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Why are monocotyledonous plants considered more evolved than dicotyledonous?

Why are monocotyledonous plants considered more evolved than dicotyledonous?


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Why are the following characteristics advantageous for a plant?

  • to have atactostele instead of eustele
  • to have less stamens
  • to lose secondary growth
  • to switch to anemophily pollination (also if it's not always the case)
  • to use the cotyledon as storage media instead of endosperm

Why are there so much similarities between liliopsida and gymnospermae?


Why are monocotyledonous plants considered more evolved than dicotyledonous? - Biology


Bambusicolous fungi: A review
More than 1100 species of fungi have been described or recorded world-wide from bamboo and include ca. 630 ascomycetes, 150 basidiomycetes and 330 mitosporic taxa (100 coelomycetes and 230 hyphomycetes). Most taxa have been recorded from Asia, with relatively fewer known from India and South America. The bamboo genera Bambusa, Phyllostachys, Sasa, and Arundinaria are rich sources of fungi yielding 253, 178, 84, and 82 species, respectively. Most species are saprobes found on decaying culms, although pathogens and endophytes have also been recorded. The most common families of ascomycetes on bamboo are the Hypocreaceae, Phyllachoraceae and Xylariaceae, represented by the common genera Nectria, Phyllachora and Hypoxylon respectively. The most well represented genera of hyphomycetes on bamboo are Acrodictys, Coniosporium, Periconia, Podosporium and Sporidesmium. Suggestions for future work on bamboo fungi are made.

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New and interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi in Brazil
New and interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from two regions in Brazil, mainly from the Serra do Caraça (Minas Gerais), but also from the Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo). These are some of the results of an international field meeting aimed at collecting topotype material from taxa described from the region by Vainio a century earlier. The following species are described as new: Acarospora oligyrophorica Aptroot, Fellhanera antennophora Aptroot, Graphina coccospora Aptroot, Lepraria multiacida Aptroot, Placidiopsis hypothallina Aptroot, Pyrenula fusoluminata Aptroot, Pyrenula quarzitica Aptroot, Sulcopyrenula cruciata Aptroot & Topeliopsis globosa Aptroot. The following new combinations are proposed: Bacidiopsora tenuisecta (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Brigantiaea subobscurata (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Caloplaca subrubelliana (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Campylothelium megalostomum (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Graphina subvestita (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Micarea poliocheila (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Micarea subgranulans (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Micarea subternaria (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Ocellularia piperis (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Ocellularia stylothecium (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov., Pyrenula crassiuscula (Malme) Aptroot comb. nov., Rinodina atrofuscata (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov. and Scoliciosporum camptosporum (Vainio) Aptroot comb. nov. For many other species the first records from the Southern hemisphere or from (South) America are given.

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Species richness patterns in symbiotic gut fungi (Trichomycetes)
The most common pattern in biology indicates that diversity (species number) increases with area and can be represented as species-area curves following a power model equation. Biogeographers and ecologists have observed this relationship both among larger areas of single biotas and among islands of one archipelago. Species-area relationships have not been well established for fungal communities. The few studies that exist show heterogeneous results. An attempt to test the species-area relationship in Trichomycetes was made for data collected between 1960-2000. During this period 46 species from different USA counties in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma were identified. Species numbers were plotted against county area as sample plots. The data strongly fit to a power regression curve (r2 = 0.92). This suggests a strong biogeographic signal for the species-area relationship of these symbiotic fungi.

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Aquatic fungi from Lake Fuxian, Yunnan, China
Sixty-four higher fungi were recorded on submerged wood, bamboo and tree roots in Lake Fuxian, Yunnan, China. Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Dictyosporium heptasporum, and Savoryella lignicola were frequently collected on wood samples. The occurrence of Halosarpheia retorquens and Halosphaeria cucullata, which have previously been recorded from marine habitats, is interesting, while a species of Lulworthia is the first record of this genus from a lake. Pseudohalonectria fuxianii sp. nov. is described and illustrated and compared with similar species in the genus. This is the first report of aquatic fungal communities in a lake from mainland China and the data is compared with previous studies.

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Re-interpretation of Cocconia palmae, with description of the genus Dianesea (Ascomycota: Dothideomycetidae)
The original circumscription of Cocconia palmae F. Stevens was found to consist of elements of two unrelated species, belonging to Hysterostomella Speg. (Parmulariaceae) and an undescribed genus of Dothideomycetidae probably referable to the Coccoideaceae respectively. The name Cocconia palmae is typified to represent the latter fungus, for which the new genus Dianesea is introduced.

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Endophyte assemblages in young, mature and senescent leaves of Rhizophora apiculata:
evidence for the role of endophytes in mangrove litter degradation
Rhizophora apiculata leaves of different age levels were studied for their endophyte assemblages. The number of species as well as the number of isolates of endophytes that could be recovered from the leaves increased with leaf age. The endophyte mycobiota did not remain static after leaf fall. The endophytes appeared to grow or decline depending on the environment where the leaves might fall (soil or sea water). Some endophytes such as Cladosporium cladosporioides, Phyllosticta sp. and Sporormiella minima declined in fallen leaves, irrespective of the environment where the leaf might fall. A few fungi that probably existed as endophytes in low frequencies in living leaves appeared in higher frequencies after leaf fall. Such growth activity of these endophytes and their capacity to produce certain enzymes are indicative of their potential role in litter degradation.

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Haliphthoros spp. from spawned eggs of captive mud crab, Scylla serrata, broodstocks
Monitoring of the fungal flora of spawned eggs of captive mud crab, Scylla serrata, was conducted in several hatchery runs at the Aquaculture Department of Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center in Iloilo, Philippines. Quantification of the egg mycoflora revealed the dominance of oomycetes, particularly Haliphthoros spp. among spawners which aborted their eggs prior to hatching. Two species of Haliphthoros (H. philippinensis and H. milfordensis) were identified from the 24 isolates collected. Haliphthoros milfordensis was the dominant species. Physiological studies on vegetative growth and sporulation of the two species show that H. philippinensis have wider optimal range for salinity and temperature requirements than H. milfordensis, especially in sporulation. The pathogenicity study showed that only H. milfordensis was pathogenic to spawned eggs of S. serrata, while H. philippinensis was not. Infection of S. serrata eggs by H. milfordensis was observed starting at two days after inoculation of zoospores with 2-5% infection rate, reaching up to 10% at five days post-inoculation.

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Dominant fungi from Australian coral reefs
This report describes 617 fungi isolated from coral reefs in tropical Australian marine environments. Host substrates include 62 sediments, algae (8 Rhodophyta, 9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta) and vertebrates/invertebrates (16 Bryozoa, 21 Chordata, 16 Cnidaria, 70 Porifera). Results indicate that some reef dwellers may provide a natural reservoir for fungal genera normally associated with other organisms. Taxa such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, commonly thought to originate from terrestrial run-off, were frequently isolated from offshore hosts. One hundred and twenty one isolates (19.6% of the total) sporulated, but could not be identified using the available taxonomic keys, while 99 isolates (16%) did not sporulate, and thus were classified as sterile mycelium. Some isolates, such as Cochliobolus spp., have not previously been described from marine sources, and could represent novel taxa. Slow growing marine ascomycetes were not isolated, probably because they were outgrown by faster growing taxa.

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Ligninolytic enzyme production by Polyporaceae from Lombok, Indonesia
Polypores were isolated from several forests in Lombok Island, Indonesia and screened for their ability to degrade lignin. Sixty of sixty-five samples isolated were tested using a qualitative plate assay through direct visualization of agar plate decolourisation containing the polymeric dye Poly R-478 (0.02% w/v). Fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase). Twelve selected isolates produced all three kinds of enzymes tested, but Hexagonia tenuis sp. A, Inonotus patouillardii and Stereum sp. produced only laccase and lignin peroxidase. The importance of this study to support biotechnology in the paper industry is discussed.

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Rapid biodiversity assessment of a tropical myxomycete assemblage - Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, Ecuador
During a three week period in late November and early December 1998, the assemblage of myxomycetes associated with cloud forests in the Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve (western Andes, Ecuador) was investigated by means of field collecting and substratum sampling for subsequent preparation of moist chamber cultures. From more than 1000 myxomycete records (with about half of these from moist chamber cultures), 77 taxa were identified with certainty 30 of these are new for the country. Taxonomic descriptions and ecological observations of rare and or tentatively new taxa encountered in the study are provided in an annotated checklist. The frequency distribution of the 67 taxa identified from field records can be described by a log normal model. This allows an estimation of the total number of species to be expected, and the number actually recorded represents about 92% of this estimated figure. Using a bootstrap method with a saturation model, the same type of estimate was determined for a series of substrata used for the moist chamber component of the study. With one exception, all estimates obtained fell between 67 and 92% of the total number of species to be expected. Records of taxa obtained from moist chamber cultures and collected in the field complemented each other in terms of the species represented. As such, it can be assumed that more than 75% of all species of myxomycetes occurring in the cloud forests investigated were indeed recorded in our study. This demonstrates the possibility of assessing biodiversity of myxomycetes in tropical forests with a reasonable sampling effort, if data from field studies and from moist chamber cultures of substratum samples are combined.

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New species from each of the pyrenomycete genera Hyponectria, Physalospora and Trichosphaeria from Queensland, Australia
Three new species of ascomycetes each occurring on leaves of Acacia, Eucalyptus and Lomandra respectively in Queensland, Australia are described and illustrated as Hyponectria acaciae sp. nov., Physalospora lomandrae sp. nov. and Trichosphaeria eucalypticola sp. nov.

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Planistromella opuntiae sp. nov. from Queensland, Australia, and key to the known species
A new species of a dothideaceous ascomycete, Planistromella opuntiae is described and illustrated from Queensland, Australia. Species of Planistromella are known to occur on members of Agavaceae. This new species is found on Opuntia, a member of the family Cactaceae. It is easily separated from the other known species with 1-septate ascospores by its comparatively narrower ascospores.

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UV light-induced conversion of Pestalotiopsis microspora to biotypes with multiple conidial forms
Pestalotiopsis microspora is one of the most commonly isolated endophytes associated with tropical and semitropical rainforest plants. Taxonomic classification of this fungus is primarily based on conidial morphology. The conidia of this genus generally possess five cells, are borne in acervuli, and possess appendages. It has been possible, via UV irradiation, to convert conidia of P. microspora (2-3 apical and 1 basal appendage per conidium) into biotypes that bear a conidial resemblance to other fungi including Monochaetia spp., Seridium spp. and Truncatella spp. Single cell cultures of each of these biotypical biotype fungi retain 100% identity to 5.8s and ITS regions of DNA to the wild type source fungus P. microspora, indicating that no UV induced mutation occurred in this region of the genome. Furthermore, the conidia of these UV generated biotypes do remain true to biological form by also producing spore types in their acervuli that are identical to the biotypical culture types from which they were derived. The implications of this study are that many of the genera in this group of fungi are either closely related or identical.


Introduction to fungal succession
This volume of Fungal Diversity is devoted to fungal succession. The term fungal succession is used loosely throughout the volume. A precise definition of fungal succession is "the sequential occupation of the same site by thalli (usually mycelia)", but the term can be used more loosely to refer to "the sequential occurrence of fungal fruiting bodies on substrata as it decays". This volume brings together various studies on fungal succession including the traditionally studied macrofungi and the less well-studied microfungi. In this way we have brought together much of the data available on fungal succession. The final paper in this volume discusses the problems associated with studying fungal succession, especially in microfungi, and discusses possible methods to overcome these problems.

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Fungal succession or sequence of fruit bodies
Succession is one of the most widely known ecological concepts. It is intuitive and yet extremely complex. There have been many fungal succession studies on a wide diversity of substrates and yet we still know very little about the mechanisms that drive succession. Direct methods of observing fungal succession (change in occupation of space by thalli) use destructive techniques and therefore change in mycelia in a point in space over time cannot be observed. However, these direct destructive methods, with appropriate replication, are extremely useful for discovering general patterns of succession. Indirect methods often observe only the fruit body sequence on a substrate. These studies can also be extremely useful, but need to be interpreted with caution. In addition the underlying assumption that sporulation reflects changes in mycelial occupation of space in the substrate needs to be considered carefully.

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Fungal succession at different scales
Fungal succession can be considered at the macro- or micro-scale levels. Macro-scale succession can be recognized as the integration of different kinds of seres of fungi associate with a plant community. On the other hand, micro-scale succession can be recognized as substratum succession or fungal succession associated with plant succession at the patch level. Succession of pyrophilous fungi following forest fire is categorized as macro-scale succession, but succession of pyrophilous fungi following bonfires and that of ammonia fungi following addition of ammonia are categorized as micro-scale succession. Nutrient cycling in the areas disturbed by local burning or the addition of ammonia is maintained the activities of existing microbes including fungi such as pyrophilous fungi and ammonia fungi (These fungi are present in small numbers in undisturbed areas, but quickly increase in biomass following the disturbances). This paper explores the concept of macro- and micro-scale succession in fungi.

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Seasonality and sequential occurrence of fungi on wood submerged in Tai Po Kau Forest Stream, Hong Kong

The effects of seasonality on freshwater lignicolous fungi in Tai Po Kau Forest Stream was investigated by examining the fungal communities on naturally occurring submerged wood. Fungal succession (sequential occurrence of sporulating fungi) was also investigated by studying changes of fungal communities on wood baits of Machilus velutina and Pinus massoniana over 21 months. Higher species richness, fewer dominant fungi and more infrequent fungi were found on naturally occurring submerged wood during the hot wet season, as compared to the cool dry season. Fungal communities were variable on collections made over different hot wet seasons, but the communities were consistent during the cool dry season collections. Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Massarina ingoldiana and Sporoschisma nigroseptatum dominated the fungal communities during the cool dry season, while Nectria cf. byssicola was dominant during the hot wet season. During 21 months submersion of wood baits of Machilus velutina and Pinus massoniana, three distinct types of fungal communities were observed, i.e. pioneer, early and later successional groups. Higher species richness and more dominant fungi were found on both wood types during the early successional stage. Differences in successional groups were more prominent on wood baits of Pinus massoniana. Fungal communities on wood baits of Machilus velutina and Pinus massoniana were similar during both pioneer and early successional stages, but differed at the later successional stage. Nectria cf. byssicola, Sporoschisma nigroseptatum and S. uniseptatum were early colonisers on both wood types. Savoryella lignicola was a later coloniser on Machilus velutina, while Dictyosporium digitatum, Massarina bipolaris and M. ingoldiana were later colonisers on Pinus massoniana. A total of 175 fungi, including 56 ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete, 115 anamorphic fungi, 2 myxomycetes and 1 zygomycete, were recorded in this study.

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Fungi colonising and sporulating on submerged wood in the River Severn, UK

Test blocks of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris were submerged in the River Severn, England, UK, for 92 weeks and recovered at frequent intervals. Recovered samples were incubated in moist chambers and sporulating fungi on the test blocks were recorded. Fifty fungi consisting of 35 anamorphic species, 13 Ascomycota and 2 Basidiomycota were identified. Species diversity (40) was greatest on the beech test blocks, while only 28 species occurred on the Scots pine test blocks. The most common fungi on beech were Camposporium pellucidum, Dictyochaeta parva, Pseudohalonectria lignicola (each with 95% occurrence) and Trichocladium lignicola (89%). On Scots pine T. lignicola occurred on 95% of the test blocks. A succession of sporulating fungi was observed on the wood over a 3 month incubation period in the laboratory. The results are compared with other studies on lignicolous aquatic fungi from temperate and tropical locations. These indicate that different fungal communities occur in different geographical locations.

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The macrofungal community and fire in a Mountain Ash forest in southern Australia
Changes in the occurrence of macrofungi with time following forestry activities and fire were studied at 14 sites in Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) dominated forests, in the Eastern Central Highlands, Victoria, Australia. Forests of 0-57 years after fire were used to compare macrofungal communities. Pattern analysis through classification and ordination showed that there was a distinct change in the macrofungal community over time since disturbance. Three phases were apparent in the process of recolonisation after fire: (1) immediate post-fire (0-year), (2) an intermediate phase (2- and 4-year-old), and (3) a mature phase (7-year-old and older). The macrofungi evident in the Mountain Ash forest during the first year after fire were the most distinctive. The change in the suite of macrofungi closely reflected the changes in macrofungal substrates in the forests of different ages. Macrofungi found to be specific to certain stages of regeneration after fire will provide a subset of indicator taxa suitable for use in further surveys.

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The effect of pre-inoculation of balsa wood by selected marine fungi and their effect on subsequent colonisation in the sea
A field study was undertaken in order to examine the effect of pre-incubation of test blocks of balsa with marine fungi and their subsequent effect on colonisation when submerged in the sea. Four marine ascomycetes, Ceriosporopsis halima, Corollospora maritima, Halosphaeriopsis mediosetigera and Marinospora calyptrata, were pre-inoculated onto balsa test blocks before submergence in the sea. Control and pre-inoculated test blocks were submerged in the sea at Langstone Harbour, Portsmouth, England, and recovered at 2, 6, 9 and 15 months and the fungi colonising them were recorded. The fungi pre-inoculated on the test blocks were the only species sporulating there was no sporulation of native marine fungi. The control test blocks were heavily colonised by numerous sporulating marine fungi, and these were similar to those reported in previous studies in Langstone Harbour. These results are discussed in relation to inhibition of sporulation and colonisation and interference competition.

