24.13: Food Requirements - Biology

24.13: Food Requirements - Biology

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What are the fundamental requirements of the animal diet? The animal diet should be well balanced and provide nutrients required for bodily function and the minerals and vitamins required for maintaining structure and regulation necessary for good health and reproductive capability. These requirements for a human are illustrated graphically in Figure 1.

The first step in ensuring that you are meeting the food requirements of your body is an awareness of the food groups and the nutrients they provide. To learn more about each food group and the recommended daily amounts, explore this interactive site by the United States Department of Agriculture.

Try It

Obesity is a growing epidemic and the rate of obesity among children is rapidly rising in the United States. To combat childhood obesity and ensure that children get a healthy start in life, first lady Michelle Obama has launched the Let’s Move! campaign. The goal of this campaign is to educate parents and caregivers on providing healthy nutrition and encouraging active lifestyles to future generations. This program aims to involve the entire community, including parents, teachers, and healthcare providers to ensure that children have access to healthy foods—more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—and consume fewer calories from processed foods. Another goal is to ensure that children get physical activity. With the increase in television viewing and stationary pursuits such as video games, sedentary lifestyles have become the norm. Learn more at

Organic Precursors

The organic molecules required for building cellular material and tissues must come from food. Carbohydrates or sugars are the primary source of organic carbons in the animal body. During digestion, digestible carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into glucose and used to provide energy through metabolic pathways. Complex carbohydrates, including polysaccharides, can be broken down into glucose through biochemical modification; however, humans do not produce the enzyme cellulase and lack the ability to derive glucose from the polysaccharide cellulose. In humans, these molecules provide the fiber required for moving waste through the large intestine and a healthy colon. The intestinal flora in the human gut are able to extract some nutrition from these plant fibers. The excess sugars in the body are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for later use. Glycogen stores are used to fuel prolonged exertions, such as long-distance running, and to provide energy during food shortage. Excess glycogen can be converted to fats, which are stored in the lower layer of the skin of mammals for insulation and energy storage. Excess digestible carbohydrates are stored by mammals in order to survive famine and aid in mobility.

Another important requirement is that of nitrogen. Protein catabolism provides a source of organic nitrogen. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and protein breakdown provides amino acids that are used for cellular function. The carbon and nitrogen derived from these become the building block for nucleotides, nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and tissues. Excess nitrogen must be excreted as it is toxic. Fats add flavor to food and promote a sense of satiety or fullness. Fatty foods are also significant sources of energy because one gram of fat contains nine calories. Fats are required in the diet to aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the production of fat-soluble hormones.

To receive a Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences from UC San Diego, all students must complete at least twenty units of upper-division coursework in the Division of Biological Sciences with a grade of C- or better. This coursework must directly apply to the student’s Biology major requirements, and must be taken while officially enrolled at UC San Diego. Courses completed outside of the UC San Diego Division of Biological Sciences will not be counted toward the residency requirement.

The minimum grade requirements for all biology majors are:

  • All courses required and used toward any biology major requirements must be taken for a letter grade and completed with a C- or better.
  • The minimum grade requirement applies to all lower-division, upper-division, required courses taken in other departments, as well as courses transferred and used toward major requirements.
  • Exceptions will be made for those required courses that have a P/NP only grading option (e.g., BISP 199).
  • The minimum major GPA requirement is 2.0.

Please note: The degree audit may not automatically reject D grades for the major. If your degree audit appears to apply a course in which you have earned a D to a requirement for the major, please contact a biology advisor.

Lipids are mainly divided into three parts, viz

1. Simple Lipid: Simple lipids are esters of different types of alcoholic fatty acids. These are again of two types, viz

(A) Fats and oils: The esters of glycerol-containing fatty acids are called fats and oils. Fats are solid at normal temperatures while oils are liquid.

(B) Waxes: Waxes are generally esters of long chain fatty acids containing alcohol. Such fatty acids are aliphatic or alycyclic. Cetyl alcohol is found in wax.

2. Complex Lipid: The esters of alcohol and other fatty acids are called compound lipids. Such lipids are again of different types, viz

(A) Phospholipid: A lipid that contains phosphoric acid, nitrogen base and other compounds in addition to fatty acids and alcohol is called phospholipid.

(B) Glycolipid: A lipid which contains fatty acids, sphingosine, carbohydrates and nitrogen base but phosphate is absent is called glycolipid.

(C) Lipoprotein: Large molecular compound of protein-containing lipids is called lipoprotein.

