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Karyotypes Appearance

Karyotypes Appearance


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Most actual karyotypes online appear as single chromosomes (unreplicated). I was under the impression that a micrograph of the replicated chromosomes was taken during metaphase of mitosis and thus should show up as duplicated sister chromatids instead of single chromatids post anaphase. Are the arms of the chromatids just so close to each other that they are hard to distinguish?


Many karyotype images, especially those used for introductory educational purposes, have been edited to show a regular human 2n. For example this image has been edited to depict a regular 2n (46) compliment of human chromosomes.

While this image is unedited and shows the replicated homologous pairs in metaphase:


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Karyotype Definition Biology. The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics. A karyotype is a test to identify and evaluate the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells.

A karyotype is a test to identify and evaluate the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells. Full article >>> karyotype ( ) n. When the chromosomes are paired correctly and organized and displayed, that representation can also be termed as a karyotype of an individual. (biology) to determine the karyotype of (a cell) karyotypic, ˌkaryoˈtypical adj. Down syndrome, genetic testing gale encyclopedia of medicine.

Year 10 biology sem 1 body code from image.slidesharecdn.com A laboratory genetic technique to arrange, study, determine chromosomes and structural abnormalities, related genetic anomalies, is known as a karyotype. or we can say, a genetic technique and common laboratory method to study chromosomal abnormalities, its structure and number using microscopic analysis is known as a karyotyping. A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes, and includes their length, banding pattern,. Karyotype is a technique performed for genetic analysis and is defined as an image of an individual's collection of chromosomes. The male and female karyotypes. A karyotype is an individual's collection of chromosomes.

Although they may have the same genetic sequence and loci, they may differ in alleles.

The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The chromosomes themselves or a representation of them. The homologous pair is comprised of a paternal. Each human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 total. Karyotyping is the process by which photographs of chromosomes are taken in order to determine the chromosome complement of an individual, including the number of chromosomes and any abnormalities. When the chromosomes are paired correctly and organized and displayed, that representation can also be termed as a karyotype of an individual. Noun an organized visual profile of the chromosomes in the nucleus of a body cell of an organism. Scientists prepare karyotypes by staining cell nuclei, placing them on slides, and then photographing them through a microscope. A karyotype is a picture of chromosomes or we can say, arranging chromosomes in chronological order is known as a karyotype. A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It reveals information regarding the number, size, shape, centromere position of the chromosomes, etc. Karyotype is a diagram which shows the chromosomal number and constitution in the cell nucleus. A laboratory genetic technique to arrange, study, determine chromosomes and structural abnormalities, related genetic anomalies, is known as a karyotype. or we can say, a genetic technique and common laboratory method to study chromosomal abnormalities, its structure and number using microscopic analysis is known as a karyotyping.

They essentially have the same gene sequence, loci (gene position), centromere location, and chromosomal length. The isolation and microscopic observation of chromosomes forms the basis of cytogenetics and is the primary method by which clinicians detect chromosomal abnormalities in humans. Noun an organized visual profile of the chromosomes in the nucleus of a body cell of an organism. The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in a standard format: A karyotype is the characteristic chromosome complement of a eukaryote species.

worksheet. Karyotyping Worksheet. Grass Fedjp Worksheet . from s2.studylib.net Scientists prepare karyotypes by staining cell nuclei, placing them on slides, and then photographing them through a microscope. Images of the chromosomes can then be grouped by size using a computer. Identify a karyotype and describe its uses in biology The karyotype is used to look for abnormal numbers or structures of chromosomes. Karyotes are used by scientists to study chromosomal regulation and evolution ary events in living things.

They essentially have the same gene sequence, loci (gene position), centromere location, and chromosomal length.

Identify a karyotype and describe its uses in biology Karyotype is a technique performed for genetic analysis and is defined as an image of an individual's collection of chromosomes. Although they may have the same genetic sequence and loci, they may differ in alleles. Karotype synonyms, karotype pronunciation, karotype translation, english dictionary definition of karotype. To determine the karyotype of an organism, scientists must follow these steps: Karyotyping is the process by which photographs of chromosomes are taken in order to determine the chromosome complement of an individual, including the number of chromosomes and any abnormalities. The homologous pair is comprised of a paternal. Karyotype is a diagram which shows the chromosomal number and constitution in the cell nucleus. Examples of how to use karyotype in a sentence from the cambridge dictionary labs We need a high level of expertise and experience to make it. When the chromosomes are paired correctly and organized and displayed, that representation can also be termed as a karyotype of an individual. A karyotype is a picture of chromosomes or we can say, arranging chromosomes in chronological order is known as a karyotype. The main difference between karyotype and karyogram is that the karyotype is the number, size, and shape of chromosomes of a particular organism whereas the karyogram is a visual profile of stained chromosomes in a standard format.furthermore, a karyotype describes the characteristics of chromosomes while a karyogram helps to visualize those characteristics.