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Fungal succession on senescent leaves of Manglietia garrettii in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, northern Thailand
Twenty-two fungal taxa were identified on decaying senescent leaf baits of Manglietia garrettii during a 56 day study. Most of the taxa were the same as those occurring on naturally decaying leaves in the same forest area collected at the same time. Distinct fungal communities were observed to occur in sequence on the leaves, with the dominant species on the leaves being different at each succession stage. There was no noticeable effect on fungal communities whether the upper or lower leaf surface was in contact with the forest floor. The greatest fungal diversity occurred between day 4 and 40 (mature community stage), with most species being present on day 40. On day 56, leaves were found to be skeletonised, so the fungal communities had decreased in number.

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The coprophilous succession
This paper reviews the background to studies of the coprophilous succession, presents some data from observations made on samples collected for a study of the occurrence and diversity of coprophilous fungi, and suggests where further studies might help to elucidate the functional aspects of the succession.

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Fungal colonisation of wood in a freshwater stream at Tad Ta Phu, Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
A study of the fungus colonisation of two timbers (Dipterocarpus alatus and Xylia dolabriformis) was initiated in a freshwater stream at Tad Ta Phu at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Wood was exposed and recovered every month for 12 months, then incubated in moist chambers and fungal colonisation recorded. Data on sequence of fungal sporulation, the frequency of occurrence of the fungi and percentage cover on the test blocks are presented. Seventy-three species were recorded: 48 on D. alatus and 47 on X. dolabriformis. Fungi were categorised into 3 groups: Group 1 those present on over 60% of the test blocks: with Helicomyces roseus and Halosarpheia aquadulcis on D. alatus and Helicomyces roseus on X. dolabriformis. Group 2 fungi were those present on more than 20% of the test blocks and numbered 8 each on D. alatus and X. dolabriformis. Group 3 fungi constituted those present on less than 20% of the test blocks. Fungi could also be grouped into those that appeared early on the wood: Bombardia sp., Cancellidium applanatum, Dictyochaeta sp. 1, H. roseus, Pycnidial sp. 1, Sporidesmiella hyalosperma var. novae-zelandiae, Sporoschisma saccardoi and unidentified hyphomycete sp. 05 on D. alatus and with Chaetopsina fluva, Dictyochaeta sp. 1, H. roseus, Cosmospora chaetopsinae, Stilbella holubovae and Trematosphaeria sp. 2 on X. dolabriformis. Intermediate colonisers included: Aquasphaeria dimorphospora, Eluviespora bipolaris, Hymenoscyphus varicosporoides, Sirosphaera sp. 1, Tricladium anamorph of Hymenoscyphus varicosporoides on D. alatus, and Biflagellospora gracilis, B. japonica, B. papillata, B. siamensis, Cancellidium applanatum, Halosarpheia aquadulcis and Thozetella nivea on X. dolabriformis. Late colonisers were Massarina sp. 3 and Vargamyces aquaticus on D. alatus and Helicosporium vegetum, Savoryella verrucosa and Tricladium anamorph of Hymenoscyphus varicosporoides on X. dolabriformis. The data shows a clear difference in the dominant species on each timber and is compared with other studies from tropical and temperate regions.

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Fungal diversity and succession on pods of Delonix regia (Leguminosae) exposed in a tropical forest in Thailand
The succession of fungi on pods of Delonix regia has been investigated at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. The fungi colonising Delonix regia pods were dominated by anamorphic fungi. Succession of fungi begins with colonisation by classical seed fungi, e.g. Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, when pods were dry and attached to the tree. As soon as the pods fall on the forest, the classical seed fungi are replaced rapidly by litter fungi, e.g. Dictyochaeta, Helicosporium, Phaeoisaria, Phoma and Sporoschisma species. The moisture content of the pods may be an important factor in determining the mycota they support.

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Experimental analyses of successive occurrence of ammonia fungi in the field
Sequential appearance of the ammonia fungi after urea treatment (800 g/m2) was observed in the field and following 20 C incubation of soils from L-A1 horizons collected at different days after the treatment. The results indicate that successive occurrence of saprobic ammonia fungi in the field results from the combination of sequential propagation (colonisation) of ammonia fungi and the time needed for each fungus to produce reproductive structures. The sequential propagation and the fruiting time of each ammonia fungus may be explained by their degree of tolerance to high concentrations of NH4-N under alkaline to neutral conditions. The duration of occurrence of saprobic ammonia fungi in the field was shortened by interactions between organism(s) and changes in soil conditions, especially pH and NH4-N concentration, resulting from activities of soil organisms including ammonia fungi. Two hundred soil core samples (5 × 5 × 5 cm) collected from a plot (50 × 100 cm) were separately placed in sterilized flasks. Twenty-two mg urea/g dry soil was added to each flask and the water content was adjusted to 60%. Following incubation at 20 C, migrule (spores and mycelia, etc.) frequencies plotted for Amblyosporium botrytis, Ascobolus denudatus, Tephrocybe tesquorum, and Coprinopsis phlyctidospora were estimated as 4/200, 38/200, 52/200 and 9/200, respectively. These four ammonia fungi showed no specific co-existence between each other.

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A new approach to studying microfungal succession on decaying pine needles in an oceanic subtropical region in Japan
The sequence of fungal succession on decaying pine needles was evaluated using a novel approach. Twenty-two microfungal community data sets were obtained from individual surveys in an oceanic subtropical region and were rearranged and modified. The constancy and the abundance values for individual species were calculated by selecting the dominant species among the 122 species recorded. Three succession stages were recognized and characteristic species at each stage are considered. The results of this novel approach are compared with the orthodox method based on determining the vertical distribution of microfungal communities at a single site.

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Fungal succession on fronds of Phoenix hanceana in Hong Kong
Seventy-three fungal taxa were identified during the decomposition process of frond baits of Phoenix hanceana, comprising leaves, rachis-tips, mid-rachides and rachis-bases. Pioneer, mature and impoverished communities were observed in sequence on the frond baits. Fungal communities on different frond parts reached pioneer, mature and impoverished communities at different rates. Fungal communities on leaves and rachis-tips matured more slowly than other parts, but became impoverished rapidly thereafter, and samples were completely decayed at month 13. On the contrary, fungal communities on mid-rachides and rachis-bases matured earlier at month 1, but became impoverished at month 13. Naturally occurring fronds were also examined at the same time. Only half of the fungi were common to baits and naturally occurring fronds. Thus, examination of both frond baits at different stages of decomposition and naturally occurring fronds is recommended to obtain a better estimation of biodiversity.

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Fungal succession on bamboo in Hong Kong
Fungal succession on Bambusa tuldoides has been studied in Hong Kong. Fungal communities changed over time during the decay process. Based on sporulation of fungi, the fungal communities on bamboo baits can be categorized into early colonisers, middle-stage colonisers, later colonisers, regular inhabitants and sporadic inhabitants. Fungal communities on naturally dead bamboo and baits comprised rare species and mainly middle-stage colonisers. Seasonality had an effect, as more fungi were present during the wet season. Rainfall positively impacted on fungal occurrence, but temperature and relative humidity appeared to have little influence. Anthostomella species are regular inhabitants of bamboo, being dominant throughout the observation period and probably play a dominant role in its decomposition.

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Infection sequence and pathogenicity of Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium serpens and L. lundbergii to pines in South Africa
Three exotic bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Hylastes angustatus, Hylurgus ligniperda, and Orthotomicus erosus, infest Pinus spp. in South Africa. These beetles are generally considered as secondary pests, but can also act as vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. In South Africa, at least 12 ophiostomatoid fungi are associated with the three beetle species, of which Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium serpens, and L. lundbergii, occur most frequently. The aim of this study was to test the pathogenicity of the three fungi to pines in South Africa. Two isolates of each fungus were inoculated on various species of pines in different areas of South Africa. The inoculated fungi caused resin exudation and sapwood discoloration around inoculation points. There were significant differences in lesion length between species inoculated, times of inoculation and plantation areas. Although Ophiostoma ips gave rise to longer lesions than L. serpens and L. lundbergii, our results suggest that none of these species should be considered as serious pathogens.

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Succession: where do we go from here?
Various aspects of fungal succession, and interactions between fungi, are reviewed and the problems encountered highlighted. Suggestions for future research are presented, outlining some of the techniques currently available. Particular attention is focused on the need to understand the chemical interactions involved in succession.


Extracellular enzyme production by freshwater ascomycetes
Thirty species of freshwater ascomycetes isolated from woody and/or herbaceous substrates were screened for their ability to produce extracellular degradative enzymes on solid media. Enzymes tested included: amylase, endoglucanase, endoxylanase, ß-glucosidase, laccase, lipase, pectinase, peroxidase, polygalacturonase, polyphenoloxidase, protease, tyrosinase and ß-xylosidase. All species were positive for cellulase and endoxylanase/ß-xylosidase. Two species, Chaetomastia typhicola (herbicolous) and Massarina sp. A25 (lignicolous) tested positive for all enzyme assays. Submersisphaeria aquatica (lignicolous) was positive for all enzymes except tyrosinase and Jahnula sp. A322 (lignicolous) was positive for all enzymes except polyphenoloxidase. Generally, the species which were isolated from herbaceous substrates and woody/herbaceous substrates had good growth rates on different types of enzyme media used (such as, peptone, yeast extract, glucose agar, etc.). Fifty percent of the lignicolous species produced pectin degrading enzymes, compared to about 80% for herbicolous and woody/herbicolous species, suggesting that there may be some specialization in the types of enzymes produced within substrate groups. The greatest differences among species occurred in the production of enzymes associated with detection of lignin degradation. Laccase and peroxidase detection depended on the assay technique used. Freshwater ascomycetes, as a group, produce many of the extracellular enzymes important in the decomposition of plant structural materials thereby supporting the idea that they play an important role in recycling in aquatic habitats.

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Annotated checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Bhutan
An annotated checklist is presented of the 287 lichens and lichenicolous fungi known from Bhutan. The vast majority (225) are new records for the country, based on recent collections of 264 species by the second author. Most species were previously known from the Himalayas, but some represent considerable range extensions. Noticeable examples are the rare Ropalospora chlorantha, so far only known from eastern North America, and the first report from the Northern Hemisphere of Lepraria nigrocincta. Pyrrhospora bhutanensis is described as new to science.

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Mycoparasites on the coffee rust in Mexico
We surveyed coffee plantations for mycoparasites of the coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) in central Veracruz, México. We report the presence in natural conditions of six mycoparasites. Five are reported for the first time (Acremonium byssoides, Calcarisporium arbuscula, C. ovalisporum, Sporothrix guttuliformis, Fusarium pallidoroserum) as mycoparasites of H. vastatrix, the other species, Verticillium lecanii, had been previously reported.

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Taxonomic notes on the genus Endoxylina (Diatrypales, Ascomycotina) and description of a new species from Mexico
Endoxylina tehuacanensis is proposed as a new species in the Diatrypales (Ascomycotina). The specimens were collected upon fallen branches of Acacia constricta (Leguminosae) in the southeastern part of the state of Puebla, Tehuacan valley, Mexico. A description and illustrations of the morphological characters of this new species are provided. Moreover a brief review all species belonging to Endoxylina is presented.

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An accounting of the worldwide members of Mycena sect. Longisetae
Eleven species are accepted in a redefined Mycena sect. Longisetae. Two species, M. palmicola and M. khonkhem, are described as new, and M. clavulifera is redescribed based on material collected recently in Thailand. Mycena trichocephala, previously accepted in sect. Sacchariferae is herein accepted in sect. Longisetae. Two stirps are provisionally accepted to accommodate the 11 species: stirps Brunneisetosa (4 species) and stirps Longiseta (7 species). All members of sect. Longisetae develop primordia covered with numerous, erect, stiff pileosetae that aid to deter animal predation on the immature hymenophore. All included species develop pileipelli with acanthocyst cells and stipitipelli with non-spinulose cortical hyphae. The center of diversity for Mycena sect. Longisetae is southeast Asia.

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Intralichen, a new genus for lichenicolous 'Bispora' and 'Trimmatostroma' species
Intralichen gen. nov. is introduced for four dematiaceous hyphomycetes with mycelia growing inside the hymenia and thalline tissues of lichens or lichenicolous fungi and sporulating at the surface: I. baccisporus sp. nov., I. christiansenii comb. nov. (syn. Bispora christiansenii), I. lichenicola comb. nov. (syn. Trimmatostroma lichenicola), and I. lichenum comb. nov. (syn. B. lichenum). A key to the species is provided and all known hosts and reports of the species are summarized. litter degradation.

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New anamorph fungi with rhombic conidia from Mexican tropical forest litter
Two anamorph fungi, collected on leaf litter from Mexico are proposed as new taxa. One of them, Beltraniella fertilis, is characterized by having branched conidiophores with fertile apices. The other species, Pseudobeltrania macrospora, is characterized by having much longer conidia than all known species of Pseudobeltrania. Descriptions and illustrations in situ are provided, as well as culture characteristics. A key to the species of the genus Pseudobeltrania is included.

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Vertical distribution of saprobic fungi on bamboo culms
The fungi on decaying culms of bamboo were investigated along a vertical gradient at sites in Hong Kong and the Philippines. Saprobic fungi on standing culms of Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. were vertically stratified in both countries, with a higher biodiversity towards the bases of the culms.

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Goidanichiella fusiforma sp. nov. from palm fronds in Brunei and Thailand
Goidanichiella fusiforma sp. nov. was identified from collections of decaying palm fronds in tropical rainforests in Brunei and Thailand. The new taxon is described and illustrated, and compared with similar taxa.

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Three taxa of Phallaceae in HMAS, China
Three taxa of Phallaceae occurring in China were reported, including a new variety Phallus costatus var. sphaerocephalus, a recently reconfirmed species Phallus sulphureus and a new record to China Mutinus fleischeri. All specimens examined were deposited in Herbarium Mycologicum Instituti Microbiologici, Academiae Sinicae (HMAS), Beijing.

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Two new hyaline Chalara species, and a key to species described since 1975ud Forest Reserve, Ecuador
Chalara siamense sp. nov. is described from dead petioles of Eleiodoxa conferta (Arecaceae) collected in Thailand, while a second hyaline species, C. schoenoplecti sp. nov., is described from senescent culms of Schoenoplectus litoralis (Cyperaceae) collected in Hong Kong. They are compared with similar species. Three species informally described by T. Matsushima are given Latin binomials and type specimens indicated, and a key to species described since 1975 is provided.

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A new smut fungus, Sporisorium centrale sp. nov., on Themeda from Australia
Sporisorium centrale sp. nov. (Ustilaginaceae, Ustilaginomycetes) is described and illustrated from Themeda triandra collected in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is compared with Sporisorium punctatum.

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Brobdingnagia eucalypticola sp. nov. and Phyllachora neolitseae sp. nov., two new phyllachoraceous ascomycetes from Australia
Brobdingnagia eucalypticola sp. nov. and Phyllachora neolitseae sp. nov., causing tar spots on leaves of Eucalyptus sp. and Neolitsea dealbata respectively are described and illustrated. s group of fungi are either closely related or identical.

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New species of foliicolous Loculoascomycetes on Dysoxylum, Melaleuca and Syzygium from Queensland, Australia
Four new species of foliicolous Loculoascomycetes, Didymella melaleucae sp. nov., Rosenscheldiella dysoxyli sp. nov., Seynesiella melaleucae sp. nov. and S. syzygii sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Queensland, Australia. The hosts are indicated by the specific epithet. Four Discostromopsis species are redisposed to Discostroma as Discostroma callistemonis (H.J. Swart) Sivan. comb. nov., D. elegans (H.J. Swart) Sivan. comb. nov., D. leptospermi (H.J. Swart) Sivan. comb. nov. and D. stoneae (H.J. Swart) Sivan. comb. nov.

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New species of Lembosia and Lembosina from Australia
Lembosia araucariae sp. nov., Lembosia syzygii sp. nov., Lembosina alyxiae sp. nov., Lembosina diospyrosi sp. nov. and Lembosina eucalypti sp. nov. on leaves of Araucaria, Syzygium, Alyxia, Diospyros and Eucalyptus respectively are described and illustrated from Australia. Lembosia hosagoudari nom. nov. is proposed to accommodate Lembosia syzygiicola Hosag. which is a later homonym of Lembosia syzygiicola (Hansf.) Deighton.

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Fungal endophytes associated with Cordemoya integrifolia
Fungal endophytes associated with leaves of the endemic plant Cordemoya integrifolia have been studied. The diversity and frequency of endophytic fungi in young and old leaves of Cordemoya integrifiola occurring inside and outside the Maccabhé Conservation Management Area (CMA) were investigated. Endophyte assemblages examined were quite diverse, consisting of 26 fertile fungal taxa and one sterile morphospecies. Pestalotiopsis sp. and Penicillium sp. were the dominant taxa. Differences were observed between the endophytic communities isolated from different tissues and tissues of different ages. Old leaves supported more endophytes than relatively younger ones. Likewise, more endophytic fungi were recorded in the veins and petioles than in the intervein tissues.