(D) Sulpholipid: Lipids which contain sulfate compounds with fatty acids are called sulfolipids

(E) Aminolipid: The lipid that contains amino acids is called aminolipid.

3. Derived lipid: Derived lipid is a type of lipid that is formed by moisture analysis of simple and composite lipids. Such lipids contain fatty acids, alcohol, monoglycerides, and diglycerides. Examples of such lipids are steroids, terpenes and keratinoids.

Types of Fat

There are 4 types of fats in food, viz

Healthy fats-unsaturates

1. Monounsaturated Fat/Monounsaturates

2. Polyunsaturated fats/Polyunsaturates

Unhealthy fats

Below is a description of them:

1. Monounsaturated Fat

This type of fat is mostly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids. In this case, there is a double bond between the carbon atoms and a single bond between the other carbon atoms. They are liquid at room temperature. Such as olive nut and canola oil. They protect against heart disease. They lower the blood cholesterol levels.

2. Polyunsaturated Fat

This type of fat is mostly composed of fatty acids such as linoleic or linolenic acid. Each molecule of this type of fat has two or more bonds. Such as corn oil, sunflower oil. They are also liquid at room temperature. They can be further divided into omega-3 and omega-6 groups. It is thought that unsaturated fats reduce the risk of heart disease. Omega-3 fats play a role in heart and brain and eye function. Oily fish such as salmon, herring and mackerel are examples of omega 3s and are found in cazu nuts, some oils such as soybeans and rapeseed.

3. Saturated Fat

This type of fat is composed of a chain of fatty acids. There is no binding between the carbon atoms in the chain. Carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons because they are saturated. These fats are solid at room temperature. In most cases, such fats are found in animals, such as butter, ghee, cheese, curds, etc. They provide an important source of energy in food. They are used as a structural component of cell membranes, various types of hormones or hormone-like components. Excess fat in the diet increases the amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream.

4. Trans Fats

These types of fats are in a cis or straight trans condition with different chemical structures. When fatty acid transforms from fat, it is called trans fatty acid. It is produced by partially adding hydrogen to vegetable oil. Vegetable oils, most butter, commercial bakery foods and many dry foods contain such fats. Excessive amounts in the diet increase the risk of heart disease. Elaidic acid is the main trans-unsaturated fatty acid found in hydrogenated vegetable oils. Oleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid. 55-60% of olive oil is unsaturated fatty acids. Stearic acid, on the other hand, is a saturated fatty acid found in animal fats. Such fats are in both trans or sis forms.

Essential Fatty Acids

Essential fatty acids are fats that are not produced in the body by synthesis in physiological processes but are essential for the maintenance of various biological functions. Since such fatty acids are essential, they need to be supplied with food from outside. Three fatty acids are essential for fish, viz

Chemical Structure of Essential Fatty Acid

Functions of Fat

Education Requirements

Food inspector jobs typically require at least a bachelor’s degree. To fill a food inspector vacancy, you should consider majoring in biology, math, physics or agricultural sciences to have the necessary educational background. If you don’t have a Bachelor’s degree, you can apply for a food inspector vacancy with at least one year of experience in the food industry. You must have knowledge of good sanitation practices and the handling and preparation of food. To fill a food inspector vacancy at the USDA, you must also pass a written test.

University General Education Requirements

All undergraduate students at the University of Wisconsin–Madison are required to fulfill a minimum set of common university general education requirements to ensure that every graduate acquires the essential core of an undergraduate education. This core establishes a foundation for living a productive life, being a citizen of the world, appreciating aesthetic values, and engaging in lifelong learning in a continually changing world. Various schools and colleges will have requirements in addition to the requirements listed below. Consult your advisor for assistance, as needed. For additional information, see the university Undergraduate General Education Requirements section of the Guide.

  • Breadth—Humanities/Literature/Arts: 6 credits
  • Breadth—Natural Science: 4 to 6 credits, consisting of one 4- or 5-credit course with a laboratory component or two courses providing a total of 6 credits
  • Breadth—Social Studies: 3 credits
  • Communication Part A & Part B *
  • Ethnic Studies *
  • Quantitative Reasoning Part A & Part B *

Food Energy and ATP

Animals use energy for metabolism, obtaining that energy from the breakdown of food through the process of cellular respiration.

