hygiene, stability of orthodontic treatment, facial esthetics, and facial skeletal growth.” 25The most common forms of OMDs include: oral breathing or lack of habitual nasal breathing habitual open mouth posture, and lack of lip seal with patent nasal passages reduced upper lip movement with or without a restricted labial frenum restricted lingual frenum, from borderline to ankyloglossia anterior or lateral tongue thrust at rest (static posture) low and forward tongue position at rest, usually accompanied by an increased verticle dimension inefficient chewing (related or not) to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders or malocclusion atypical swallowing, with or without a tongue thrust (dynamic posture) oral habits and forward position of the head at rest, during chewing and during swallowing to name a few. 25

The resting posture of the tongue plays a pivotal role since its effects are far more constant than atypical swallowing. Mouth breathing encourages incorrect positioning of the tongue (on the floor of the mouth), while nasal breathing naturally places the tongue in its proper resting position (on the roof of the mouth), and most important of all aides in achieving a lip seal.

A study conducted by Schmidt et al, indicated that correct tongue resting position (on the roof of the mouth) resulted in a significant activity in the temporalis and suprahyoid muscles as well as a significant reduction in heart rate variability when compared with a low tongue resting position (on the floor of the mouth). 27In other words, a proper tongue resting posture is essential for achieving orofacial balance.

3.2 Postural Problems
In addition to abnormal swallowing patterns and facial characteristics, postural problems may also be present in those who habitually breathe through their mouth. Mouth breathers tend to assume a characteristic posture, carrying their heads forward in order to compensate for the restriction to their airways and make breathing possible.

A study conducted by Okuro et al, demonstrated how the respiratory biomechanics and exercise capacity were negatively affected by mouth breathing and that the presence of moderate forward head posture acted as a compensatory mechanism in order to improve respiratory muscle function. 24 This forward head posture often leads to muscle fatigue, neck pain, tension in the temporomandibular joint area, spinal disc compression, early arthritis, tension headaches, and dental occlusal problems. 8

4. Multidisciplinary approach
In order to achieve proper oronasal balance, a patient must be examined as a whole in a multidisciplinary approach. “It is of fundamental importance to obtain information from the parents/guardians during the medical interview. Therefore, questions about the child’s sleep patterns, if he/she sleeps with the mouth opened, if there is noisy breathing, if the child lacks concentration at school, if the child feels sleepy during the day, if the pillow is wet in the morning these questions should all be recorded, because they represent important elements in the diagnosis of oral breathing.” 38Although there is no discernible test to identify mouth breathing, simply observing an individual’s resting breathing habits for at least three minutes can form part of a diagnosis for both children and adults.

It is important to note that an accurate diagnosis of mouth breathing cannot be done with data alone. Therefore, it is recommended to also carry out the Glatzel metal plate test and the time through which the child keeps water in her/his mouth with the lips sealed and without swallowing it, since the results may differ and complete each other. 38

A team of qualified professionals such as Pediatricians, Ear Nose and Throat Doctors, Orthodontists, Dentists, Dental Hygienists, Myofunctional Therapists, Buteyko Breathing Specialists, and Speech Pathologists to name a few can help arrest the cascading effects associated with mouth breathing.

Management of Nasal Congestion
Proper management and early detection of nasal congestion is key to arresting mouth breathing in an individual. As previously stated, mouth breathing can be a result of various origins associated with respiratory obstruction such as allergic rhinitis.

Therefore, with rhinitis being one of the leading causes of nasal obstruction, some of the most common treatments used for treating rhinitis include: trigger avoidance, decongestants, corticosteroids or allergy shots. While these offer some therapeutic benefits for some, they may be effective only for as long as treatment continues. Meanwhile, the individual becomes accustomed to breathing through their mouth and will likely continue this habit even after their nasal airways have cleared, causing a vicious cycle of recurrent congestion. While it may seem counterintuitive nasal breathing is essential for decongesting the nose, along with breathing exercises designed to open the airways, such as the Buteyko Breathing Method.