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Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Two new species of Camposporium and key to the genus
During an investigation into the microfungi that inhabit the Pandanaceae, two new species of Camposporium were found. Camposporium fusisporum sp. nov. and C. ramosum sp. nov. are described, illustrated and compared with accepted species. Camposporium cambrense, C. japonicum and C. ontariense are also reported from the Pandanaceae. A key to Camposporium species, and a comparative synopsis table are provided.


Phyllachora xanthii: redescription and designation of a new type
A tar-spot fungus found in the state of Paraná, Brazil on living leaves of Xanthium strumarium was identified as probably belonging to the previously known species Phyllachora xanthii. Available descriptions of this fungus are incomplete and the type material could not be located. A full description with illustrations and designation of a neotype is therefore provided.

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New spinose species of Mycena in sections Basipedes and Polyadelphia from Thailand
Three new species of Mycena with spinose pilei are described from material collected recently in Thailand. Mycena pseudoseta and Mycena mimicoseta are provisionally accepted in sect. Basipedes, and have recurved pileus spines formed from agglutinated, cylindrical, spinulose hyphae. Mycena dermatogloea is provisionally accepted in sect. Polyadelphia and has pileus spines formed from exudative gloeocystidia. Illustrations and comparisons with allied taxa are provided.

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Treehole fungal communities: aquatic, aero-aquatic and dematiaceous hyphomycetes
Hyphomycete communities in water-filled treeholes, a microhabitat in woodland ecosystems are discussed. Thirteen treeholes in four mountainous and forested areas of Hungary were examined for hyphomycetes. Eleven treeholes were detected in beech (Fagus sylvatica) and one each in oak (Quercus sp.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Forty-five hyphomycete species were detected in the treeholes. The species number per treehole ranged from 3 to 10, as seen after litter incubation, but reached 19 when membrane filtration of treehole-water was included. The most frequent species was Alatospora acuminata (over 80% of treeholes). Distribution of Colispora cavincola appears to be restricted to treeholes. Conidia belonging to lesser known taxa, such as Arborispora, Dwayaangam, Trifurcospora and Trinacrium are discussed and illustrated. Membrane filtration of treehole-water suggests in situ sporulation of some aquatic hyphomycete species. Treeholes in SW Hungary were re-examined after 25 years and results suggest that they are long-lasting rather than ephemeral fungal microhabitats in woodland ecosystems .

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Effect of nitrogen resources and pH on growth and fruit body formation of Coprinopsis phlyctidospora
Following 3 weeks of cultivation of Coprinopsis phlyctidospora the final pH of NO3-N, asparagine-N (Asp-N) and Urea-N media increased, the final pH of NH4-N media decreased, and high nitrogen concentrations induced a high final pH. The changes in reduction oxidation potential were opposite to that of pH. Most mycelial biomass was generated in Asp-N media, while least biomass was generated in NH4-N media high nitrogen levels promoted increased growth. During growth, NO3-N was produced by the utilization of Asp-N, Urea-N and NH4-N. The maximum yield of NO3-N was found in the NH4-N media. Under light, fruit bodies were formed in Urea-N, Asp-N and NO3-N media. In darkness, fruit bodies were formed in Urea-N media only. Addition of urea and NH4Cl to unsupplemented growth medium promoted the formation of fruit bodies.

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Induction of antibiotic production of freshwater fungi using mix-culture fermentation
Antibiotic activities of culture filtrates from twenty filamentous fungi, isolated from wood submerged in tropical freshwater habitats, were tested against a pathogenic strain of Candida albicans. These taxa were fermented separately in liquid medium in pure culture, while another set was fermented with the addition of a fluconazole-sensitive strain of Candida albicans in mix-culture. Fermentation was performed using potato dextrose broth at 25°C for 28 days, with diffuse day light and 240 rpm agitation. Culture filtrates were tested against a fluconazole-sensitive and two fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans. Anti-fungal activities against strains of C. albicans were not exhibited by any culture filtrates obtained from pure culture fermentation. In mix-culture fermentation, the culture filtrates of an undescribed species of Chloridium and Sporoschisma mirabile produced anti-fungal activities against all three strains of C. albicans tested.

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An evaluation of the fungal 'morphotype' concept based on ribosomal DNA sequences
In studies of fungal endophyte communities, mycelia sterilia are commonly isolated from plant substrates and grouped into morphotypes on the basis of cultural characteristics. In Polygonum multiflorum one hundred and sixty-nine strains of mycelia sterilia were isolated and grouped into 27 morphotypes. Six randomly selected morphotypes, each with 2-3 representatives, were subsequently subjected to ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Nucleotide sequence similarities of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8S gene were compared using UPGMA cluster analysis. Comparison of nucleotide sequences revealed high levels of similarity (ca. 91.63-99.53%) among strains within morphotypes. ITS and 5.8S sequences of species within various genera from GenBank were obtained to estimate levels of nucleotide similarity within and between well-established genera and species. This study verifies on the basis of ribosomal DNA sequence analysis the validity of these 'morphotypes' as taxonomic groups. A dendogram, illustrating relatedness of the morphotypes and reference taxa from GenBank is also presented.

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Biodiversity assessment of myxomycetes from two tropical forest reserves in Mexico
This paper presents the results of surveys carried out in two tropical forest reserves, El Edén (Quintana Roo) and Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz), in Mexico. A total of 857 collections of myxomycetes yielded 99 different taxa. One of these (Diderma yucatanensis) is described as a new species, two (Licea poculiformis and Stemonitis lignicola) are new records for the Neotropics, and 14 species and 2 varieties are new records for Mexico. Our data support the presence of a distinct assemblage of myxomycetes in tropical regions and substantiate the value of using the moist chamber technique as a complement to fieldwork in biodiversity studies. These same data also suggest that a number of different niches are exploited by myxomycetes in the tropics.

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Growth and fatty acid production of thraustochytrids from Panay mangroves, Philippines
Optimization of culture conditions with regard to the combined effects of salinity and temperature on biomass and fatty acid production of four thraustochytrid isolates were undertaken. Two strains of Schizochytrium mangrovei (IAo-1 and IXm-6), and one isolate each of Schizochytrium sp. (BSn-1) and Thraustochytrium sp. (IRa-8), isolated from fallen mangrove leaves, were used in this study. Results of the physiological study show that the best growth condition for Schizochytrium isolates was at a salinity range of 15-30 &permil at 20-30°C, while that for Thraustochytrium sp. was at 22.5-30 &permil at 25°C. Highest biomass production was 350 mg 50 mL-1 for Schizochytrium spp., and 133 mg 50 mL-1 for Thraustochytrium sp. Total lipid content (% freeze-dried biomass) ranged from 16.0-33.2% for S. mangrovei, 13.0-39.1% for Schizochytrium sp., and 11.4-37.5% for Thraustochytrium sp. Highest lipid production was observed at 15-22.5 &permil salinity (25°C) for S. mangrovei, and at 15 &permil (25°C) for Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytrium sp. Palmitic acid (16:0) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n3) were the major components of the total fatty acid (TFA) content, comprising about 39-42% and 24-35%, repectively.

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A new cyanescent species of Gyroporus from China
A new bolete species discovered from Guangdong Province of China, Gyroporus brunneofloccosus, is formally described and illustrated. Type (HMIGD 4920) is deposited in the Herbarium of Guangdong Institute of Microbiology (HMIGD), Guangzhou.

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Several rare entopathogenic fungi from the Western Sichuan mountains
Two new species of Cordyceps and a new species of Paecilomyces were collected from Dujiangyan Forest Park, Huanglong Nature Reserve and Xilin Jokul respectively. These new species are C. sichuanensis which parasitizes the adults of Pentatomitae (Hemiptera), C. dayiensis which has a very thin ascus cap and Paecilomyces rariramus with synnemata consisting of a few branchlets and subglobose conidia.

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An integrated approach to taxonomical identification of the novel filamentous fungus strain producing extracellular lipases: morphological, physiological and DNA fingerprinting techniques
A new filamentous fungal strain was isolated into pure culture and initially named as strain L-1. The strain was found to secrete a high level of extracellular lipase at high temperatures. The identification of the isolate was performed by the combination of conventional morphological-physiological methods, scanning electron microscopy and RAPD. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the L-1 strain were compared to reference strains. The morphological characteristics, radial growth rate at different temperatures and surface ornamentation of sporangiospores of the isolate almost completely match the reference strain Rhizopus [= microsporus var. rhizopodiformis VKM F-3693. The strain L-1 was characterized by high growth rate and the spore maturation abilities at 50°C. These characteristics are unique among all other strains of Rhizopus. The results of RAPD-diagnosis indicate the high degree of genetic similarity between strains L-1 and F-3693. We therefore identified strain L-1 as Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis. The strain has been submitted and included in the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms as VKM F-3688.

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Typification of Spirodecospora
A new collection of Anthostomella melnikii was made in Kunashir Island, Russia and was found to be identical to Spirodecospora bambusicola. Anthostomella melnikii therefore becomes the type of Spirodecospora. This information is formally published with notes on Anthostomella melnikii and Spirodecospora bambusicola.

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Anhellia verruco-scopiformans sp. nov. (Myriangiales) associated to scaby brooms of Croton migrans in Brazil
The new fungal species of Anhellia, Anhellia verruco-scopiformans associated with scaby brooms of Croton migrans from a montane grassland site in Brazil, is described and illustrated.

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First contribution to the study of Cryptosphaeria from Argentina
A new species of Cryptosphaeria, from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, C. sulcata, is described. The representation of this genus in Argentina is low only C. lignyota and the present species are known. Cryptosphaeria populicola, described by Spegazzini, is a later synonym of Eutypella scoparia. Cryptosphaerina heterospora and C. cumingii, proposed by Spegazzini, are excluded from the Diatrypaceae. Observations of asci with fluorescence microscopy are presented.

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Berkleasmium typhae sp. nov., a new hyphomycete on narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) from Thailand
Berkleasmium typhae, collected from a decaying leaf of Typha angustifolia from Thailand is illustrated and described as a new species and compared with related taxa.

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Two new Meliola species from China
Meliola fabri parasitic on Castanopsis fabri, and Meliola hosagoudarii parasitic on Tutcheria microcarpa are described and illustrated as new species.

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Hyparrhenia (Poaceae)
Twelve species of smut fungi are recognised on the grass genus Hyparrhenia. Detailed descriptions and synonyms with authors and place of publication are given for all recognised species. Each species is illustrated by line drawings of the habit and by LM and SEM pictures of the spores. New species described: Sporisorium niariense Vánky. New name proposed: Sporisorium leelingianum Vánky, replacing Ustilago tumefaciens Henn. New combinations proposed: Sporisorium congense (Syd. & P. Syd.) Vánky, based on Ustilago congensis S. dembianense (Bacc.) Vánky, based on Sorosporium dembianense S. ischaemoides (Henn.) Vánky, based on Ustilago ischaemoides S. maranguense (Henn.) Vánky, based on Sorosporium maranguense. The following names are considered to be synonyms: Sorosporium tembuti Henn. & Pole-Evans is Sporisorium leelingianum Vánky Ustilago nyassae Syd. & P. Syd. is Sporisorium transfissum (Tul. & C. Tul.) G. Deml Ustilago puellaris Syd. is Sporisorium vanderystii (Henn.) Vánky. A further ten synonymies, established by L. Ling, are confirmed. Lectotypes are designated for Ustilago congensis Syd. & P. Syd. [= Sporisorium congense (Syd. & P. Syd.) Vánky], Ustilago tumefaciens Henn. (= Sporisorium leelingianum Vánky), and Sphacelotheca ruprechtii Syd. [= Sporisorium vanderystii (Henn.) Langdon & Full.]. A key to the species and a host-parasite list are provided to facilitate the identification of the smut fungi of Hyparrhenia.

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Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Zygosporium, a review of the genus and two new species
Zygosporium pacificum sp. nov. and Z. pandanicola sp. nov. are introduced based on specimens identified on Pandanus leaves collected in the Pacific island nations of Niue and Vanuatu, and the Philippines, respectively. Both species are compared with presently accepted species and a key to the genus is provided. Specimens of Z. echinosporum, Z. gibbum, Z. minus and Z. oscheoides were also collected from members of Pandanaceae.

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Obeliospora minima sp. nov. and four other hyphomycetes with conidia bearing appendages
Five dematiaceous hyphomycetes with conidia bearing setulae, Obeliospora minima sp. nov., O. basispira, Bahusutrabeeja dwaya, Nawawia filiformis and Phialosporostilbe setosa, are described and illustrated. Obeliospora minima differs from the two known species of the genus, O. basispira and O. triappendiculata, by its smaller conidia with only 3 setulae. All these genera and species are reported for the first time from China.


Freshwater fungi from bamboo and wood submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines
Eighty fungi were recorded on submerged bamboo and wood in the Liput River, Bario Alegria, Negros Occidentalis, the Philippines following collections made in April 1997 and August 2001. The frequency of occurrence of these fungi have also been investigated. The most common species overall was Didymella aptrootii, occurring on 23.5% of the samples, while Astrosphaeriella papillata (19.5%) and Acrogenospora sphaerocephala (14.5%) were also common. The most common species on bamboo was Didymella aptrootii, occurring in 39.2% of the samples, while the most common species on wood was Savoryella aquatica (18.7%). The average number of species identified from each sample was 2.28, which indicates a relatively high fungal diversity in the Liput River. The fungal communities on submerged bamboo and wood are compared and discussed. The results showed that, in the Liput River, bamboo support a different and diverse group of fungi in comparison to wood. The fungal community on submerged bamboo is, to some extent, similar to that on terrestrial bamboo in previous studies. The possible reasons are discussed.

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Grass cell wall degradation by fungal cellulases and hemicellulases
There has been an intensified interest in the microbial and enzymatic conversion of renewable raw materials into useful products, such as feed, chemicals and energy. Enzymes involved in these conversions have potential commercial applications in quite different fields. An interesting ascomycete able to convert up to 30% and 55% of grass cell wall components after 7 and 21 days respectively, was isolated during a screening programme for grass cell wall degrading microorganisms. This fungus may serve as an interesting source of novel xylanases and cellulases, since other cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates, such as microcrystalline cellulose, cotton, paper and xylan were also converted. For example, unprinted newspaper (20g/L) was completely solubilised within 4-5 days at 30ºC. According to the type of cellulosic or hemicellulosic substrate, used as carbon source in the growth medium, enzyme synthesis profiles differed considerably, not only did the level of enzyme activity differ, also the type of enzyme produced differed. The pH and temperature profiles of the fungal enzyme activities present in the crude supernatant were determined. Most enzymes functioned optimally at 50-60ºC and at neutral pH. Thermal stability of the enzymes was compared at 30ºC and 60ºC. Addition of glycerol (30% w/v) stabilised some of the enzymes from thermal inactivation. The conversion of different substrates by the crude supernatant was followed by HPLC-analysis of the released mono- and oligosaccharides. The highest degree of conversion was observed with substrates such as unprinted newspaper (72%), xylan (61%), carboxymethyl cellulose (60%), Whatmann paper (53%) and cotton (44%). Microcrystalline cellulose and grass were hydrolysed to a lesser extent. Further characterisation of these enzymes is now underway, as well as the taxonomic identification of the ascomycete.

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Monitoring and safeguarding fungal resources worldwide: the need for an international collaborative MycoAction Plan
The challenge of monitoring and safeguarding the Earth´s fungal resources is a daunting one that must be confronted. With only 74-120 K of the estimated 1.5 million fungal species on the planet described and limited human and financial resources, how can we identify priority areas for both systematic research and conservation? Further, what balance should be aspired to between in situ and ex situ conservation, and how should that be reflected in national and international policy? Mycology has too low a profile and remains an orphan within botany and microbiology how can that perception be changed? The systems in place for educating new generations of mycologists are also failing how can that be rectified? While contact between mycologists nationally, regionally, and globally has improved remarkably in the last two decades, concerted action on a scale hitherto not attempted is necessary to address these fundamental questions. Some actions for inclusion in a potential new international initiative designed to start to redress some of these key issues are suggested. The proposals include actions needing to be taken by individuals through to ones meriting coverage in international intergovernmental treaties: many are accompanied by targets and datelines. This contribution is intended to serve as a draft action plan (MycoAction Plan) for discussion, elaboration, and revision by the whole mycological community - working under the auspices of the International Mycological Association (IMA). It is envisioned that there will be plans for action from the worldwide (MycoAction Worldwide Plan) to the personal (MycoAction Personal Plan).

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A cox2 phylogenetic hypothesis for the downy mildews and white rusts
Mitochondrially encoded cox2 sequences were used to infer evolutionary relationships of downy mildew and white rust taxa in a data set of 36 peronosporomycete isolates. The data set of 599 aligned nucleotides was analysed using neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. These phylogenetic analyses did not infer separate monophyletic orders for the Pythiales versus downy mildews (Peronosporales), but do indicate that separation of monocotyledonus and dicotyledonous-infecting downy mildews into separate subclasses is not justified. Analyses of three species of Albugo, however, infer that Peronosporales are a polyphyletic group, unless this order is expanded to include species of the Pythiales and Rhipidiales. Whereas all examined downy mildew cox2 amino acid sequences bore the signature indel LEF/Y characteristic of the subclass Peronosporomycetidae the three Albugo species did not. Instead, the LEF/Y signature indel was replaced by a highly variable indel unique to each Albugo species. Collectively, these results indicate that the white rusts are only distantly related to downy mildews and constitute a distinct order basal to other orders within the Peronosporomycetidae.