Learning Objectives

Summarize the ways in which animals obtain, store, and use food energy

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Animals obtain energy from the food they consume, using that energy to maintain body temperature and perform other metabolic functions.
  • Glucose, found in the food animals eat, is broken down during the process of cellular respiration into an energy source called ATP.
  • When excess ATP and glucose are present, the liver converts them into a molecule called glycogen, which is stored for later use.

Key Terms

  • glucose: a simple monosaccharide (sugar) with a molecular formula of C6H12O6 it is a principal source of energy for cellular metabolism
  • adenosine triphosphate: a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme, often called the “molecular unit of energy currency” in intracellular energy transfer
  • phosphodiester: any of many biologically active compounds in which two alcohols form ester bonds with phosphate

Food Energy and ATP

Animals need food to obtain energy and maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of a system to maintain a stable internal environment even in the face of external changes to the environment. For example, the normal body temperature of humans is 37°C (98.6°F). Humans maintain this temperature even when the external temperature is hot or cold. The energy it takes to maintain this body temperature is obtained from food.

The primary source of energy for animals is carbohydrates, primarily glucose: the body’s fuel. The digestible carbohydrates in an animal’s diet are converted to glucose molecules and into energy through a series of catabolic chemical reactions.

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the primary energy currency in cells. ATP stores energy in phosphate ester bonds, releasing energy when the phosphodiester bonds are broken: ATP is converted to ADP and a phosphate group. ATP is produced by the oxidative reactions in the cytoplasm and mitochondrion of the cell, where carbohydrates, proteins, and fats undergo a series of metabolic reactions collectively called cellular respiration.

ATP production pathways: ATP is the energy molecule of the cell. It is produced through various pathways during the cellular respiration process, with each making different amounts of energy.

ATP is required for all cellular functions. It is used to build the organic molecules that are required for cells and tissues. It also provides energy for muscle contraction and for the transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system. When the amount of ATP available is in excess of the body’s requirements, the liver uses the excess ATP and excess glucose to produce molecules called glycogen (a polymeric form of glucose) that is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle cells. When blood sugar drops, the liver releases glucose from stores of glycogen. Skeletal muscle converts glycogen to glucose during intense exercise. The process of converting glucose and excess ATP to glycogen and the storage of excess energy is an evolutionarily-important step in helping animals deal with mobility, food shortages, and famine.

Carbohydrate Requirements in Fish

Carbohydrates specifically refer to the nitrogen-free extract in the diet that is physiologically digestible. Every 1 gram of carbohydrate produces 4 kcal of energy (Hastings, 1979). Fish have no special need for carbohydrates, but they are an affordable source of energy in the diet. Many carnivorous species are less efficient in using carbohydrates than herbivorous and omnivorous species (Wilson, 1994). Some carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in fish tissues such as the liver and muscles, and these carbohydrates can be used as a quick energy source. Some carbohydrates are converted into lipids and stored in the body as a source of energy.

In the process of photosynthesis, different types of carbohydrates are produced in plants. Cellulose and other fibrous carbohydrates act as structural components of plants that are not digested in the intestines of animals, especially fish. In fact, less than 7% of crude fiber in fish diet makes it difficult to digest indigestible material.

Soluble carbohydrates are stored as primary energy in starch seeds, tubers and other plants. Animal tissues such as the liver and muscles contain small amounts of dissolved carbohydrates such as glycogen, which is structurally similar to starch. When the body needs glucose, this stored glycogen is released quickly. Foods prepared for carnivorous fish contain less than 20% soluble carbohydrates whereas omnivorous fish species usually contain 25-45% soluble carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are an affordable source of food energy but they are not well used by all animals. Eating digestible carbohydrates for excessive energy production stores them as fats and disrupts normal bodily functions (Hastings, 1979). Chinook salmon can tolerate high levels of carbohydrates (30% of the diet) in the diet (Buhler and Halver, 1961), and feeding eel fish with 30% carbohydrate-rich food results in rapid growth similar to a 50% protein-rich diet (Degani, 1987).

Carbohydrates act as the main source of energy. The following table lists the carbohydrate requirements of some farmed fish:

Carbohydrate Requirements of Fish (%)

Ctenopharyngodon idellus

Cyprinus carpio var. specularis

Heteropneustes fossils

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Fish

Most of the carbohydrates used in animal feed, especially fish, are plant-derived. Carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon and Japanese yellowtail consume small amounts of carbohydrates in their diet. In fact, experiments have shown that a small amount of raw carbohydrates are provided in the diet of these fish species. On the other hand, omnivorous fish such as common carp and channel catfish are able to digest a significant amount of carbohydrates in their diet. Grass carp are herbivores that survive mainly on plant foods.