The Buteyko Method, developed in the 1950s by Russian respiratory physiologist Dr. Konstantin Buteyko, was subject to a study investigating its effectiveness for the treatment of chronic rhinitis in asthma. The study validated evaluations, including the Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT) which showed a 71% reduction of rhinitis symptoms at the three month follow up. 1

The Buteyko Breathing Method features a measurement appraisal known as the Control Pause, a breath hold exercise to unblock the nose, and reduced breathing exercises to reset breathing volume towards normal. 19

Nasal Decongestion Exercise
The nose can be unblocked for both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis by performing a breath hold as follows:

  • Take a small, silent breath in and let a small, silent breath out through your nose
  • Pinch your nose with your fingers to hold your breath
  • Walk as many paces as possible with your breath held. Try to build up a feeling of air shortage, without overdoing it of course!
  • When you resume breathing, do so only through your nose your breathing must be calmed immediately
  • After resuming your breathing, your first breath is likely to be larger than usual. Calm your breathing as soon as possible by suppressing your second and third breaths
  • You should be able to recover from this breath hold within two to three breaths. If not, you have held your breath for too long
  • Wait for a minute or so and repeat the exercise
  • Repeat this exercise five or six times until the nose is decongested.

In conclusion, it is essential for medical and dental professionals to assess mouth breathing in children and adult patients. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effects on facial and dental development, along with the medical and social problems associated with it, can be reduced or averted. 14

As healthcare professionals, we are afforded the perfect opportunity to observe whether patients habitually breathe through their mouths, and to offer practical and effective life-changing recommendations. OH

Oral Health welcomes this original article.

References
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7. Conti PB, Sakano E, Ribeiro MA, Schivinski CI, Ribeiro JD. Assessment of the body posture of mouth-breathing children and adolescents. Journal Pediatrics (Rio J). 2011 Jul-Aug87(4):471-9.
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21. Mouth Breathing. The Orthodontists Online Community. nd. accessed January 7, 2015. http://orthofree.com/fr/default.asp?contentID=2401
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About the Authors
/>Martha Macaluso, MLT, RDH, BS, is a practicing Registered Dental Hygienist and Myofunctional Therapist. She received her degree in Dental Hygiene from Farmingdale State University and specialized in Myofunctional Therapy through the AOMT.

Martha is faculty at New York University College of Dentistry, where she teaches dental hygiene clinic. In addition to her published work, Martha has presented various continuing educational courses in the field of dentistry and myofunctional therapy.

She is extremely involved in the profession acting as editor to the Long Island Dental Hygiene Association, delegate to the Dental Hygienist Association of the State of New York and delegate to the American Dental Hygiene Association.

/>Buteyko practitioner and author Patrick McKeown completed his clinical training in the Buteyko Breathing Method at the Buteyko Clinic, Moscow, Russia in 2002 and was accredited by the late Professor Konstantin Buteyko. Patrick has spent the last 15 years working with thousands of children and adults worldwide, who experience breathing pattern disorders, sleep disordered breathing and anxiety. To date, he has written eight books on the subject, and his latest book, The Oxygen Advantage, is an extension of this work, combining specifically-formulated exercises which empower athletes to improve their sports performance.


Common Practices That Lead to Swallowing Too Much Air

Drinking carbonated drinks, such as acidic soda or beer, sends carbon dioxide straight into your stomach. Give them a rest for a few days and see what effect this has on your symptoms.

Drinking with a straw, rushing and slurping or gulping down liquids and drinking from a water fountain are all likely to introduce extra air into the stomach.

Try slowing down when you drink. Drinking a lot of liquid during a meal is also worth avoiding as it hampers proper digestion.

Chewing gum, sucking on hard sweets and smoking cigarettes can all lead to swallowing excess air. For some people one of these will probably be a little harder to give up, but it’s definitely worth it if you value your health.

Heartburn or acid reflux after eating can cause burping and belching that then leads to swallowing too much air. An effective natural treatment for heartburn is ginger tea if you find yourself gulping air with an upset stomach.

An ongoing inflammation of the stomach lining, GERD or a gastritis ulcer can also cause heavy belching and swallowing too much air, particularly after a meal.

In these cases, strong abdominal pain is usually present and swallowing air excessively is a symptom of a more serious problem that needs prompt medical attention.