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Mycology and its future in the Asia region
To fulfil commitments to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), countries of the Asian region must understand that taxonomic expertise is vital for effective implementation. The Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) therefore states "understanding taxonomy to be a priority in implementing CBD". Fungi, in particular, are a group of organisms where countries in the region lack taxonomists to carry out the requirements of CBD. Previously, several Asian countries had groups of taxonomists active in the study of fungi, but in recent years the number of mycologists has dwindled because of other commitments, retirement without replacement and more importance being placed on other disciplines, such as biotechnology. This paper will briefly review the history of the study of fungi in the Asian region and then examine the current situation through an analysis of publications in international journals. It will address the effects of CBD on mycological taxonomic research in the region. It will then look at the future for taxonomic mycology in Asia? Suggestions on how to improve mycological expertise in a country are given, with particular reference to the successes in Hong Kong and Thailand.

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Alkaline-tolerant fungi from Thailand
A collection of 490 alkaline-tolerant fungi was made by isolating fungi from natural habitats using Petri-dishes with Potato Dextrose Agar medium buffered at pH 11.0. Alkaline-tolerant fungi were isolated from 51 out of 71 samples collected from different habitats in Thailand. Twenty-eight samples were taken from tree-holes with different pH. The remaining were samples of soil and sand, wood, seeds, rock holes, roots, leaf material or various other substrates. A total of 324 strains (66%) were screened for enzymes which were active at alkaline pH (alkaline enzymes). Arabinanase, amylase, potato-galactanase and protease activity were assayed. Alkaline-tolerant fungi isolated from tree-holes in alkaline and acidic habitats were good sources for alkaline enzyme production. This screening demonstrates that there exists a population of fungi able to tolerate high pH. Importantly, alkaline-tolerant fungi were isolated from acidic environments. Freshwater habitats appear to be a good source of fungi with alkaline enzyme production capability.

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Cloning of the phytase gene phyA from Aspergillus ficuum 3.4322 and its expression in yeast
A phyA gene was cloned from Aspergillus ficuum 3.4322 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The amplified fragment was cloned into the pMD18 T-vector and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the phyA gene showed that it comprised 1347bp without the signal peptide sequence and encodes a polypeptide of 448 amino acids. The phyA sequence has been deposited in GenBank (accession number: AF537344). Expression vectors pYPA1 and pYPA2 were constructed by cloning the phyA gene with and without the signal peptide sequence into the yeast expression vector pYES2. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1 by the method of LiAc. Phytase activity was found in pYPA2 (about 11.55IU/ml) endocellular fluid and in pYPA1 supernatant (about 11.60IU/mL) by galactose inducing. The results demonstrated that the phyA gene had been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the signal sequence of Aspergillu ficuum3.4322 could facilitate the phytase secretion from S. cerevisiae efficiently.

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Phylogenetic examples of Asian biodiversity in mushrooms and their relatives
Using characters from morphology, sexual recognition systems, DNA sequencing and RFLP patterns, geographic patterns and directions of geographic migration can be ascertained. In fungal groups such as Artomyces (Clavicorona), Flammulina, Lentinus, Panellus and Pleurotus, four principles can be elucidated: 1) for some sexually compatible groups, an obvious Eurasian cohesion can be identified, as opposed to a sister American population 2) for certain groups, a strong Asian-western North American cohesion can be identified 3) care must be taken to distinguish relatively ancient migration from recent events, the latter sometimes human-mediated and 4) many sexually intercompatible ancestral populations existed before ultimate continental drift, later becoming allopatric but retaining sexual recognition. Sexual recognition among intercontinental populations appears to be a more reliable measure of relatedness than morphological characters and (to some extent) DNA sequence mutations.

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Population structure of Ascochyta rabiei in Australia based on STMS fingerprints
Nineteen sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primer pairs were used to determine the genetic structure within an Australian population of Ascochyta rabiei collected from Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and New South Wales. None of the alleles found in Australia showed significant differences in allele frequencies or were at a gamete disequilibrium. A very low level of gene diversity (Ht = 0.02) was found within the Australian population with the majority of the diversity (92%) distributed within subpopulations. In contrast, high diversity was detected among the international isolates (Ht = 0.45) with 22% attributed to differentiation between countries. Of the 20 loci assessed, 16 were homozygous in the Australian population, and gene flow from four heterozygous loci was high. Of the seven genotypes identified within the Australian population, one was found in all Australian subpopulations and accounted for 82.9% of the total isolates tested. The Canadian and USA populations were more similar to each other than to the Australian or Syrian populations. Results from this study will be useful in breeding for chickpea resistant cultivars and developing necessary quarantine regulations.

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First record of a smut fungus on Byblidaceae: Yelsemia lowrieana a new species from Australia
Yelsemia lowrieana sp. nov. (Ustilaginomycetes) is described and illustrated from Byblis rorida collected in northwestern Western Australia. Infected plants had galls filled with spores on stems and pedicels. The spores were unusual in that each could be separated from a dark outer spore wall. This is the first record of a smut fungus on the dicotyledonous host family Byblidaceae.

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Biodiversity of Australian Smut Fungi
There are about 250 species of smut fungi known from Australia of which 95 are endemic. Fourteen of these endemic species were first collected in the period culminating with the publication of Daniel McAlpine's revision of Australian smut fungi in 1910. Of the 68 species treated by McAlpine, 10 were considered to be endemic to Australia at that time. Only 23 of the species treated by McAlpine have names that are currently accepted. During the following eighty years until 1990, a further 31 endemic species were collected and just 11 of these were named and described in that period. Since 1990, 50 further species of endemic smut fungi have been collected and named in Australia. There are 115 species that are restricted to either Australia or to Australia and the neighbouring countries of Indonesia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines. These 115 endemic species occur in 24 genera, namely Anthracoidea (1 species), Bauerago (1), Cintractia (3), Dermatosorus (1), Entyloma (3), Farysporium (1), Fulvisporium (1), Heterotolyposporium (1), Lundquistia (1), Macalpinomyces (4), Microbotryum (2), Moreaua (20), Pseudotracya (1), Restiosporium (5), Sporisorium (26), Thecaphora (2), Tilletia (12), Tolyposporella (1), Tranzscheliella (1), Urocystis (2), Ustanciosporium (1), Ustilago (22), Websdanea (1) and Yelsemia (2). About a half of these local and regional endemic species occur on grasses and a quarter on sedges. The northern tropical savannah region of Australia offers most promise for the discovery of new endemic species. The agricultural, quarantine and environmental significance to Australia of some introduced species is discussed.

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Bioflavours and fragrances via fungi and their enzymes
Many fungi and yeasts have been found to produce de novo odorous compounds. Ceratocystis species and the yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis and Sporidiobolus salmonicolor produce a wide range of terpenes and lactones with fruity or floral flavours. The yeast Williopsis saturnus synthesizes de novo fruity ester flavours (i.e. volatile branched acetates) their yield can be improved by feeding fusel oil as a cheap source of precursor branched alcohols to the fermentation process. Geotrichum klebahnii also produces a broad spectrum of ethylesters of branched carboxylic acids, generating a pleasant fruity flavour. Also, precursor speciality fatty acids and PUFA's can be converted by fungi (such as Penicillum sp. and Botryodiplodia sp.) into flavour compounds, that provide "green notes", mushroom flavour, fruity lactones and cheese-flavoured methylketones. Similarly, a two step fungal process has been developed, whereby Aspergillus niger tranforms ferulic acid into vanillic acid, which basidiomycetes such as Pycnoporus cinnabarinus or Phanerochaete chrysosporium can further convert into vanillin. Furanone-flavours occur in many fruits, but have also been detected in microbial cultures. In this context, the soy sauce yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii forms the DMHF-furanone compound from glucose, when fed with fructose-1,6-biphosphate. Apart from precursored fermentation processes, enzymatic systems are also being developed to produce flavours i.e. yeast alcohol dehydrogenase can convert 1-phenyl-2-propanone into (S)-1-phenyl-2-propanol in vitro co-enzyme regeneration often remains a bottleneck. Yeasts such as Torulopsis bombicola and Candida tropicalis can convert fatty acids or alkanes into musk-fragrance precursors. These examples indicate that interdisciplinary cooperation between microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and bioprocess engineers is needed to develop interesting laboratory findings into economic bioflavour production processes.

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Cintractiellaceae fam. nov. (Ustilaginomycetes)
A new family, Cintractiellaceae, is proposed to accommodate the two peculiar smut fungi in the genus Cintractiella, C. diplasiae and C. lamii.

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The Xylariales: a monophyletic order containing 7 families
A number of often conflicting, morphology-based classifications have been suggested for the Xylariales. However, no attempt has previously been made to test these classifications using molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships of 6 accepted families of the Xylariales (Amphisphaeriaceae, Clypeosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae, Graphostromataceae, Hyponectriaceae and Xylariaceae) plus members of the Apiosporaceae, were investigated using individual and combined analyses of 28S and 18S rDNA gene fragments. Analyses were conducted using maximum and weighted parsimony, and likelihood criteria. The Xylariales was found to be a monophyletic order containing the above 7 families. However, the 28S and 18S rDNA data proved to be inadequate in determining the familial relationships within the order. This finding is contrary to most other studies in ascomycete systematics using these particular genes.

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Ligninolytic enzymes from tropical endophytic Xylariaceae
This paper focuses on ligninolytic enzyme production by 581 endophytic Xylariaceae strains isolated from healthy tropical native plants of northern Thailand. Strain CMUX144 was found to be the best manganese independent peroxidase producer. The effect of pH, temperature, initial glucose concentration and ammonium tartrate concentration on enzyme production by this strain was investigated. An activity of 195 U/l was achieved after cultivation at the optimum condition for 6 days. Enzyme activity reached 292 U/l when the media was supplemented with veratryl alcohol. The decolourization of Poly R-478 at various C/N ratios in media was investigated. Biological decolourisation following 12 days of cultivation was higher than 91%.

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The rise and fall of natural products screening for drug discovery
Of the 520 new drugs approved between 1983 and 1994, 39% were natural products or derived from natural products. Nine of the 20 best-selling non-protein drugs in 1999 were either derived from or developed as the result of leads generated from natural products, and had annual sales of US$16B. Forty percent of the chemical scaffolds found in a published database of natural products are absent from synthetic chemistry. Despite these impressive figures, the enthusiasm for screening natural product extracts has followed peaks and troughs over a number of years. In recent years, the availability of large libraries of compounds produced by combinatorial chemistry and the pressure to shorten lead discovery timelines signalled another decline of interest in natural product extracts due to the "difficulty" of working with these complex mixtures of compounds. A number of approaches however, have been adopted by companies to improve the speed of, and more importantly, the effectiveness of screening natural products. As a result the use of natural products in industrial drug discovery programmes is currently undergoing a renaissance as some of the difficulties that were traditionally associated with using natural products in high throughput screening programmes are overcome. In addition, the dynamics of the drug screening business has been affected by the consolidation of large pharmaceutical companies, and the impact of gene sequencing and the increase in screen targets and technologies. Some of these changes and their effects upon natural products screening are also outlined.

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Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tropical rainforests of Xishuangbanna, southwest China
The tropical rainforests of Xishuangbanna in southwestern China are located at the northern margin of the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. They harbour a high diversity of animals and plants. We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil under trees in these forests in order to establish if these fungi are also highly diverse. One hundred and eighteen rhizosphere soil samples were collected from a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, and 525 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores (or sporocarp) samples were obtained using the wet-sieve method. Twenty-seven species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified from the collections. The species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were of the genera Acaulospora (9 species), Gigaspora (1 species), Glomus (13 species), Sclerocystis (3 species) and Scutellospora (1 species). Acaulospora and Glomus were dominant at the study site. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore density ranged from 25 to 2550 per 100 g soil (average 675), and the species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ranged from1-7 (average 4.4). Although tropical rainforests support a high diversity of plants, their associated symbiotic fungi are not as diverse as we had expected, possibly because arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are not specific to their host plants.



New microlichens from Taiwan
As a result of a three week field trip to Taiwan in 2001, 288 species of microlichens and related ascomycetes are reported. All are new to Taiwan, and most are so far unknown from mainland China as well. Of these, 83 species are new to East Asia, and 41 have never been reported from Asia. This includes the following species new to science: Arthonia parantillarum, Rimularia gyromuscosa, Rinodina placynthielloides, R. pluriloculata (described from mainland China), R. punctosorediata and Vezdaea flava.(View PDF)

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Identification of Armillaria biological species in Iran
Thirty-four isolates of Armillaria were collected from a variety of hosts in fruit orchard and forest regions in Iran. From each basidiocarp, monospore cultures were obtained. Haploid and diploid cultures were paired in all possible "haploid-haploid" and "diploid-haploid" combinations. Sexual compatibility was determined after 25-35 days based on differences in culture morphology of haploid colonies from white, with aerial mycelium (fluffy) to brownish, without aerial mycelium (crustose) which is characteristic of diploid cultures. Six compatibility groups named Iranian intersterility groups (IISG) were identified: IISG1 included one isolate, IISG2 seventeen isolates, IISG3 eight isolates, IISG4 one isolate, IISG5 two isolates and IISG6 five isolates. Haploid and diploid isolates from Iranian intersterility groups of Armillaria were paired with European and two Japanese haploid tester strains. Six intersterility groups were authenticated as A. mellea, A. cepistipes, A. gallica, A. borealis, Armillaria sp. (IISG5) and Armillaria sp. (IISG6). Two groups (IISG5 and IISG6) were, however, not compatible with any of tester strains representing different species.(View PDF)

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Xenosporium amomi sp. nov. from Zingiberaceae in Thailand
Xenosporium thaxteri and an undescribed species of Xenosporium were found as saprobes on dead pseudostems of Alpinia malaccensis and Amomum siamense in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The new species, X. amomi is described, illustrated and compared with similar Xenosporium species. The diagnostic characters of the 14 accepted species of Xenosporium are provided and the genus is reviewed based on the literature.(View PDF)

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A review of Spegazzini taxa of Periconia and Sporocybe after over 115 years
Some groups or genera described by Spegazzini have never been re-examined. In this paper the type material of Sporocybe and Periconia species described by Spegazzini are studied. The genus Periconia is represented in Argentina by seven species: P. bromeliicola, P. byssoides, P. circinata, P. lateralis, P. minutissima, P. spegazzinii and P. tirupatiensis. Among Spegazzini's holotypes of Sporocybe, S. bromeliicola is considered a nomen dubium, S. antarctica is a lichen, S. chlorocephala is a synonym of Stromatographium stromaticum, Sporocybe penicillata is a synonym of Melanographium spinulosum and S. sacchari is a synonym of Doratomyces purpureofuscus. Doratomyces is represented by four species: D. asperulus, D. microsporus, D. purpureofuscus and D. stemonitis, three of which are reported under this genus for the first time.(View PDF)

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Pseudocercospora siraitiae sp. nov. (hyphomycetes) on leaves of Siraitia cf. siamensis (Cucurbitaceae) in China
A new species of Pseudocercospora was found on leaves of Siraitia cf. siamensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The fungus differs from the species known on cucurbitaceous hosts by its curved conidia and long conidiophores arising from superficial mycelium. Species of Siraitia have hitherto not been reported as host plants of any cercosporoid fungi. Therefore, P. siraitiae is proposed as a new species. A key to species of Pseudocercospora on cucurbitaceous hosts is also provided.(View PDF)

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Temporal changes in the prevalence of three species of Trichomycetes (Zygomycota: Zygomycotina) in Dipteran aquatic larvae from Argentina
Trichomycetes (fungi) inhabit the digestive tracts of insects and other arthropods. Three species of Harpellales (Zygomycotina: Trichomycetes) were collected in the field from Dipteran larvae at La Plata, Argentina every 15 days for 1.5 years from 1999 to 2000. Records of the occurrence of the insect larval hosts, Dasyhelea necrophila (Ceratopogonidae), Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae) and Culex pipiens (Culicidae), and the prevalence of their associated Harpellales, Carouxella coemeteriensis, Stachylina platensis and Smittium culisetae, are presented. The fungi were somewhat seasonal, being present during fall, winter and spring. Their abundance appeared to depend on host density. (View PDF)

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The genus Cordyceps and its allies from the Kuankuoshui Reserve in Guizhou III
Four new species in the genus Cordyceps from the Kuankoushui Reserve in Guizhou Province are described. They are Cordyceps furcicaodata, C. dermapterogena, C. cylindrostromata and C. rostrata. In addition, Cordyceps formicarum and C. takaomontana are reported for the first time in Guizhou Province, China. Specimens examined were deposited in the Laboratory of Fungus Resources, Guizhou University (LFRGU).(View PDF)

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Dactylella shizishanna sp. nov., from Shizi Mountain, China
A new species, Dactylella shizishanna, is described from Hubei province, China and compared with the similar species of Dactylella crassa. A key to the species of Dactylella producing adhesive nets is given. (View PDF)