Carbohydrate Digestion, Absorption and Storage

Starch assimilation by animals depends on their amylase excretion efficiency. All fish species secrete α-amylase. Studies have shown that the activity of this enzyme is higher in herbivores. In carnivorous fish such as rainbow trout and sea perch, amylase is mainly produced from the pancreas. However, in herbivores, this enzyme is present throughout the alimentary canal. Increased activity of amylase secreted by the pancreas of the upper intestine of the upper extremities is observed. In the case of carnivorous rainbow trout, if the level of carbohydrates is more than 20%, the digestion of starch and dextrin will be gradually reduced, but fish can use up to 00% of glucose, sucrose and lactose in their diet. Contrary to popular belief, carnivorous fish are able to use simple carbohydrates as a primary source of energy.

Starch assimilation by animals depends on their amylase excretion efficiency. All fish species secrete α-amylase. Studies have shown that the activity of this enzyme is higher in herbivores. In carnivorous fish such as rainbow trout and sea perch, amylase is mainly produced from the pancreas. However, in herbivores, this enzyme is present throughout the alimentary canal. Increased activity of amylase secreted by the pancreas of the upper intestine of the upper extremities is observed. In the case of carnivorous rainbow trout, if the level of carbohydrates is more than 20%, the digestion of starch and dextrin will be gradually reduced, but fish can use up to 00% of glucose, sucrose and lactose in their diet. Contrary to popular belief, carnivorous fish are able to use simple carbohydrates as a primary source of energy.

There are not enough data on glucose absorption by fish. Studies of goldfish have shown that the active transport of glucose, like most mammals, is involved in the transport of Na + . It is generally thought that such absorption occurs on the mucosal surface of intestinal cells. The monosaccharides produced as a result of digestion in carbohydrates are mainly glucose, fructose, galactose, manose, xylose and arabinose. Although the absorption rate of these sugars can be determined in the case of many terrestrial mammals, similar data are not readily available in the case of fish.

Carbohydrates from protein and fat are not the best sources of energy for fish. Although carbohydrates can be used as an alternative to proteins for tissue formation. The metabolism of amino acids from glucose to fish is more efficient for energy. The fish expels the nitrogenous waste as amine through the gills.

Other Factors Affecting Carbohydtare Metabolism

In addition to genetic adaptation, climatic factors play an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of fish. Physiological adaptation of fish, especially enzyme adaptation, is very important. Since the ability of an animal to survive largely depends on its normal metabolic function. While some enzymes play a role in metabolic adaptation, other enzymes cannot. The enzymes involved in energy release (enzymes involved in glycolysis, pentosans, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport and fatty acid oxidation, etc.) show adaptation to temperature. In contrast, enzymes that are heavily involved in the breakdown of metabolic substances play a small role in physiological adaptation.

I. First Year of Graduate Study

Most students in the Molecular Biology Program will complete the standard program outlined below during their first year. First-year graduate students begin their studies Fall semester, although some students may elect to arrive earlier in the summer to accommodate an additional lab rotation. (Not available Summer 2020)

Prior to arrival, each student is assigned a faculty advisor, who will provide guidance on first-year curriculum and laboratory rotation choices. The student and Academic Advisor will meet at least twice each semester to plan coursework and discuss rotations (see below).

In addition to coursework and rotations, the Bioscience Program Office sponsors annual social events that students are expected to attend such as the Student Retreat, Annual Bioscience Symposium, summer student picnic, and recruiting events.

A. Curriculum

  • Designed to provide a solid background in key areas of modern molecular biology
  • Designed to teach independent, critical thinking skills, and grant writing
  • Designed to fulfill the NIH-mandated requirement for training in scientific ethics

The standard first year coursework is as follows:

Choose 2 different electives during the semester (1.5 - 3 credits each)

Students must be registered full time for between 9-12 graduate credit hours per semester during Fall and Spring.

Core Curriculum

Molecular Biology Program students take one full-semester length and two half-semester length core courses that have been designed to provide students with a solid background in a variety of important areas of molecular biology.

If deficiencies in the academic background are identified, the student may be advised to register for appropriate courses at the undergraduate level and to delay taking a core course until the second year.

By the end of the second year of study, all students are expected to have fulfilled the Program's core requirements.

Case Studies in Research Ethics is taken in the fall semester of the first year of graduate study. In this class, students discuss ethical issues of scientific research and integrity. Specific topics include scientific fraud, conflicts of interest, plagiarism, authorship designation, and the role of science in formulating social policy.