Facial Growth and Development

Believe it or not, breathing through your mouth can actually change the shape of your face and alter your appearance. This is especially true for children because they are still growing. Children whose mouth breathing goes untreated may suffer from abnormal facial and dental development. Symptoms include long, narrow faces and mouths, less defined cheek bones, small lower jaws, and “weak” chins. Other facial symptoms include gummy smiles and crooked teeth. A “mouth breather” facial expression is typically not viewed as an attractive or desirable appearance to have.


CRICOPHARYNGEAL DYSFUNCTION

The cricopharyngeus muscle is located at the bottom of the throat, between the throat and the esophagus. This muscle is normally contracted, preventing the reflux of foods from the esophagus into the throat.

The cricopharyngeus muscle normally relaxes during swallowing, allowing food and liquids to pass easily from the throat into the esophagus. However, often with aging, the muscle may have difficulty relaxing.

Symptoms of cricopharyngeal dysfunction or hypertrophy include:

Difficulty swallowing
Difficulty passing solids
Feeling that food is stuck in the throat

Diagnosis of cricopharyngeal dysfunction may be obtained with:

Complete head and neck examination
Laryngoscopy
Esophagoscopy
Esophagogram
Modified Barium Swallow Study

Treatment of this disorder may involve dietary modifications, although this does not cure the condition.

A dilation, or stretching of the esophagus and cricopharyngeus muscle, may temporarily improve symptoms, although the muscle tightening may return.

Botox may be used to temporarily relax the muscle. Botox is placed through an injection in the neck and lasts for 3-6 months depending on the patient and the dose used.

The muscle itself may be cut.

Cricopharyngeus muscle myotomy is the term to describe cutting this muscle. This can be performed outside through the neck.

Cricopharyngeus muscle myotomy may be performed in a minimally invasive fashion, using a laser that is manipulated through the mouth. The laser is used to cut the muscle, preventing over-contraction, and resolving a patient&rsquos symptoms. Alternatively an incision may be made on the neck and the cricopharyngeus muscle cut from the outside.


Breathing issues

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), inhaling air with high levels of carbon dioxide can threaten a person’s life. In addition to CO2 toxicity, it can trigger dizziness, headaches, double vision, seizures, vertigo, and so on. When you wear a face mask, it will obviously affect your breathing to some extent. However, for any negative effect to occur, the carbon dioxide needs to build up to a pretty high level. Carbon dioxide makes up about 0.04 percent of the atmosphere. To be dangerous, the CO2 buildup must exceed 10 percent of the air.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), inhaling air with high levels of carbon dioxide can threaten a person’s life. (Image: Screenshot / YouTube)

Breathing in too little carbon dioxide is also dangerous. “If you hold your breath, you wind up with too much CO2. The core issue is that CO2 regulates the pH of the blood — too much CO2 and the blood becomes too acidic too little and it becomes too basic (alkaline). In either case, your body detects the change in acidity and you pass out, which is the body’s way of saying, ‘please stop fooling with me and breathe normally,’” Bill Carroll, an adjunct professor of chemistry at Indiana University, Bloomington, says to Health .

Professor Carroll does not believe that cloth-based face masks pose any risk to the wearer since such masks allow air to go around them as well as through their pores. Even if a person were to tightly fit such a mask, chances of being deprived of oxygen and inhaling excess CO2 are pretty slim. After all, such a tight mask will often make a person so uncomfortable that they are likely to adjust and loosen it. However, when it comes to N95 respirator masks, things become a bit more complicated.

Some experts believe that N95 masks might alter the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels a person breathes in, thereby triggering changes in blood chemistry in such a way that the person might have difficulty maintaining consciousness. In fact, a driver who crashed his vehicle into a pole in New York claimed that he had passed out due to wearing an N95 mask.

Some experts believe that N95 masks might alter the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels a person breathes in. (Image: Screenshot / YouTube)

So if you choose to wear an N95 mask, it might be safer to remove it from time to time in safe locations so that you can properly breathe for a few minutes. But if you are wearing a cloth-based mask, then it should be okay to wear it for a longer time. The CDC recommends that children under the age of 2 or people who have breathing issues should avoid wearing any kind of mask.


How To Correct Your Tongue Posture – Aka, Mewing.