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Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India
Fungal diversity on decaying intertidal wood of five mangrove plant species (Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia caseolaris) accumulated on the floor of Udyavara mangrove stand of southwest coast of India was investigated. Wood samples collected during the monsoon and summer season were incubated in moist chambers and observed once every two weeks for up to six months. Ninety-one fungi belonging to 68 genera were recovered. Terrestrial fungi were dominant during the monsoon season, while marine fungi were dominant during the summer. Fungal richness and diversity were higher during the monsoon season than the summer. Rhizophora mucronata showed the highest Simpson's index at both seasons. The Shannon index was highest for Rhizophora mucronata in the monsoon season, while it was highest for Bruguiera gymnorrhiza during the summer. Rarefaction showed the highest expected number of species out of 150 identifications was from Rhizophora mucronata during the monsoon season (43 vs. 27-38 species), while it was highest in Sonneratia caseolaris during the summer (25 vs. 20-23 species). Maximum number of species per sample was observed on Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (monsoon, 2.9 summer, 3). Significant differences in the species diversity and expected number of species between the seasons were seen (t-test). Lignincola laevis, Savoryella lignicola and Trichocladium linderi were found in both seasons on all substrata. Lignincola laevis, Passeriniella mangrovei, Savoryella lignicola, S. paucispora, Trichocladium achrasporum and T. linderi were dominant during the monsoon season (>10%), while Cirrenalia pygmea, Lignincola laevis, Lulworthia grandispora, Nais sp., Savoryella lignicola and Zalerion varium were dominant during the summer. It is likely that terrestrial, freshwater and aero-aquatic fungi find ideal conditions for their development in mangroves during the monsoon season in the west coast of India.(View PDF)

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Abundance and diversity of marine fungi on intertidal woody litter of the west coast of India on prolonged incubation
Intertidal wood was collected from four coastal locations of the west coast of India during the post-monsoon season over two consecutive years. Samples were assessed for occurrence of filamentous marine fungi at different intervals of incubation in the laboratory (0, 2, 6, 12 and 18 months). Of the 59 taxa identified, 43 were ascomycetes, three basidiomycetes and 13 anamorphic fungi. Six months incubation yielded up to 66% of the total taxa encountered. The taxa found exclusively during specific incubation periods were highest during the 6 or 12 months incubation. Overall, Torpedospora radiata was the predominant fungus (11.6-21.5%), while Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Antennospora quadricornuta, Caryosporella rhizophorae, Corollospora intermedia, C. maritima, Crinigera sp., Dictyosporium pelagicum, Didymosphaeria sp., Halocyphina villosa, Periconia prolifica and Zalerion varium were frequent (>5%). These fungi attained the highest frequency of occurrence following 12 or 18 months of incubation period. Fungal richness and diversity were highest following six months of incubation. The decrease in the Jaccard's similarity index from two months to 18 months of incubation indicates that additional taxa occur on prolonged incubation. Incubation of intertidal wood of tropical beaches up to 18 months appear to be adequate period for reasonable assessment of marine fungal diversity. (View PDF)

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Two new species of Dactylaria (anamorphic fungi) and an update of species in Dactylaria sensu lato
The new species Dactylaria belliana and D. ficusicola were isolated from leaf litter of an Australian tropical rainforest. Dactylaria belliana differs from other species within this genus in having narrowly fusiform, uniseptate conidia and pigmented, denticulate conidiophores. Dactylaria ficusicola is similar in morphology to D. hemibeltranioidea but differs in producing only cylindrical narrow conidia while the latter species also has fusiform and naviculate conidia. The new species are described and illustrated here. A synopsis of species described in Dactylaria sensu de Hoog since the review by Goh and Hyde (1997) is provided based on the literature.(View PDF)

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Four new Asterina species from Yunnan, China
Asterina flacourtiaceicola parasitic on Flacourtiaceae indet., Asterina horsfieldiicola parasitic on Horsfieldia glabra (Myristicaceae), Asterina phoebicola parasitic on Phoeba lanceolata (Lauraceae), and Asterina stixis parasitic on Stixis suaveolens (Capparidaceae) are described and illustrated as new species.(View PDF)

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Diversity of fungi on wild fruits in Hong Kong
Eighteen species of wild fruits were examined for fruit-decaying fungi in nature. Surface-sterilized and non-sterilized fruits were incubated for 1-4 weeks and the fruiting bodies were identified. A total of 540 samples and 495 microfungi from 102 taxa were identified. Colletotrichum and Phomopsis were the most frequently recorded fungal genera. Ilex cinerea had the most diverse fungal species, while Wikstroemia nutans had the lowest diversity. Fifty-eight percent of fungal genera found in this survey have not been recorded on cultivated fruits. The fungal community that developed on non-sterilized fruits after incubation was generally more diverse than on surface-sterilized fruits, but both were colonized mostly by non-specific fungi. Related fruit species did not, in general, have more similar fungal communities than unrelated species. The ability of detached fruits to resist fungal infection under incubation varied greatly, with 77% of fruits of Wikstroemia nutans still not infected after 4 weeks. Fungi were classified into three types: pathogens, latent opportunists and fast-colonizing opportunists. Fast-colonizing opportunists, such as Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium, were the most important taxa on wild fruits. (View PDF)

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Endophytes in Southeast Asia and Japan: their taxonomic diversity and potential applications
Endophytes were isolated by placing plant parts on agar following extensive washing in running tap water and sterilization by dipping in 75% ethanol and 5.3% sodium hypochlorite. Four hundred and two plants, including endemic plants, collected in Hokkaido, Japan, Indonesia and Malaysia were subjected to this treatment. At least one taxon was isolated from each healthy surface-sterilized stem from each plant examined, indicating that more than one microorganism live together inside a single plant. In total, 1133 strains of endophytic fungi and 678 strains of bacteria were isolated and are stored at -80ºC. These isolates were screened for useful products. Many endophytic fungi and bacteria strains produced useful extracellular enzymes that degrade xylan and mannan, common constituents of plant cells, into xylo-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides. About 10-30% of endophytes showed antifungal or antibacterial activities in their supernatants. Some fungal strains produced bioactive substances which showed testosterone-5-a-reductase inhibition or promotion in proliferation of mouse hair follicle cells in vitro. Some fungal and bacterial strains isolated from Indonesian plants also produced amylolytic enzymes and/or mannanase. These results demonstrate that endophytes are potential sources for discovering useful metabolites, such as oligosaccharides, antibiotics, and enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses of amplified 18S rDNA and the ITS region including 5.8S rDNA of 25 selected endophytic fungi indicated that they belonged to diverse genera. Certain endophytic fungi isolated from individual trees in the Botanical Garden and around the campus of Hokkaido University were found to be specific symbionts of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.(View PDF)

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Sporobolus (Poaceae)
New name: Jamesdicksonia tremuli Vánky (substituting Melanotaenium sporoboli Thirum. & M.C. Sriniv., type on Sporobolus tremulus, India). New combinations are: Jamesdicksonia major (Har. & Pat.) Vánky (based on Entyloma majus, type on Sporobolus spicatus, Chad) J. sporoboli (H.S. Jackson) Vánky (based on Tolyposporella sporoboli, type on Sporobolus indicus, Puerto Rico) Macalpinomyces spermophorus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis ex de Toni) Vánky (based on Ustilago spermophora, type on Eragrostis poaeoides USA) M. spinulosus (L. Ling) Vánky (based on Ustilago spinulosa, type on Sporobolus paniculatus, Sierra Leone) M. sporoboli (Tracy & Earle) Vánky (based on Ustilago sporoboli, type on Sporobolus junceus, USA) Ustilago peruviana (Zundel) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca peruviana, type on Sporobolus virginicus, Peru) and Ustilago utahensis (Zundel) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca utahensis, type on Sporobolus patens, USA). The host plant of Ustilago schlechteri Henn. is not a Sporobolus but an Enneapogon species. A neotype is designated for Ustilago schlechteri.(View PDF)

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Further new smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) from Australia
Nine new species of smut fungi, belonging to eight genera, are described from Australia: Dermatosorus schoenoplecti Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Schoenoplectus mucronatus, Entyloma grampiansis Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Hydrocotyle laxiflora, Macalpinomyces brachiariae Vánky, C. Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Brachiaria holosericea, M. digitariae Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Digitaria gibbosa, Restiosporium baloskionis Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Baloskion tetraphyllum, Thecaphora maireanae R.G. Shivas & Vánky, on Maireana pentagona, Tilletia cape-yorkensis Vánky & R.G. Shivas, on Whiteochloa airoides, Urocystis chorizandrae J. Cunnington, R.G. Shivas & Vánky, on Chorizandra enodis, and Ustanciosporium tenellum R.G. Shivas & Vánky, on Cyperus tenellus. New combinations are: Macalpinomyces ordensis (R.G. Shivas & Vánky) Vánky & R.G. Shivas (based on Sporisorium ordense, type on Brachiaria pubigera, Australia), and Sporisorium setariae (McAlpine) Vánky & R.G. Shivas (based on Sorosporium setariae, type on Setaria glauca, Australia). (View PDF)

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Paracryptophiale pirozynskii sp. nov., an undescribed hyphomycete
Paracryptophiale pirozynskii sp. nov., occurring on dead branches of unidentified trees, collected from tropical China, is described and illustrated. (View PDF)


Production of wood decay enzymes, mass loss and lignin solubilization in wood by marine ascomycetes and their anamorphs
A study was carried out to establish the wood decay ability for a large number of diverse marine ascomycetes and their anamorphs. In vitro production of cellulase and xylanase was widespread among forty-seven fungi. Production of enzymes involved in lignin degradation was comparatively less common. Most isolates were capable of causing mass loss in a birch wood substrate although values were low (<5%) during a 24-week period. A few ascomycetes caused higher mass loss of up to 20.1%. In all cases wood decay was greater in exposed rather than submerged conditions. Ascocratera manglicola, Astrosphaeriella striatispora, Cryptovalsa halosarceicola, Linocarpon bipolaris and Rhizophila marina, were shown to solubilize significant amounts of lignin, with indices of lignin solubilization comparable to those of terrestrial white-rot basidiomycetes. Certain marine ascomycetes may therefore fulfill an equivalent ecological role. ( View PDF )

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Utilisation of Macrofungi species in Malaysia
The nutritional and medicinal properties of many macrofungi are well known and documented in Europe, China and Japan. However, such information is scanty and poorly known in Malaysia. This dearth of information is probably due to the lack of a traditional "mushroom culture" in Malaysia as well as a shortage of trained mycologists/fungal taxonomists. Cultivated mushrooms, e.g. oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.), shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Jew's ear fungus (locally called monkey's ear fungus) (Auricularia spp.) and paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) have long been utilised in Malaysia for food by the Malays, Chinese and Indians. However, amongst some local and many indigenous communities (aborigines), species of local macrofungi are utilised not only for food, but also as medicine and for spiritual purposes, including discouraging certain undesirable behaviour in children. Our observations indicate that some species of Auricularia, Cookeina, Cyathus, Favolus, Lentinus, Pleurocybella, Schizophyllum and Termitomyces are consumed as food. Species of Lignosus, Pycnoporus, Lentinus and Daldinia are used to treat various ailments or health related conditions. A species of Amauroderma is used to prevent fits while a species of Xylaria is used to stop bed-wetting in children. ( View PDF )

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Rice bran as an efficient substrate for laccase production from thermotolerant basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor strain RC3
Suitable substrates for laccase production by the thermotolerant basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor strain RC3 were screened using solid and liquid media. In liquid basal medium, 1%(w/v) rice bran as a carbon source was found to be the most efficient substrate for laccase production compared to 1%(w/v) glucose, wheat bran and rice straw meal. After 15 days cultivation at 37°C in shake flask culture, the extracellular laccase activity was found to be 0.22U/ml with rice bran, while 0.09, 0.01 and 0.01U/ml were obtained from wheat bran, glucose and rice straw meal, respectively. The optimum concentration of rice bran was 1%(w/v). Comparison of laccase production on three different selected solid substrates including rubber wood meal (Heavea sp.), Hang nok yoong wood meal (Delonix regia) and rice bran, were carried out using 5g of solid substrate supplemented with 15ml of distilled water and cultivated at 37°C in the dark for 30 days. Laccase production from C. versicolor strain RC3 was 1.98, 0.06 and 0.07U/g substrate from rice bran, rubber wood meal and Hang nok yoong wood meal, respectively. The highest laccase productivity with rice bran in liquid medium was 22U/g substrate at 15 days cultivation. This was 11 times higher than the maximum activity obtained at 30 days on solid substrate cultivation. ( View PDF )

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Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands. 8. Agaricaceae: Coprinus and Podaxis Psathyrellaceae: Coprinopsis, Coprinellus and Parasola
Twenty-nine species belonging to the genera Coprinus and Podaxis (Agaricaceae) and Coprinopsis, Coprinellus, and Parasola (Psathyrellaceae) are reported from the Hawaiian Islands. These species represent a polyphyletic assemblage of dark-spored, saprotrophic taxa comprising the traditional genus Coprinus and the genus Podaxis which is considered a secotioid ally of Coprinus. The collections were obtained from a variety of habitats ranging from sandy soils to woodchip piles, lawns and pastures, ungulate dung, herbaceous debris, and fallen logs in alien and native mesic forests. Coprinopsis urticicola var. hawaiiensis is described as new, Coprinus candidolanatus is transferred to Coprinopsis, and two additional species are provisionally described in Coprinopsis. Multiple specimens representing the Coprinus cordisporus complex were analyzed using morphological and ITS sequence datasets to investigate relationships within the group. All taxa are described, illustrated, and compared with phenetically similar taxa. An artificial dichotomous key to aid in determining Hawaiian coprinoid species is presented. ( View PDF )

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Nematicidal effect of freshwater fungal cultures against the pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Twenty-two filtrates and 13 water-soluble extracts of broken fungal mycelia from 130 freshwater fungal cultures were found to be pathogenic to the pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus following 48 hours exposure in vitro screening. The mobility of over 90% of nematodes were inhibited by filtrates from Ophioceras commune (97.18%), Pseudohalonectria adversaria (96.49%), Pseudohalonectria lignicola (96.15%), Massarina thalassioidea (93.2%), Caryospora callicarpa (95.2%) and Annulatascus sp. (96.12%) and the mycelia extracts from Helicomyces roseus (98.95%), Phomatospora berkeleyi (94.96%) and Pseudohalonectria lignicola (95.59%). Aliphatic extracts of four freshwater fungal solid state fermentation products were found to immobilize over 50% of nematodes within a 12 hour exposure period at a concentration of 40 mg/mL. It was also observed that the aliphatic extracts of Pseudohalonectria adversaria, Xylaria sp. and Hyphomycete sp. were nematicidal, whereas Massarina bipolaris, Caryospora callicarpa and an unidentified strain were found to be narcotic in nature because nematodes revived when they were transferred to sterilized water. When screening for nematicidal activities it is important to use approximate neutral and saline environments similar to the natural habitats of the test nematodes, as nematodes can be affected by extreme pH and high osmotic pressure. ( View PDF )

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Identification and pathogenicity of Graphium and Pesotum species from machete wounds on Schizolobium parahybum in Ecuador
Schizolobium parahybum is native to Ecuador and is widely distributed throughout South America. This tree has ideal timber properties and is a favored species for plantation development. Schizolobium parahybum trees, however, suffer from a serious disease that causes substantial losses to plantations in Ecuador. Most diseased trees have been regularly wounded with machetes and it has been suggested that these wounds might provide entry portals for pathogens. To determine the possible role that fungi associated with machete wounds might play in disease development, wood samples were taken from these wounds and screened for possible pathogens. A number of potential pathogens were identified, including Ceratocystis fimbriata, C. moniliformis, Graphium spp. and Pesotum spp. The objective of this study was to identify the twenty-one synnematous Hyphomycetes, from wounds on S. parahybum, using small subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data from the ribosomal RNA operon. We also investigated the possible role of these species in disease development in a greenhouse inoculation trail. Results showed that fifteen isolates reside in the Graphium penicillioides complex (Order: Microascales). Four isolates resided in the Ophiostomatales and represent the Pesotum anamorph of Ophiostoma quercus. The remaining two isolates were unidentified Pesotum anamorphs of Ophiostoma. None of the three species produced significant lesions in a greenhouse inoculation trail and we do not consider them pathogens of S. parahybum. ( View PDF )

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Morphological diversity in the hyphopores of Gomphillaceae (Ostroplaes, lichenized Ascomycetes)
Hyphophores are highly specialized conidia-producing structures characteristic of the Gomphillaceae. In this paper the high diversity and variability of these structures is evaluated. New setiform hyphophores of unidentified species of the genera Calenia, Echinoplaca and Tricharia are described. A new grouping is proposed, based on the external morphology and the possible ontogeny of these conidiomata. ( View PDF )