Critical Thinking in Research / Guided Proposal Preparation

In order to teach the skills required to be a successful independent scientist, this course will instruct students on how to digest and analyze papers and problem solve - both of which involve will reviewing and applying material from previous core courses. The instructors will develop the specific course content, and topics may include: How to read a paper (read at home, discuss in class) Survey of the core services and Problem solving with open-ended problems posed on real-life or made-up situations. A focused effort will be made to help students identify topics that they can develop into grants in the Spring term. Grading will be based on participation and individual work.

To prepare students for their thesis research, prelims, and qualifying exams, we will offer a guided proposal preparation course in the second half of the Spring semester that builds on their experience earlier in the semester (critical reading of primary literature and problem solving). The guided grant writing course will provide an opportunity for students to create an original research proposal by critical review of other grants, training in hypothesis generation, scientific writing, and experimental design. The written original grant proposal will be used as a basis for an oral capstone examination by a faculty committee.

In spring semester, students will self-select 2 elective courses. These are didactic courses designed to help students gain proficiency in specialized areas of interest.

These courses vary by year - please see the Curriculum page for recent examples.

B. Laboratory Rotations

Molecular Biology Program students complete three (3) laboratory rotations with different faculty members in their first year of graduate study. A summer research experience is available before they begin classes or an additional rotation can be done at the end of the first year if needed. Neither can substitute for one of the three rotations during the regular academic year.

Laboratory rotations are essential for identifying the appropriate thesis mentor and lab. In addition, laboratory rotations may provide: exposure to areas of research they might not otherwise experience familiarize the student with research in different groups and departments through research seminars and help them develop contacts and learn experimental techniques that may prove helpful in subsequent thesis research.

To assist students in identifying productive and exciting laboratory rotation experiences, program faculty present short talks about their research programs during the fall semester in the Faculty Research Seminar forum. Program faculty talks inform students about the diversity of possible thesis topics and the variety of experimental approaches employed in the different program laboratories.

General guidelines for a student choosing and successfully completing a lab rotation are outlined below:

  1. A student should choose a rotation lab only after careful thought and discussions with the Academic Advisor. This is the faculty member assigned to advise the student in his/her first year.
  2. The primary goal of the rotation system is for the student to find a lab in which to pursue thesis research.
  3. A student may only rotate through a lab belonging to the Molecular Biology, Biological Chemistry, or Neuroscience Programs .
    1. Given that these programs cover the vast majority of PhD degree-granting laboratories in the life sciences at the University, exceptions to this rule will only be permitted after consultation with the student's Academic Advisor and with written permission by the Program Director.
    2. Note: If a student elects to join a thesis lab outside the Molecular Biology Program all program guarantees, such as the stipend assurance, are no longer binding. Please see guidelines about selecting a thesis advisor below.
    1. a description of the basic background of the research area
    2. a statement of the specific problem to be addressed in the project
    3. a description of the experimental approach to the problem
    4. a summary of experimental results, if any, and their analysis
    5. Note: The emphasis should be on the explanation of the scientific problem and experimental approach rather than on obtaining a large body of results
    1. Meet with Rotation Advisor to review Rotation Report and obtain signature indicating both satisfactory performance during the rotation and approval of the Report.
    2. Meet with Academic Advisor and obtain signature indicating satisfactory completion of rotation and to ensure finalization of the next rotation selection.
    3. Return signed Rotation Verification and an e-mailed electronic copy of the Rotation Report to the Program Office in order to receive a “CREDIT” grade.
    4. Note: Students will be given an “INCOMPLETE” grade until both documents have been submitted. ALL rotation documents need to be submitted before a student can officially transfer to a thesis lab. Stipend coverage will not be extended for late submission.

    Rotation Schedule for 2021-22

    (Please note: these dates do not correlate with the academic quarters.)

    Fall 2021 Semester

    1st Rotation: Monday, August 30, 2021 - Friday, October 22, 2021

    2nd Rotation: Monday, October 25, 2021 - Thursday, December 9, 2021

    Spring 2022 Semester

    3rd Rotation: Monday, January 10, 2022 - Friday, March 4, 2022

    Verbal Lab Commitments Begin: Monday, March 7, 2022

    C. Recruiting Involvement

    All students are expected to participate with recruiting new students during their first year. This will include hosting prospective students during the recruiting weekends.