So, genetics and plastic surgery aren’t the only factors in facial development. There’s a way to correct your tongue posture by something known as “mewing.” Although you shouldn’t expect miracles, mewing can really help correct mouth breathing, which will in turn improve your facial structure.

The following video gives a short but clear explanation of mewing:

As babies, we were meant to eat hard foods to develop the jaw properly and, more importantly, widen the palate. Good jaw development and a roomy palate encourage the tongue–roof of mouth posture, in which the tongue acts as a support beam for normal facial development.

As babies, we were meant to eat hard foods to develop the jaw properly and, more importantly, widen the palate. Good jaw development and a roomy palate encourage the tongue–roof of mouth posture, in which the tongue acts as a support beam for normal facial development.

As babies, we were meant to eat hard foods to develop the jaw properly and, more importantly, widen the palate. Good jaw development and a roomy palate encourage the tongue–roof of mouth posture, in which the tongue acts as a support beam for normal facial development.

Chances are you’re reading this and thinking to yourself, It’s too late to implement these changes. Luckily, that’s not true at all!

Between children and adult, the difference between bone malleability is that when you reach adulthood bone density increases, which means bone changes are much slower but still consistently over time will show improvements.

When you reach maturity, your bones do become denser and less malleable. There’s no nonsurgical solution for creating model-like facial structure. But bone changes can still occur over time to the point of noticeable facial improvements—as long as you remember the following three factors in proper tongue posture.


Normal breathing sends saliva droplets 7 feet masks shorten this

VIDEO: Animation video of the instantaneous simulation results of saliva plume concentration contours (in volume fraction) during normal breathing shown on the sagittal plane without wearing a mask. Considering a threshold. view more

WASHINGTON, June 9, 2021 -- The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control recommend keeping a certain distance between people to prevent the spread of COVID-19. These social distancing recommendations are estimated from a variety of studies, but further research about the precise mechanism of virus transport from one person to another is still needed.

In Physics of Fluids, by AIP Publishing, researchers from Stony Brook University, Harvard, ETH Zurich, and Hanyang University demonstrate normal breathing indoors without a mask can transport saliva droplets capable of carrying virus particles to a distance of 2.2 meters, or 7.2 feet, in a matter of 90 seconds.

The use of a face mask significantly reduces the distance these droplets travel. After almost two minutes, the saliva droplets restricted by a mask had traveled only 0.72 meters, under 2.4 feet and well below the distance of 1.8 meters, or 6 feet, suggested by the CDC.

The study used computer simulations with a more realistic model for the situation of interest than those used in previous studies. Previous work considered aerosol transport after coughing or sneezing, while this study specifically looked at normal human breathing. A normal breath produces periodic jet flows that contain saliva droplets, but the velocity at which the jet travels is less than a tenth that of a cough or sneeze.

The investigators found even normal breathing produces a complex field of vortices that can move saliva droplets away from the person's mouth. The role of these vortices has not previously been understood.

"Our results show that normal breathing without a facial mask generates periodic trailing jets and leading circular vortex rings that propagate forward and interact with the vortical flow structures produced in prior breathing cycles," said author Ali Khosronejad.

This complex vorticity field can transport aerosol droplets over long distances. A face mask dissipates the kinetic energy of the jet produced by an exhaled breath, disrupting the vortices and limiting the movement of virus-laden droplets.

The investigators considered the effect of evaporation of the saliva droplets. In the case of no mask, they found the saliva droplets near the front of the plume of exhaled breath had partially evaporated, reaching a size of only one-tenth of a micron. In stagnant indoor air, droplets this size would not settle to the ground for days.

The use of a mask partially redirects the exhaled breath downward and significantly restricts forward movement of the plume, so the risk of suspended droplets remaining in the air is substantially reduced.

"To simplify the breathing process, we did not consider the flow of air-saliva mixture through the nose and solely accounted for the flow through the mouth," Khosronejad said. "In future studies, we will explore the effect of normal breathing via both the nose and mouth."

The article "A computational study of expiratory particle transport and vortex dynamics during breathing with and without face masks" is authored by Ali Khosronejad, Seokkoo Kang, Fabian Wermelinger, Petros Koumoutsakos and Fotis Sotiropoulos. The article appears in Physics of Fluids (DOI: 10.1063/5.0054204) and can be accessed at https:/ / aip. scitation. org/ doi/ 10. 1063/ 5. 0054204.