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A new type of conidial septal pore in fungi
A new type of conidial septal pore is illustrated for the first time with transmission electron microscopy. Under the light microscope, conidia of all species of Canalisporium, and some species of Acrodictys and Cancellidium possess thick eusepta with dark brown, barrel-shaped thickenings embedded in the septa surrounding the septal pores. Similar pores are found in conidial distosepta in some species of Ellisembiai. These barrel-shaped thickenings superficially resemble the dolipore septa of basidiomycetes. The barrel-shaped thickenings of selected species have been examined at the transmission electron microscopic level and these thickenings are shown to be composed of electron-dense materials deposited within the septal wall layer. The centre of the thickenings are hollow forming septal pores.
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Thermotolerant wood rotting fungi isolated from northern Thailand and their potential uses in lignin degrading applications
One hundred and thirteen wood rotting taxa were isolated from northern Thailand. The isolate C. versicolor RC3 exhibited highly active growth at 37ºC among 10 thermotolerant isolates including of strains ST40, TP7, TP16, NP14, NP18, NP21, NP26, NP27, 7M and C. versicolor strain RC3. Isolate RC3 was found to be Coriolus versicolor which degraded Poly R-478 dye at 42ºC. Comparative growth studies on potato dextrose agar revealed that C. versicolor strain RC3 had almost the same growth rate as Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 34541 at 37 and 42ºC, while C. versicolor IFO30388 did not. When cultivated in the liquid basal medium containing 0.02% Poly R-478 dye at 37ºC with 150 rpm shaking, C. versicolor strain RC3 degraded Poly R-478 dye completely within 5 days. This is more active than the well-researched lignin degrading white rot fungus, P. chrysosporium. Addition of 1%(w/v) glucose and 0.2%(w/v) NH4NO3 to the medium enhanced dye degradation. Coriolus versicolor strain RC3 removed the brown colour from rubber wood chips which changed the lightness from 37.05 to 46.07 of L* value without nutrients. This effect was not found in nutrient rich condition. ( View PDF )

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Temporal variation in endophyte assemblages of Plumeria rubra leaves
The temporal pattern of endophyte infection in the leaves of Plumeria rubra, a tropical deciduous tree, was studied by sampling the leaves of an individual tree for a period of one year. Endophytes could be isolated from the leaves throughout the study period. Older leaves were more densely colonised than the younger leaves. Hyphomycetes dominated the endophyte assemblage of the younger leaves, while the older leaves harboured more coelomycetes. This study indicates that there is temporal variation of endophyte assemblages in leaves of some tropical plant hosts.
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Biodiversity of fungi on submerged wood in a stream and estuary in the Tai Ho Bay, Hong Kong
Decaying wood was collected from a stream and estuary in Tai Ho Bay, and was investigated for the biodiversity of saprobic fungi. Fifty-five taxa, including 33 ascomycetes and 22 anamorphic fungi were recorded. The common taxa were Aniptodera chesapeakensis, Ascosalsum unicaudata, Lignincola laevis, Lophiostoma bipolare and Neptunella longirostris. Fungal species composition differed greatly between the two sites: the freshwater stream that flowed into the sea and the other, an estuarine region located at the stream mouth that incorporated mangrove vegetation. The biodiversity of freshwater fungi and mangrove fungi from these sites is compared with previous studies. Interesting taxa, i.e. Aniptodera haispora, Ascosalsum unicaudata, Nemania cf. maritima and Pseudohalonectria longirostrum are discussed and illustrated. ( View PDF )

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Bothriochloa, Capillipedium and Dichanthium (Poaceae)
Two NEW SPECIES proposed are: Sporisorium dichanthii Vánky & N.D. Sharma (type on Dichanthium aristatum, India), and S. rubyanum Vánky & N.D. Sharma (type on Capillipedium assimile, India). Eight NEW COMBINATIONS are: Macalpinomyces bothriochloae (L. Ling) Vánky (based on Ustilago bothriochloae, type on Bothriochloa pertusa, China) Sporisorium bothriochloae (L. Ling) Vánky (based on Sorosporium bothriochloae, type on Bothriochloa glabra, Malawi) Sporisorium dichanthicola (Mundkur & Thirum.) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca dichanthicola, type on Dichanthium caricosum, India) Sporisorium dinteri (H. & P. Sydow) Vánky (based on Ustilago dinteri, type Andropogon papillosus, Namibia) Sporisorium reticulatum (B. Liu, Z.Y. Li & Du) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca reticulata, type Bothriochloa ischaemum, China) Sporisorium sahayai (Mundkur) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca sahayai, type on Dichanthium annulatum, India) Sporisorium superfluum (H. & P. Sydow) Vánky (based on Ustilago superflua, type Andropogon foveolatus, India), and Sporisorium tenue (H. & P. Sydow) Vánky (based on Ustilago tenuis, type Andropogon pertusus, India). The following thirteen names are considered to be SYNONYMS: Sphacelotheca chloridis Mundkur (type on Bothriochloa pertusa, India), Ustilago bothriochloae-intermediae Padwick (type on Bothriochloa intermedia, India) and Sorosporium baluchistani Ahmad (type on Bothriochloa sp., Pakistan) are Sporisorium andropogonis (Opiz) Vánky (type on Dichanthium ischaemum, Czech Rep.) Schroeteria annulata Ellis & Everh., Ustilago duthiei Ricker, Ustilago amphilophidis Zundel, and Ustilago sabourieana Mishra (all on Dichanthium annulatum from India) represent Sporisorium andropogonis-annulati (Bref.) S.R. Wang & M. Piepenbr. (type on Dichanthium annulatum, India) Sorosporium andropogonis-micranthi Y. Ling & T.L. Chen (type on Capillipedium parviflorum, China), Sphacelotheca capillipedii L. Ling (type on Capillipedium parviflorum China), and Sphacelotheca pakistanica S. Ahmad (type on Capillipedium parviflorum, Pakistan) are synonyms of Sporisorium doidgeae (Zundel) Langdon & Fullerton (lectotype on Bothriochloa bladhii, South Africa) Sphacelotheca amphilophis H. Sydow (type on Bothriochloa insculpta, South Africa), Sphacelotheca bothriochloae Zundel (type on Bothriochloa decipiens, Australia), and Sphacelotheca macalpinae Zundel (type on Bothriochloa bladhii, Australia) represent Sporisorium tenue (H. & P. Sydow) Vánky (type on Bothriochloa pertusa India). A host-parasite list and a key facilitate the identification of the 19 species of smut fungi now recognised on the grass genera Bothriochloa, Capillipedium and Dichanthium. ( View PDF )

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Pestalotiopsis kunmingensis sp. nov., an endophyte from Podocarpus macrophyllus
A study on the fungal diversity of Pestalotiopsis species occurring on Podocarpaceae yielded an unknown species, which is described here as Pestalotiopsis kunmingensis. This species that occurs as an endophyte, was isolated from Podocarpus macrophyllus. It shares similar morphological characters to other Pestalotiopsis species, but possesses long apical appendages that are knobbed (spathulate) at the tip, a single branched basal appendage and versicolorous median cells. ( View PDF )

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Pseudolachnella vermospora sp. nov. from Yushania vigens in China
This paper describes and illustrates Pseudolachnella vermospora sp. nov., from living culms of Yushania vigens, and the new taxon is compared with similar species. A synopsis and diagrams of all accepted species of Pseudolachnella are provided.
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Ophiostoma and Ceratocystiopsis spp. associated with two pine-infesting bark beetles in Chile
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are common vectors of Ophiostoma spp., which include primary tree pathogens as well as important agents of sapstain. In Chile, Hylurgus ligniperda and Hylastes ater, which are native to Europe, commonly occur on the exotic Pinus radiata. Little research has been done on Ophiostoma spp. associated with bark beetles in Chile and especially those carried by introduced pine-infesting insects. We recently collected specimens of these bark beetles and their galleries, and the aim of this study was to isolate and identify Ophiostoma spp. associated with the two bark beetle species. Identification was achieved using morphological characteristics and where appropriate, DNA sequencing. A total of five ophiostomatoid fungi (Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Ophiostoma galeiformis, O. huntii, O. ips, and O. quercus) were found associated with the bark beetles, all of which are recorded from Chile for the first time. ( View PDF )



Unexpected ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence variation within Erysiphe aquilegiae sensu lato
Erysiphe aquilegiae sensu lato is the most commonly occurring powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphales: Ascomycota) on the Ranunculaceae. Based on morphological characters, different authors have proposed the segregation of Erysiphe aquilegiae into two varieties or species. To determine if a genetic basis exists for these two taxa, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions of 26 specimens from five host genera, were compared by RFLP's and sequencing. The results failed to separate the two taxa, but revealed a third host-specialised taxon on Delphinium. Phylogenetic analysis revealed E. aquilegiae to be more closely related to Oidium lycopersici and E. macleayae than to the undescribed species on Delphinium (View PDF)

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Aquatic zoosporic fungi from baited spores of cryptogams
Zoosporic fungi on spore baits of 24 taxa of cryptogams from three water bodies were investigated. A total of 61 zoosporic fungal taxa were noted, with predominance of the Chytridiales (27) and Peronosporales (14) species. The largest number of species (46) was recorded in the stagnant water at Dojlidy pond, with fewer (31) from Suprasl River and 34 species from Jaroszówka spring. Five species of Pythium were recorded for the first time from Poland. (View PDF)

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Lactarius (Russulaceae) in Kumaon Himalaya.
1. New species of subgenus Russularia
Three new species of Lactarius (L. sanjappae, L. mukteswaricus and L. verbekenae) are described based on collections made in India. Illustrations of their macro- and microscopic features and data on their ecological distribution are presented. (View PDF)

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Evaluation of microfungi for the biological control of water hyacinth in Egypt
Twenty-two fungal species were isolated from surface sterilized water hyacinth parts with pronounced blight syndrome. The most common species were Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiiensis and Ulocladium atrum. The patterns of fungal abundance were influenced positively by changes in conductivity (EC) and negatively by pH and temperature (TE). As a result of a pathogenicity test, and on the basis of disease severity, the pathogenic species were divided into mildly, low moderately, high moderately and severely damaging species. Of these species only Al. alternata, (associated with 79% tissue death), D. hawaiiensis (78%) and U. atrum (70%) showed high disease severity. Because Al. alternata, was reported as a plurivorus species with several pathotypes, D. hawaiiensis and U. atrum were selected for further study. Formulation and daily spraying of water permitted conidial germination and infection by these species in the field. Both treatments gave similar results. Disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) increased with increasing incubation period up to 30 days of incubation. Simultaneously, the chlorophyll content decreased in the infected leaves compared to healthy ones. Both DI and DS decreased after 30 days incubation indicating that it is not efficient to use D. hawaiiensis and U. atrum either separately or in a mixed formulation as biocontrol agents. (View PDF)

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Genetic variation of Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus isolated from Pinus tabulaeformis as determined by random amplified microsatellites (RAMS)
Genetic variation of 112 isolates of Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus isolated from Pinus tabulaeformis, was carried out using two RAMS primers (CCA and CGA). All 1273 bands produced were clear and reproducible and ranged from 200 to 2000 base pairs. Analysis of the two primers revealed a high level of genetic diversity (H' = 2.79) among the 112 isolates tested. A total of 20 markers were scored. Two markers were present in all isolates, while the other 18 (90%) markers occurred in combinations of 105 (93.8%) different genotypes among the 112 isolates. Genetic similarity coefficients between pairwise isolates varied from 0.3 to 1 based on an unweighted paired group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. There was no relationship between fungal genotypes and host tissue ages, and the endophytic fungus A. alternata appears to have the potential to evolve relatively quickly and maintain significant genetic variation. (View PDF)

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Fungal spores in rainwater: stemflow, throughfall and gutter conidial assemblages
Rainwater from live trees and a gutter were collected in Hungary from June 2002 through to January 2003 and analysed for fungal spores. The total number of species was 71. Conidia of 63 species were identified in stemflow and throughfall samples collected from 13 trees. The majority of the species were hyphomycetous and 3 species belonged to coelomycetous anamorphs. The number of species per tree ranged from 5 to 25. The most species were found in a throughfall sample collected from Taxus baccata in October. In situ sporulation of some corticolous and foliicolous species were observed. Conidia of 25 species were detected in rainwater from a gutter. The definitive majority of the spores, both from trees and a gutter, belonged to the species which are primarily known as terrestrial litter inhabiting fungi. Camposporium pellucidum, Diplocladiella scalaroides, Lateriramulosa uni-inflata, Trinacrium spp. and Tripospermum myrti considered to be rare species in streams, were widely distributed in rainwater from live trees in urban environment. The species and conidial numbers of the common aquatic hyphomycetes in rainwater either from trees or a gutter were low. The exception was Tetracladium marchalianum of which conidial number in rainwater in a gutter was much higher than it has ever been observed in stream habitats. (View PDF)

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Ultrastructure of the asci and ascospores of Torrentispora fibrosa
The ascus apex and ascospores of Torrentispora fibrosa are illustrated at the ultrastructure level. Torrentispora fibrosa is typical of the Annulatascaceae in having asci with a bilamellate wall and a bipartite apical ring with a plug. The ascospores differ from species of other genera in the family in being thick-walled and lacking verrucose wall ornamentations. (View PDF)

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Freshwater fungi in Lake Dianchi, a heavily polluted lake in Yunnan, China
Freshwater fungi on submerged woody substrates and grasses were investigated in Lake Dianchi, a highly polluted lake in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. One hundred submerged woody substrates were collected from this lake every three months and examined for fungi to investigate seasonal variation. A total of 97 fungi were recorded, including 56 ascomycetes and 41 anamorphic fungi. The occurrence of these fungi was recorded and the Shannon-Weiner index (H´) was used to evaluate the fungal diversity. The results showed that the variation among the four seasonal collections were insignificant. The diversity indices (H´) at the four season collections varied from 3.155 to 3.681. The fungal community on woody substrates from Lake Dianchi is compared with that from Lake Fuxian during the same season and differences were apparent (similarity index = 0.337). The diversity was higher in Lake Fuxian (H´ = 3.808) than in Lake Dianchi (H´ = 3.368) and this may be related to riparian vegetation and pollution. The effects of pollution on freshwater fungal communities are discussed. One hundred submerged samples each of three monocotyledon species (Phragmites australis, Pennisetum purpurreum and a bamboo species) were collected from Lake Dianchi and examined for fungi. The communities on each grass species are compared and discussed in relation to host-specificity. (View PDF)

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New species and mating system reports in Gymnopus (Agaricales) from Costa Rica
Three new species of Gymnopus are described from material collected recently in Costa Rica. Gymnopus cylindricus and G. alnicolus are placed in sect. Vestipedes. A self-cross of the new morphospecies G. pseudolodgeae revealed a unifactorial mating system. The same result was obtained in the taxonomically related G. lodgeae and G. omphalodes. Gymnopus omphalodes is proposed as a new combination. A single biological species is reported for G. omphalodes in central and southern Costa Rica. (View PDF)

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Are some endophytes of Musa acuminata latent pathogens?
Fungi isolated as endophytes from wild banana (Musa acuminata) were tested in order to ascertain whether they are capable of causing disease symptoms in healthy banana leaves. The endophytes Cladosporium musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cordana musae, Deightoniella torulosa, Guignardia cocoicola, Periconiella musae and Pestalotiopsis sp. were inoculated on banana leaves in vitro to test their pathogenicity. Only Deightoniella torulosa was able to cause leaf spots on banana leaves in vitro. This result confirms earlier reports that fungal pathogens may be latent in their host long before the outbreak of disease symptoms. (View PDF)

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First records of protostelids from northern India
Twelve species of protostelids were isolated from samples of aerial litter and ground litter collected from three study sites in the Himalayan Mountains of northern India. Samples of aerial litter yielded seven species, and nine species were recovered from samples of ground litter. Four species were recorded from both types of litter. Schizoplasmodiopsis pseudoendospora was the single most widely distributed species and was recorded from both types of litter and at all three study sites. (View PDF)

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Two new species of Ustilaginomycetes on Chrysopogon fallax from Australia
Sporisorium fallax sp. nov. (Ustilaginaceae, Ustilaginomycetes) is described and illustrated from inflorescences of Chrysopogon fallax collected in the Northern Territory, Australia. Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences confirmed S. fallax to be distinct from two morphologically similar species, S. tumefaciens and S. tumiforme, on C. fallax. Macalpinomyces tubiformis sp. nov. (Ustilaginaceae, Ustilaginomycetes) is described and illustrated from ovaries of Chrysopogon fallax collected in Queensland, Australia. (View PDF)

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Some interesting species of Asterina from Guangdong, China
Five species of the genus Asterina from Guangdong Province (China) are reported in this paper. Among them Asterina elaeocarpicola, A. garciniae, and A. nodosa are new to China, and Asterina tetracericola is described and illustrated as a new species. (View PDF)

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Boutelouinae (Poaceae)
Fourteen species of smut fungi are recognised on the grass subtribe Boutelouinae. Detailed descriptions and synonyms with authors and place of publication are given for all recognised species. Each species is illustrated by line drawings of the habit and in many cases also of enlarged sori, as well as by LM and SEM pictures of the spores. New species described: Ustilago subminor Vánky. The following three names are considered to be new synonyms of Macalpinomyces spermophorus: Ustilago boutelouae Kellerman & Swingle, U. convertere-sexualis Durán, and U. pueblaensis Durán. A further seven synonymies, established by different authors, are confirmed. Lectotypes are designated for Ustilago boutelouae-humilis Bref., U. hieronymi Schröter (= U. buchloës Ellis & Tracy), U. calcara Griffiths, and U. hilariae Ellis & Tracy (= U. vilfae G. Winter). A key to the species and a host-parasite list are provided to facilitate the identification of the smut fungi of Boutelouinae. (View PDF)