    D. Evaluation of First Year Academic Performance

    Every effort will be made to help students succeed during the first year, including consultation from an academic advisor. However an unsatisfactory Molecular Biology Program academic and/or research performance can result in dismissal.

    Satisfactory academic performance includes, but is not limited to:

    • Students must earn a B- or better in all graded core courses.
    • Students must maintain a GPA of at least 3.0
    • Students must be eligible for the Tuition Benefit Program tuition waiver
    • Satisfactory completion of laboratory rotations

    Academic Standards

    Molecular Biology Program students are required to comply with the Policy Statement on Academic Standards outlined here.

    Every student is required to sign a statement regarding the University of Utah Honor Code. Some university courses have take-home exams. Cheating, plagiarism or collusion on examinations is not permissible. Academic dishonesty will likely result in revocation of stipend and tuition benefits and a recommendation for dismissal from graduate school. Collaboration on certain problem sets may be permitted as specified by the course instructor. If any doubts exist, the student should ask the instructor for clarification. This information should be read carefully and students should contact a faculty advisor, the Director, or the Program Office with any questions.

    Unsatisfactory Performance

    Evaluation of students with unsatisfactory academic and/or laboratory rotation records is conducted by the student’s academic advisor and the director. Any student with a grade of C or lower in 2 or more of the core courses, and/or with a GPA less than 3.0 will be evaluated for appropriateness for continuation in graduate school.

    Only one retake is allowed. By the end of the second year of study, all students are expected to have fulfilled the Program's core requirements.

    Students with a GPA less than 3.0 will have 1 semester to bring their GPA back up

    Students with an unsatisfactory performance in their rotations and thus unable to identify a suitable dissertation lab by the end of their first year will also be evaluated for appropriateness for continuation in graduate school.

    Capstone Exam

    The written original grant proposal prepared in the Guided Proposal Preparation course will be used as a basis for an oral capstone examination by a faculty committee. This exam will ensure that students meet our standards for thesis work and review material from the core courses before they join a department and lab. Students will prepare an R21-style grant proposal (

    6 single-spaced pages, covering 2 years of work) to be submitted 5 days before the exam. They will present and defend the proposal in front of a 3-member capstone exam committee. Students must pass this exam in order to join a lab and department.

    The role of dietary calcium in bone health

    Approximately 99% of body Ca is found in bone, where it serves a key structural role as a component of hydroxyapatite. Dietary requirements for Ca are determined by the needs for bone development and maintenance, which vary throughout the life stage, with greater needs during the periods of rapid growth in childhood and adolescence, during pregnancy and lactation, and in later life. There is considerable disagreement between expert groups on the daily Ca intake levels that should be recommended, reflecting the uncertainty in the data for establishing Ca requirements. Inadequate dietary Ca in early life impairs bone development, and Ca supplementation of the usual diet for periods of < or = 3 years has been shown to enhance bone mineral status in children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this benefit is long term, leading to the optimisation of peak bone mass in early adulthood. In later years inadequate dietary Ca accelerates bone loss and may contribute to osteoporosis. Ca supplementation of the usual diet in post-menopausal women and older men has been shown to reduce the rate of loss of bone mineral density at a number of sites over periods of 1-2 years. However, the extent to which this outcome reduces fracture risk needs to be determined. Even allowing for disagreements on recommended intakes, evidence indicates that dietary Ca intake is inadequate for maintenance of bone health in a substantial proportion of some population groups, particularly adolescent girls and older women.

    Food Science

    Do you know where your next meal is coming from? Whatever you choose, it was probably grown, processed, delivered and prepared using techniques developed by food scientists and technologists. Food scientists help solve problems of producing and distributing food safely across broad geographical ranges and in varying climatic conditions. They also respond to market demands by creating food products that meet modern consumers’ needs for nutrition, taste and convenience. From microwavable meals to Vitamin A-enriched rice, food scientists’ projects help solve one of the oldest problems known to humanity: What are we going to eat?

    Major Requirements

    During your first two years of study, you will concentrate on developing the scientific and general background necessary for advanced coursework by taking courses in chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and (optionally) introductory food science. In your upper-division courses, you will study nutrition, microbiology and food chemistry, analysis and processing. You may choose to specialize in one of seven career-oriented options: food technology, food business and management, consumer food science, fermentation science, food biology/microbiology, food chemistry or food biochemistry.

    Watch the video: For females from 9 to 13 years: How to plan your daily meals to meet your bodys nutritional needs. (August 2022).