Physics of Fluids is devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex fluids. See https:/ / aip. scitation. org/ journal/ phf.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.


6 Answers 6

The method seems a bit convoluted, not to mention that a dragon who eats a carb rich diet will not be capturing princesses, but attacking fruit orchards to get the materials needed for fermentation. (This also leads to the interesting question of why vegetarian dragons need to breath fire on the first place. )

What may work better is to scale up the defence method of the Bombardier beetle:

Bombardier Beetle in action

The beetle essentially secretes two chemicals in glands in the abdomen, and squirts them out the back end. The chemicals are hypergolic (react in contact with each other), releasing a searing chemical spray against their enemies. For anatomical reasons this is going out the back, there are strong sphincter muscles to contain the chemicals and all the abdominal muscles can contract to mix and eject the chemical spray.

Dragons could do the same trick with glands full of hypergolic chemicals in the cheeks or throat, and coughing (or even vomiting if things are far enough back) to eject the chemicals, hopefully the mixing of the spray occurs far enough forward that the ignition point is past the dragon's face (breathing in fire is especially not recommended). Or the dragon could be like the Bombardier beetle and shoot fire out the cloaca. The warning sign for brave Sir Knight is when the dragon suddenly turns around.

Hypergolic reaction. Imagine a pressurized mixture

For sustained fire breathing, you need an insulator (A thick mucus or secretion) If you atomize it using air (violent convulsions will lead to spurts) than you can extend the duration of fire at the cost of heat this is what we do in combustion engines. Also atomized ethanol with salt (to prevent the colorless flame) it will look brighter, be hotter, and last a good while (4 hr per liter) longer

Ok, to me the easiest way would be to create a dragon that is either ruminant OR that have his diet strictly made of ruminants because his digestive system is made for that. You know, the sheeps, and the deers and the cows.

Now, as ruminant (or ruminant eater specialist) he have few stomachs and one of them is made for that grass and methane. Or to be exact the absorption of methane. It then can be stored in bags near the spine that are pressed when dragon take a deep breath. So he have oxygen in lungs which he can exhaust with the gas and crate flammable mixture.

Kind like humans have one opening for air and food but still can have food in mouth and air in sinuses. Or how you laugh so much you spit milk out of your nose.

Now the problem is how to create a spark to light that. Again, easiest option would be teeth with traces of flint. Somehow, like we human produce stones in kidneys and have tartar, dragons can have flint. It can be created within dragon itself. Back to digestive system. As silicon is present in many plants (see typical dragon diet) and thermal waters it could be paired with oxygen. Thermal waters would also mark natural occurrence of dragons or dragons lairs.

It would also create a natural diversity among dragons as those who eat moose don't have such sustained fire breaths (more meat less grass so fever meals) or dragons that can't breath fire (as not everybody have kidney stones) but still make people die in their vicinity (as methane is odourless but people suffocate with the lack of oxygen).

With your design I would go with fully vegetarian dragons. Why? have you tried ever to squirt an orange skin into the lighter? Yeah, the juice in citruses skin is alcohol and flammable (also it smells nice).
So your world could have a lot of different citruses, dragons eat them, and again digestive system, are able to store Limonene and later use it.
And that also could serve as world building as in warm climate there would be a lot of dragons but very calm as there is a lot of food. While in colder climates the food would be scare the dragons would be angry and more prone to attack settlement and drink human stored mead.

I know that this question's a bit old, but I happened to know something on the matter, so I thought I'd add my grain of salt.

So, there are two ways I know of of doing this:

  1. The evolutionarily plausible one, but perhaps a bit of a copout
  2. Actual fire possible, but evolutionary background questionable

So, let's look at number 1 first. This, while not actually fire, could achieve the effect of fire, while retaining the plausibility of them looking so much like real squamates. So, a poison gland in the jaw produces a very strong zytotoxin that burns skin, causes paralysis and induces fever. Upon contact, the skin of animal would blister, and the venom would flow through the victim's veins, feeling very much like fire.