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Muhlenbergia (Poaceae)
Sixteen species of smut fungi are recognised on the grass genus Muhlenbergia. Detailed descriptions and synonyms with authors and place of publication are given for all recognised species. Each species is illustrated by line drawings of the habit and by LM and SEM pictures of the spores. The name Ustilago muhlenbergiae Henn. var. tucumanensis Hirschh. [U. tucumanensis (Hirschh.) Zundel] is considered to be synonym of U. mexicana Ellis & Earle. A further five synonymies, established by G.W. Fischer, are confirmed. A key to the species and a host-parasite list are provided to facilitate the identification of the smut fungi of Muhlenbergia. (View PDF)

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A new species of genus Pseudoclathrus from Yunnan, China
Pseudoclathrus yunnanensis sp. nov. found on the ground in Xiaobailong forest in the suburbs of Kunming, Yunnan province, China is described, illustrated and compared with similar taxa. A key to species of Pseudoclathrus is provided.(View PDF)


Marine hyphomycetes of Thailand and Cumulospora varia sp. nov.
Marine hyphomycetes collected in Thailand are listed and discussed, with the description of a new species, Cumulospora varia was found in several areas of Thailand is described and compared with C. marina. ( View PDF )

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Neotropical pyrenomycetes: Porosphaerella borinquensis sp. nov. and its Pseudobotrytis terrestris anamorph
Porosphaerella borinquensis is described and its connection to Pseudobotrytis terrestris is established in vitro. Its relationships at the generic and familial level are discussed. It is similar to Porosphaerella cordanophora in ascomatal and ascospore morphologies, although somewhat smaller. In both species the anamorphs have conidiogenous loci resembling spinules and pigmented, one-septate, ellipsoid to oblong conidia. Pseudobotrytis terrestris differs from Cordana pauciseptata by having conidiophores arranged in an umbellate fashion. Although the data are not shown here, nuclear large sub-unit ribosomal DNA from both P. borinquensis and P. cordanophora support their generic affinities. Other work has shown that Porosphaerella appears to have affinities to the Coniochaetales. ( View PDF )

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Distribution of fungi on wood in the Tutong River, Brunei
Five sites along the Tutong river and its tributary, the Sungai Kelakas, were sampled for fungi on decaying wood. Sixty-six taxa were found including two new genera and two new species. Nearly half of these (48%) are new records for Brunei. Although common taxa were generally not unique to any particular site, species distributions were correlated to the salinity gradient. These findings are consistent with previous studies showing that some marine fungi are tolerant to less saline conditions and that some freshwater species are tolerant to more saline conditions. Some species could be potentially classified as brackish water species. The ratio of ascomycetes to anamorphic fungi was higher in marine than freshwater sites. A checklist of fungi found in aquatic habitats in Brunei is included. ( View PDF )

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Phylogenetic evaluation of species nomenclature of Pestalotiopsis in relation to host association
DNA data from a number of Pestalotiopsis isolates were analysed to investigate whether isolates from the same host are phylogenetically related. The validity of naming species of Pestalotiopsis based on host association was investigated. Regions of the ITS and 5.8S of the rDNA gene were amplified from genomic DNA using PCR. DNA characters were analysed using maximum parsimony (weighted and unweighted) and maximum likelihood criteria. Isolates from the same host were not phylogenetically closely related. A close phylogenetic relationship between isolates possessing similar morphological characters was apparent. Results indicate that the naming of species based on host association is unwise and dispute the assumption that species are host-specific. When new Pestalotiopsis species are described, morphological characters should be taken into account rather than host association. The implications of the results on fungal biodiversity studies are discussed. ( View PDF )

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Some cercosporoid hyphomycetes from Taiwan, including a new species of Stenella and new reports of Distocercospora pachyderma and Phacellium paspali
A cercosporoid hyphomycete parasitic on Itea parviflora in Taiwan is described as the new species Stenella iteae. The grass-parasitic hyphomycete Phacellium paspali is for the first time reported for Asia from the new host plant Setaria palmifolia. Distocercospora pachyderma on Dioscorea sp. is for the first time reported for Taiwan. New details of the morphology of these fungi are given. Pseudocercospora clematidis is transferred to Pseudocercosporella. Additional five species of cercosporoid fungi from our collections in Taiwan are listed. ( View PDF )

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Biodiversity and tissue-recurrence of endophytic fungi in Tripterygium wilfordii
A total of 343 endophytic fungal isolates representing 60 taxa including 30 morphotypes were isolated from the different parts of the Chinese medicinal plant, Tripterygium wilfordii. In most cases fungal strains were only identified to genus because species identification was difficult in these speciose genera. Non-sporulating isolates were designated as Morphotypes 1 to 30. The endophytic assemblages of T. wilfordii comprised a number of cosmopolitan species such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Guignardia sp., Glomerella cingulata, Pestalotiopsis spp., Phomopsis spp. and Phyllosticta sp. The overall fungal community of T. wilfordii was moderately diverse. The fungal community from the twig xylem parts was most diverse, followed by leaves, twig bark, root xylem and flowers. Pestalotiopsis cruenta, Phomopsis sp. B and Phomopsis sp. A were predominantly isolated from the twig xylem and bark. These endophytes were not isolated from the roots, leaves and flowers. Likewise, Glomerella cingulata and Guignardia sp. were predominantly isolated in leaves. Phialophora sp. was isolated only in root xylem. In contrast, Pestalotiopsis disseminata was isolated from all the tissues except root bark. Morphotype sp. 1 was isolated from twig and root segments. Interestingly, root bark only accommodated Morphotype sp. 1 and no other endophytic fungi were isolated from the organ. Pestalotiopsis spp. were frequently isolated as root endophytes in this study. The species composition and frequency of endophyte species was found to be dependent on the tissue type. The dominant fungi isolated from the different tissues of the host expressed a fair degree of tissue-recurrence.
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Diversity of saprobic hyphomycetes on Proteaceae and Restionaceae from South Africa
To assess the diversity of saprobic microfungi occurring on the Proteaceae and Restionaceae of the Western Cape province of South Africa, samples of leaf, stem, flowerhead and culm litter were collected from the year 2000 until the end of 2002. About 1 000 fungal collections were made, 117 of which were hyphomycetes, representing 66 species in 53 genera. Of these, 49 species were newly recorded from South Africa, and 64 occurred on previously unreported host substrates. The diversity of hyphomycetes on Proteaceae and Restionaceae is discussed, together with a list of the hyphomycetes. ( View PDF )

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Useful wild fungi of La Malinche National Park, Mexico
This study presents a list of 93 fungi species collected from La Malinche National Park, Tlaxcala, Mexico. The fungi were gathered mainly during the rainy seasons of 1988-2002. Of the species identified, 10 were Ascomycota, 82 Basidiomycota and one Myxomycota. This study provides information about the habitat, phenology and life forms of the species studied. Furthermore, an ethnobiological technique known as free listing was used to identify the most important species of fungi for 84 people living on the volcano called La Malinche. Boletus pinophilus was the species the respondents mentioned most frequently. No differences were observed between males and females in terms of the fungi they were familiar with. There were, however, some differences in the species mentioned by the people of Javier Mina and San Isidro Buensuceso, two towns on the slopes of La Malinche. ( View PDF )

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Two new species of Stachybotrys, and a key to the genus
Stachybotrys palmae sp. nov. found on decaying petioles of Licuala longicalycata in a peat swamp forest, Thailand, and S. cordylines sp. nov. found on decaying leaves of Cordyline banksii in New Zealand are described and illustrated. The new species are compared with other species in the genus, and a key is provided to all accepted species of Stachybotrys. A new name, S. thermotolerans, is proposed for S. ramosa Udaiyan, a later homonym of S. ramosa Dorai & Vittal. A list of accepted Stachybotrys species with references is provided. ( View PDF )

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New smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) from Mexico, and the genus Lundquistia
The genus Lundquistia is emended and widened. Twelve new species of smut fungi are described from Mexico: Lundquistia mexicana on Andropogon gerardii and Schizachyrium mexicanum, Entyloma aldamae on Aldama dentata, E. siegesbeckiae on Siegesbeckia orientalis, Jamesdicksonia festucae on Festuca tolucensis, Macalpinomyces tuberculatus on Bouteloua curtipendula, Sporisorium dacryoideum on Aristida adscensionis, S. ustilaginiforme on Muhlenbergia pulcherrima, Tilletia brefeldii on Muhlenbergia filiculmis, T. gigacellularis on Bouteloua filiformis, T. microtuberculata on Muhlenbergia pulcherrima, Ustilago circumdata on Muhlenbergia montana, and U. panici-virgati on Panicum virgatum. New combinations proposed: Lundquistia dieteliana, L. duranii and L. panici-leucophaei, with its three new synonyms, Ustilago bonariensis, Sorosporium lindmanii and L. fascicularis. ( View PDF )

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Pyrenomycetes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. I. Diatrype Fr. (Diatrypaceae)
Ten species of Diatrype are reported from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the eastern United States. Nine of these are new records for the Park and two (D. atlantica and D. montana) are described as new species. Descriptions and a key to all of the species of Diatrype now known from the Park are provided. ( View PDF )

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A redescription of Marasmius pellucidus, a species widespread in South Asia
Marasmius pellucidus is redescribed from analyses of type specimens and recently collected material from South Asia. It is illustrated and compared with numerous allied taxa from Africa and South America. Marasmius papyraceus and Cantharellus elegans are accepted as synonyms. ( View PDF )

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Molecular phylogeny of eastern Asian species of Amanita (Agaricales, Basidiomycota): taxonomic and biogeographic implications
The phylogenetic relationships, taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Amanita with emphasis on eastern Asian species were estimated using sequence data from both internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and large subunit (nLSU) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The separation of the two traditionally accepted subgenera was not well supported. Each section of Amanita, Vaginatae, Caesareae, Phalloideae, Validae and Amidella was supported as monophyletic by different methods of analysis and data sets of different regions. The monophyly of section Lepidella remained unclear. A few biogeographic and taxonomic implications were inferred: (1) few species of Amanita are widely distributed throughout eastern Asia, Europe and North America. Samples of some previously recognized disjunct species in the Northern Hemisphere were not monophyletic. Thus, the putative intercontinental disjunct distributions of these species were not supported in this study (2) biogeographic relationships between Amanita of eastern Asia and Europe are relatively close and several taxa are common to both regions, while paired or closely related species between eastern Asia and North America are relatively common, but rarely have been confirmed as disjunct populations of the same species by molecular data yet. A number of species of Amanita in North America labelled with names based on European materials should be regarded as distinct species (3) a few genetically cryptic species of Amanita in southwestern China need to be delimited and (4) variations in colour and morphology of the fruit bodies in A. parvipantherina from different localities should be interpreted as modifications of environment. ( View PDF )

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Cordyceps campsosterna, a new pathogen of Campsosternus auratus
A new species, Cordyceps campsosterna, infecting adult and nymphs of Campsosternus auratus which was collected from Gutian Nature Reserve in Huidong County, Guangdong Province, China is described and illustrated. The species can be distinguished from other species in the subgenus Eucordyceps by its greenish-yellow stromata with long rhizoids, vertically immersed perithecia and filiform ascospores with multisepta, breaking into 2.9-5.9 × 1 µm fragments. ( View PDF )

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Bird's nest fungi from China
Cyathus lijiangensis and C. renweii are species new to science reported in this paper. Crucibulum parvulum, Cyathus crassimurus, C. julietae and C. triplex are reported for the first time from China. The new species are illustrated and compared with similar species. ( View PDF )


Ascoyunnania aquatica gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater fungus collected from China and its microcylic conidiation
Ascoyunnania aquatica gen. et sp. nov. is introduced to accommodate a remarkable ascomycete species collected from submerged bamboo in a small stream in Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. This fungus is characterized by deeply immersed ostiolate ascomata, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate asci that lack an apical apparatus and ellipsoidal, unicellular, hyaline, guttulate ascospores that germinate to form dark brown to black, globose, tuberculate secondary spores. This species and its microcylic conidiation are illustrated and described in this paper. The ecological role of the microcylic conidiation, and the taxonomic affinity of A. aquatica are discussed.

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A new bioluminescent agaric from São Paulo, Brazil
A new species, Gerronema viridilucens, collected from the bark of living Eugenia fluminensis trees in the Atlantic Forest region of São Paulo, Brazil is described, illustrated, and compared with phenetically similar taxa. It represents the only known Gerronema species with bioluminescent properties and may represent an independent evolution of this trait amongst euagarics. ( View PDF )

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New species of Chaetosphaeria, Melanopsammella and Tainosphaeria gen. nov. from the Americas
Ten new species of Chaetosphaeria, and one new species of Melanopsammella are described from North temperate and tropical America. The new genus Tainosphaeria is also described and Chaetosphaeria capitata is reported from the Neotropics for the first time. Seven different, distinctive anamorphs are reported and connected to Chaetosphaeria teleomorphs. The morphological diversity in anamorphs of Chaetosphaeria and its phylogenetic significance is discussed. ( View PDF )

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Evidence of in situ competition between fungi in freshwater
Five species of fungi, isolated from submerged wood collected from a Brunei peat swamp forest, were tested for their competitive ability. Annulatascus velatisporus, Beverwykella pulmonaria, Dactylella sp., Monodictys pelagica and Pleurophragmium sp. were paired in all possible combinations on wood and agar in the laboratory. In addition, autoclaved wood blocks were inoculated with these isolates and placed back into water in the peat swamp forest. On agar, there was a competitive hierarchy of Dactylella sp. > Pleurophragmium sp. > A. velatisporus > B. pulmonaria > M. pelagica. In the inoculated blocks exposed in the peat swamp forest however, M. pelagica, A. velatisporus and B. pulmonaria were the only species to significantly reduce the colonisation of other fungi, showing a strong disparity between field and laboratory results. Laboratory studies on wood revealed that A. velatisporus reduced the reproductive capability of other fungi. This study demonstrates the influence of interspecific competition in fungal colonisation of submerged wood. ( View PDF )

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Diversity of wood-inhabiting polypores in temperate forest with different vegetation types in Japan
Species composition and diversity of wood-inhabiting polypores were examined in beech, Castanopsis, secondary oak, secondary pine, Japanese cedar, and Hinoki cypress forests situated in a temperate area of Japan. Cluster analysis of the polypore communities revealed a correlation between forest vegetation types and the species composition of polypores occurring in the forests. Diversity of polypores is high in beech forests compared with secondary forests and conifer plantations. There are several specific species to beech, Castanopsis, and secondary pine forests, respectively. Secondary oak forests are expected to act as refuge and corridors for many of the species dwelling in hardwood forests. ( View PDF )

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Podosphaera salatai sp. nov. (Erysiphales) from Georgia
Podosphaera salatai sp. nov., a new powdery mildew species on Cerasus incana (Rosaceae) in Georgia (Transcaucasia), is described, illustrated, compared with allied species and discussed. ( View PDF )

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Additions to the Brazilian Erysiphaceae: Ovulariopsis durantae sp. nov. and Streptopodium tabebuiae sp. nov.
Two new species of anamorphic powdery mildew from Brazil are described: Ovulariopsis durantae on Duranta erecta (Verbenaceae) and Streptopodium tabebuiae on Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniacaeae). Ovulariopsis durantae is compared with and discriminated from other Phyllactinia anamorphs with sinuous to spirally twisted conidiophore foot-cells. The outer wall surface patterns of its conidia are different to those presented as typical for subfamily Phyllactinioideae. Streptopodium tabebuiae can be easily discriminated from the five species of Pleochaeta known to have Streptopodium anamorphs and also from the two strictly anamorphic species of Streptopodium by the combination of two features: very long conidiophores and straight conidiophore foot-cells. ( View PDF )

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Arthrobotrys yunnanensis sp. nov., the fourth anamorph of Orbilia auricolor
TA new species of predacious fungi, Arthrobotrys yunnanensis, is described and illustrated as the fourth anamorph of Orbilia auricolor. The fungus produces simple, erect conidiophores with several short apical denticles. The conidia are nonseptate or occasionally uniseptate, elongate ellipsoid-cylindrical or slightly clavate. In aged cultures it forms spherical to ellipsoidal chlamydospores. In the presence of nematodes, the fungus forms three-dimensional adhesive networks. In this paper the known anamorphs connected to the genus Orbilia also are summarized. ( View PDF )

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Morphological and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species from herbaceous plants in Thailand
Thirty-four isolates of Colletotrichum spp. were isolated from banana, ginger, Euphatorium thymifolia, soybean, longan, mango and Draceana sanderiana. They included endophytes from healthy plants and probable pathogens from disease lesions. Isolates were identified and grouped based on colony morphology, and size and shape of appressoria and conidia. Molecular analysis based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), indicated that the Colletotrichum isolates comprised four clades that paralleled the morphological groupings. Most isolates clustered within three distinct clades which potentially represented different species. Endophytes isolated from different hosts are more likely to be the same species. Colletotrichum musae was positioned close to the C. gloeosporioides clades. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum pathogens and endophytes showed that endophytic isolates were most similar to C. gloeosporioides however, no pathogenic isolates clustered with endophytic isolates. The correlation between morphological and molecular-based clustering demonstrated the genetic relationships among the isolates and species of Colletotrichum and indicated that ITS rDNA sequence data were potentially useful in taxonomic species determination. ( View PDF )