This could potentially liquefy the inside of smaller prey, and do so partially for larger quarries. But, there are a couple of problems with this so far. The first one being that dragons are very big, and the range might be unsatisfactory for a "cool" plot. So, I suggest adding muscles around the poison glands which contract and pump the glands, shooting the poison several metres. These muscles would also allow the dragon to regulate the amount of venom they squirt. The second problem is that reptiles shed their teeth very often - and the teeth are the best body part I can think of for the poison to go out of. But, there is a solution at hand. If the venom glands only connected to a few permanent fangs, the rest could be shed as usual.

But, you asked for fire, and that's not really fire. So, if you're not really that pushed on explaining the evolutionary background of dragons (Convergent evolution could potentially do it, anyway.), there's another method that could achieve real fire-breathing.

Suppose you had a group of animals that had formed a symbiosis with microbes in their digestive system that produced hydrogen as a metabolic waste product. Some of these animals could store and compress the hydrogen in organs rather similar to lungs, and expel it through a tube leading to their mouths. The hydrogen would be ignited through bioelectricity, giving them the ability to spew flame.

But, there are obvious dangers when it comes to breathing fire. Perhaps your dragons could have a "false pallate" like crocodilians, which would prevent fire backfiring and barbecuing the dragon's insides. To protect their eyes, they could have a transparent membrane like seals and other animals.

There are some possibilities of fire-breathing aside the classic "Ima burn you" purpose. For example, dragons with less powerful flames could use it to start bushfires instead - igniting dry vegetation to create an inferno. To take a leaf out of the whales' book, each species could have unique flame shapes that would distinguish them from different animals.


Should I Breathe Through My Mouth or Through My Nose?

A: You’ve probably been told in certain situations to “breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth” — especially during exercise or meditation or to relax. But ever wondered why?

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The important part of the answer is really the first part — breathing in — and what happens along the way.

Humans are naturally designed to breathe through our noses from birth. It’s the way we’ve evolved, and there are reasons we default to nasal breathing.

Inhaling through your nose offers many more benefits to your body than taking in air through your mouth.

When we’re newborns, we breathe in and out through our noses almost all the time. This is related to how our throats are configured, so we can breathe and suckle at the same time without choking. It’s a survival mechanism.

Our noses are also designed to process the air that comes in very differently that our mouths can. These are intentional and functional parts of our body’s design to keep us safe and healthy.

Here are all the good things your nose does that your mouth doesn’t when you breathe in:

  • Temperature control. Your lungs aren’t huge fans of air that’s too hot or cold. Unless you have an obstruction (like a deviated septum or chronic rhinitis), your nasal passageways will warm (and sometimes cool when needed) the air to your lungs. Your mouth doesn’t have a way to do this. For example, winter runners who breathe deeply through their noses get warmed air without sending a chill to their lungs, versus those who breathe with their mouths.
  • Filtering. The cilia in your nose passageway filters out debris and toxins in the air and sends them directly down your throat instead of your lungs. (Gross, but intentionally better in your stomach than anywhere else.) Mouth breathing sends whatever’s in the air directly into your lungs.
  • Humidifying. The passages in your nose are specifically designed to humidify the air you breathe, something not present in your mouth. Ever wake up after a restless night’s sleep with dry mouth or sore throat? Chances are, you’re fighting nature by mouth-breathing, and you’re not getting the humidifying or moisture-balancing benefits of nasal breathing.
  • Smell. Using your sense of smell through the olfactory system that’s mostly present in your nose can help you detect harmful toxins in the air and in food.
  • Attraction. Using your nose to breathe also can kick in your ability to smell pheromones, perspiration and other odors that help you find a mate. You may not find these benefits while running with just your mouth open.

Just something to think about next time you’re out and about on a run.

The only time you really need to temporarily resist natural nose breathing and engage in mouth-breathing is when you’re doing strenuous exercise and need more air to your lungs more quickly, or when your nasal passage is blocked due to congestion, allergies or a cold. But remember, this does however cancel most the benefits that breathing through your nose provides.


Watch the video: DÝCHÁNKY 5 - Kašel, panika, alergie, dušnost, astma a co s tím? (May 2022).


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