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Viability and biodiversity of freshwater hyphomycetes in foam at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife-Sanctuary, Songkhla, southern Thailand
A survey of freshwater hyphomycetes was conducted at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife-Sanctuary, Songkhla, Thailand. The viability of aquatic hyphomycetes trapped in fresh and old foam was estimated using tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining. Percentages of conidia with at least one viable cell was in the range of 44-77% and 42-69% in fresh and old foam, respectively. Viability of conidia in fresh and old foam was not significantly different at (P>0.05). Anguillospora sp., Helicomyces sp., Thozetella sp. and Volutella sp. were tested for their viability under laboratory conditions. The conidial viability after aeration in water remained at 83-88%, after seven days. However only 3-45% remained viable after drying for 10 hours. Sixty-two fungi were recorded during this study, including 48 species in 34 genera and 14 unidentified taxa. ( View PDF )

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Cordana versicolor sp. nov. (dematiaceous hyphomycete) causing leaf-spot on Canna denudata (Cannaceae) in Brazil, with observations on Cordana musae
Cordana versicolor, a new dematiaceous anamorphic fungus, was found in Brazil associated with leaf spots on the herbaceous ornamental Canna denudata. It differs morphologically from related species and is the first species in the genus proven to be pathogenic to a member of the Cannaceae. It produces boxing-glove-shaped appressoria apically on germ tubes. A related species, C. musae pathogenic on banana, produces ampulliform appressoria. Taxonomic significance of such distinct structures have not been previously considered for this genus. ( View PDF )

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Sporal characters in Gomphales and their significance for phylogenetics
Traditionally, sporal characters, such as color, shape and ornamentation, have been important in differentiating the various genera within the Gomphales. In some instances, however, no precise analyses have been made that would allow us to build primary homologies between these and other spore features. For this study, the characteristics of the basidiospores of 14 taxa of Gomphales were examined, using both photonic and electronic microscopy. These examinations clearly demonstrated that spore ornamentation is a very variable character and data, such as the base shape of the spore and the hilar appendix, previously not considered in the taxonomy of this group, can be very informative at this level. ( View PDF )

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The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Chrysopogon (Poaceae)
Description of the ten recognised species of smut fungi of Chrysopogon is given. A host-parasite list and a key facilitate the identification of these species. One new species is proposed: Sporisorium tumiforme Vánky & R.G. Shivas (type on Chrysopogon pallidus, Australia). Two new combinations are: Sporisorium azmatii (Mundk.) Vánky (based on Sorosporium azmatii, type on Chrysopogon coeruleus, India), and Sporisorium chrysopogonis-grylli (Thirum. & Pavgi) Vánky (based on Sphacelotheca chrysopogonis-grylli, type on Chrysopogon gryllus, India). A lectotype is designated for Sorosporium tumefaciens McAlpine (= Sporisorium tumefaciens). ( View PDF )

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Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on a fallow enriching tree (Macaranga denticulata)
Macaranga denticulata is a fallow enriching species that is important in upland agriculture in parts of northern Thailand. The root zone of this tree supports a high biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and it has been postulated that these are important for Macaranga to rapidly establish in disturbed fields. To evaluate this, seedlings were inoculated with spores of AM fungi (Glomus spp., G. fasciculatum, Acaulospora spp. and mixed species of AM fungi) collected from the field, and then grown without P fertilizer. Growth of the host was compared with plants grown concurrently at six rates of phosphorus application (0 to150 mg P/kg soil). The experiments were conducted in pots containing 5 kg sterilized soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased height and plant dry weight. Dry weights of M. denticulata inoculated with Acaulospora spp. or mixed species of AM fungi were equivalent to uninoculated plants given 150 mg P/kg soil, whereas plants inoculated with Glomus spp and G. fasciculatum were similar to those with 25 mg P/kg soil. Nutrient contents of plant inoculated with Acaulospora spp. and mixed species of AM fungi were higher than plants inoculated with Glomus spp and G. fasciculatum. Root colonization of plants inoculated with Acaulospora spp. and mixed species of AM fungi was not significantly different, and was higher than other inoculated treatments. These experiments have shown that M. denticulata is dependent on AM fungi for rapid growth in a low P soil. Acaulospora morrowiae appeared to be the dominant species sporulating in root zones of plants inoculated with either Acaulospora spp. or mixed species of AM fungi. Further work is required to identify the most effective AM species for M. denticulata since the abundance of AM spores in the root zone may not be directly related to the effectiveness of root colonization in nutrient uptake of the tree. ( View PDF )

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A review of Cirrenalia (hyphomycetes) and a new species
A new helicosporous hyphomycete, Cirrenalia longipes, collected from dead wood in Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by dark-brown to black conidia with long multi-septate basal filaments, which usually separate from the conidial body. The differences with other species in Cirrenalia are discussed. Three species of Cirrenalia, C. donnae, C. macrocephala and C. nigrospora are new to China. Characteristics of 16 Cirrenalia species are tabulated. ( View PDF )

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Re-disposition of specimens filed under Lachnea in HMAS
Collections of Lachnea deposited in HMAS were re-examined. Fourteen taxa belonging to 6 genera were found. Among them, Melastiza daliensis, Scutellinia adamdiopsis, S. beijingensis, and S. kerguelensis var. microspora are described as new taxa. Scutellinia ahmadii is recorded for the first from China. ( View PDF )


Phylogenetic evaluation and taxonomic revision of Schizothecium based on ribosomal DNA and protein coding genes.
The taxonomy of Schizothecium and Podospora has been a subject of debate. Both of these genera have previously been treated as congeneric due to the lack of distinguishing morphological characters. This study focuses mainly on the phylogenetic relationships of Schizothecium and Podospora, and also a re-evaluation of the taxonomic significance of morphological characters. Multiple gene sequences (partial 28S rDNA, ITS/5.8S rDNA and partial ß-tubulin) were analysed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In all analyses, Schizothecium species characterised by perithecia adorned with swollen agglutinated hairs or prominent protruding peridial cells, grouped in a strongly supported monophyletic clade. Schizothecium should therefore, be given appropriate generic status and not treated as congeneric to Podospora. Phylogenetic analyses provide good support indicating that ascomatal morphologies are more phylogenetically informative than ascospore characters and host or habitat association. A synopsis of and key to Schizothecium species now recognised in the genus are given. Podospora was found to be a polyphyletic genus, consisting of a group of morphologically heterogeneous and phylogenetically distant species. Preliminary data indicate that a complete revision of Podospora and related genera is necessary.

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Teleomorph-anamorph connections: Chaetosphaeria raciborskii and related species, and their Craspedodidymum-like anamorphs
Several Chaetosphaeria species were recognised as having a distinctive ascomal wall structure and scolecosporous ascospores. Specimens fitting this description were found repeatedly in many collecting localities in temperate and tropical areas and while assignment to the overall group was easy based on the unique ascomal wall cells, determining the actual number of species was more difficult. Taxa representing the diversity of this group were targeted for phylogenetic analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region of the large subunit nrDNA (ITS). Based on the molecular data, two monophyletic clades were found which correspond with the circumscription of two existing species, C. lapaziana and a new combination, C. ellisii. Two new species are recognised, one based on distinctive teleomorph morphology and one based on culture data. Chaetosphaeria raciborskii is regarded as polyphyletic and the name is used for tropical specimens with small-sized, long-setose ascomata. All the species have Craspedodidymum-like anamorphs in culture and two species additionally have a Chloridium-like synanamorph. All the species are described and illustrated. ( View PDF )

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Morphological and molecular characterisation of mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure culture
Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus luridus, Amanita muscaria and Hebeloma radicosum mycelia were isolated in pure culture and characterised by morphological and molecular methods. Molecular identification was performed by sequence analyses from the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. The phylogenetic affiliation of the isolated mycelia were evaluated by comparison of their ITS sequences with those deposited in the GenBank database. Pure cultures of isolates of the different fungal genera under investigation showed differences in growth rate, colony morphology and/or hyphal biometric characters. In contrast, the morphological characteristics of the mycelia of the three Boletus species were similar, but these species were distinguished by ITS data. Problems remain, however, in the affiliation of these ITS sequences with those of the B. edulis group that are currently deposited in public databases. ( View PDF )

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Biodiversity of saprobic microfungi asscociated with the infructescences of Protea species in South Africa
The biodiversity of the saprobic microfungi occurring in Protea infructescences (flowerheads) was investigated. A total of 28 fungal species including 14 ascomycetes and 14 anamorphic fungi were collected from 2000-2001. The mycoflora of the infructescences, especially the flowers, were found to differ totally from that of the bracts and other Protea tissues. This indicates their uniqueness as fungal micro-habitat. Furthermore, the majority of ascomycete species isolated from these flowers were characterised by having long ostiolar necks. This finding indicates that insects play a major role in the dispersal of the ascomycetes that occur on these infructescences, which is further corroborated by the unusually high number of insects that frequent these flowers. From these data it is clear that the saprobic fungal flora of Protea infructescences have a unique ecological role. However, the exact nature of this interaction will only become clear once further studies are conducted monitoring the individual components of this ecosystem. ( View PDF )

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Determining fungal diversity on Dendroctonus ponderosae and Ips pini affecting lodgepole pine using cultural and molecular methods
Several beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and their fungal associates cause severe damage to lodgepole pine in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The fungal diversity from the surface of two bark beetle species, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (mountain pine beetle) and Ips pini Say (pine engraver), was surveyed using cultural and molecular methods. Nine fungal taxa were recognised by morphological characterizations. All nine taxa were isolated from the mountain pine beetle whereas only seven of the nine taxa were isolated from the pine engraver. The identification was based on cultural morphology and high sequence similarities of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) region to sequences of known fungi. Fungal ITS regions were amplified from DNA directly extracted from the beetle surface. The PCR products were cloned and 250 clones were classified by their restriction pattern with HaeIII and RsaI. A total of 26 RFLP types were identified and subsequently sequenced. Among them, 15 RFLP types were identified as being present in mountain pine beetle and 14 were present in pine engraver. Sequence analysis of the RFLP types showed that 23 ascomycetes and 3 basidiomycetes were represented in the clone libraries, whereas the isolates from the cultural method represented 7 ascomycetes and 2 basidiomycetes. We found that yeast and non-staining filamentous Euascomycetes fungi were detected efficiently using a molecular approach, while the major sapstaining fungi and decay fungi were best detected using cultural methods ( View PDF )

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Preliminary Survey of Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes) from Jigongshan, China
Species of the Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae are reported for the first time from Jigongshan, Henan Province in the central area of China. Among them, three new species, Cosmospora henanensis, Hydropisphaera jigongshanica and Lanatonectria oblongispora, are described. Three species in Albonectria and Cosmospora are reported for the first time from China. ( View PDF )

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Aquatic hyphomycete diversity in streams of Northwest Portugal
This work examines the distribution of aquatic hyphomycetes in streams of the Northwest Portugal with different environmental conditions. Five sites are in the Ave River basin in an area with high population density, intensive agriculture and industrial activities. Other three sites are in the Cávado River basin and belong to the Peneda-Gerês National Park. Despite this survey has been conducted within a small area and during a short period of time, high aquatic hyphomycete species diversity was found. A total of 113 fungal taxa were identified at least at the generic level, of which ca. 90% were classified as aquatic hyphomycetes in the traditional sense. Several rare aquatic hyphomycete species were found, of these five are reported here for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula and seven are new records in Portugal. The highest species richness was found at the spring of the Este River - Ave River basin (77 taxa) and in streams at the National Park (40-58 taxa). A decline in the richness of aquatic hyphomycete species was found at polluted sites of the Ave River basin (23-29 taxa). The distribution of aquatic hyphomycete species by cluster analysis and CA ordination opposed polluted and non-polluted sites, suggesting that water chemistry was the main factor regulating the structure of aquatic hyphomycete communities. ( View PDF )

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New primers for detection of Smittium spp. (Trichomycetes, Zygomycota) in insect hosts
The distinctive thalli of trichomycetes can only be isolated from the larval stage of the host. There is a general lack of knowledge on the presence of trichomycetes in other developmental stages of their host. Two new primers, TR3F and TR4R, were designed based on SSU ribosomal DNA sequences from two Harpella species, one Harpellomyces species, four Smittium species and Aedes aegypti (host). These primers amplified DNA from species of the Harpellales but discriminated against other groups of organisms including other fungal phyla. The presence of Smittium species was detected in laboratory-infected pupae and adult flies of Aedes aegypti and in field-collected larvae of Culex pipiens by PCR using the new primers. ( View PDF )

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An addition to the hyphomycete genus Melanographium from Thailand
The genus Melanographium is reviewed, a key to accepted species is provided, and its geographical distribution is discussed. Melanographium proliferum collected from dead leaves of a climber in Thailand is illustrated, described as a new species and compared with other Melanographium species. ( View PDF )

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Trematosphaeria: taxonomic concepts, new species from Japan and key to species
Two new species, Trematosphaeria crassiseptata collected from dead twigs of an unknown plant near river, and T. biappendiculata collected from submerged twigs in ponds, are described and illustrated. Trematosphaeria crassiseptata is characterised by thick-walled, reddish-brown and 5-septate ascospores, while T. biappendiculata is distinguished by its ascospores with terminal appendages. In culture media, T. crassiseptata produced the teleomorph state, and T. biappendiculata produced a Pleurophomopsis-like microconidial state only. The differences between these new species and their related taxa are noted. A key of the 15 species accepted in the genus is given. ( View PDF )

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Fungal ecology and succession on Phragmites australis in a brackish tidal marsh. I. Leaf sheaths
Direct observation of fungal succession and community development on leaf sheaths of Phragmites australis have been studied over a period of 19 months in a brackish tidal marsh of the river Scheldt (The Netherlands). Seventy-seven taxa were identified: 33 ascomycetes (43%) 31 coelomycetes (40%) 9 hyphomycetes (12%) and 4 basidiomycetes (5%). Four microhabitats were screened, the top, middle and basal communities along the vertical axis of standing reed shoots and a community in the litter layer. Fungal community structure analyzed by multivariate analysis showed that all microhabitats are characterised by different mycota. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of leaf sheath samples suggests the importance of a spatial separation (microhabitat) in explaining species variation between samples. Within each of those microhabitats DCA indicated a specific temporal pattern (succession). Fungal succession (community development) was described by a sequence of three phases in fungal sporulation. For the different microhabitats and all successional stages indicator species were assigned. The importance of screening host plants in situ and the use of indicator species analysis for fungal communities is addressed. The effect of seasonality on fungal succession is discussed. ( View PDF )

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Pyrenomycetes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. II. Cryptovalsa Ces. et De Not. and Diatrypella (Ces. et De Not.) Nitschke (Diatrypaceae)
Descriptions and keys are provided for the five species of Cryptovalsa and eight species of Diatrypella now known from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the eastern United States. Ten of these are new records for the Park. Cryptovalsa mori (Nitschke) Lar. N. Vassiljeva comb. nov., Cryptovalsa opaca (Cooke) Lar. N. Vassiljeva comb. nov., and Diatrypella major (Berl.) Lar. N. Vassiljeva comb. nov. are proposed as new combinations for the respective taxa. ( View PDF )

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Notes on dictyosporous hyphomycetes from China VII. The genus Nimbya
Two new species, Nimbya dianthi and N. dolichi are described. They differ from previously reported Nimbya species in conidial morphology and host range. Another five species are recorded from China and the genus is reviewed based on literature. The diagnostic characters of 17 accepted species of Nimbya are tabulated and a key to the all known species is provided. ( View PDF )

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A potential virulence factor involved in fungal pathogenicity: serine-like protease activity of nematophagous fungus Clonostachys rosea
A serine-like protease (designated as Lmz1) was purified to homogeneity from Clonostachys rosea. It showed a molecular mass of approximately 33 kDa, pI 10.5, optimal activity of Lmz1 at 60°C and pH 11-12, and broad pH stability between pH 5-12. Lmz1 has a Km value for Suc-(Ala)2-Pro-Phe-pNA of 1.45 mM. The protease activity was completely inhibited by PMSF or streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor, and partially inhibited by collagenase inhibitor I all indicated the presence of a serine residue in the active site and Lmz1 is thus most likely a member of the serine protease family. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was directly sequenced by Edman degradation. The recombinant plasmid harbouring a cDNA gene encoding the mature protease was integrated into yeast chromosome DNA and the gene was successfully expressed as demonstrated via activity analysis, ELISA and Western blotting. The nematotoxic activity of the protease involving in fungal infection was characterised by nematode-immobilisation and cuticle degradation with the purified Lmz1 or recombinant protease, and further verified by immunodepletion using anti-Lmz1 antiserum prepared in mice. These observations suggest a research model for fungal infection mechanism of serine-like protease involvement. ( View PDF )