The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The karyotype is used to look for abnormal numbers or structures of chromosomes. In pairs, ordered by size. Images of the chromosomes can then be grouped by size using a computer.

Karyotype: Definition, Disorders & Analysis - Biology . from study.com A karyotype is the number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an organism. Karyotype is a diagram which shows the chromosomal number and constitution in the cell nucleus. Although they may have the same genetic sequence and loci, they may differ in alleles. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. A karyotype is a picture of chromosomes or we can say, arranging chromosomes in chronological order is known as a karyotype.

A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes, and includes their length, banding pattern,.

(biology) to determine the karyotype of (a cell) karyotypic, ˌkaryoˈtypical adj. Micrograph of the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size. Karyotyping of a genome is done to identify the defects in chromosomes which are referred to as chromosomal aberrations. We need a high level of expertise and experience to make it. The name karyotype is given to the set of chromosomes of an individual, usually when visualized and identified under the microscope. The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics. Karyotype is a diagram which shows the chromosomal number and constitution in the cell nucleus. Each human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 total. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in a standard format: Most often, this is done using the chromosomes in the white blood cells. A karyotype is an individual's collection of chromosomes. A karyotype is, quite literally, a photograph of the chromosomes that exist within a cell.

Karyotype preparation is totally a different process than any other cytogenetic methods. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. Examples of how to use karyotype in a sentence from the cambridge dictionary labs A karyotype is an individual's collection of chromosomes. A karyotype is the characteristic chromosome complement of a eukaryote species.

Source: www.macroevolution.net

A karyotype is, quite literally, a photograph of the chromosomes that exist within a cell. To determine the karyotype of an organism, scientists must follow these steps: Karyotype preparation is totally a different process than any other cytogenetic methods. The isolation and microscopic observation of chromosomes forms the basis of cytogenetics and is the primary method by which clinicians detect chromosomal abnormalities in humans. Scientists prepare karyotypes by staining cell nuclei, placing them on slides, and then photographing them through a microscope.

Source: www.assignmentpoint.com

Every chromosome pair represents a set of homologous chromosomes. The karyotype is a set of characteristics that identifies and describes a particular set of chromosome. A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes, and includes their length, banding pattern,. Collect a cell from an individual induce the. A karyotype is the characteristic chromosome complement of a eukaryote species.

A karyotype is the number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an organism. Karyotyping of a genome is done to identify the defects in chromosomes which are referred to as chromosomal aberrations. Karyotypes are used to study the genetic makeup of an individual. When the chromosomes are paired correctly and organized and displayed, that representation can also be termed as a karyotype of an individual. Biology final exam vocabulary (zietlow) 61 terms.

The isolation and microscopic observation of chromosomes forms the basis of cytogenetics and is the primary method by which clinicians detect chromosomal abnormalities in humans. Most often, this is done using the chromosomes in the white blood cells. A picture of the chromosomes is taken through the microscope. The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics. The karyotype is used to look for abnormal numbers or structures of chromosomes.

Source: faculty.valenciacollege.edu

Collect a cell from an individual induce the.

Source: gleesonbiology.pbworks.com

If a karyotype shows a usual number and structure of chromosome set, it is known as a normal karyotype.

Source: homeschooldressage.com

The term karyotype is referred to a group of characteristics that allow the identification of particular chromosome pair on the basis of general morphology of a set of chromosome at metaphase of a somatic cell of an individual.

The karyotype is a set of characteristics that identifies and describes a particular set of chromosome.


Chromosomes and Karyotypes

Down’s Syndrome is a common genetic abnormality referred to as Trisomy 21. Instead of having the complement of 46 chromosomes of 22 homologous pairs plus 2 sex chromosomes, there are 47 chromosomes consisting of an additional Chromosome 21.

Standard Human Karyotype with 46 chromosomes. Both XX and XY also shown here. The appearance of extra or missing chromosomes arises during meiosis in an event called non-disjunction. After fertilization, a zygote with an improper chromosome complement occurs.

From left to right, the ploidy of the resultant zygotes: 2N, 2N, 2N+1, 2N-1 2N+1, 2N+1, 2N-1, 2N-1 Down’s syndrome karytope showing the traditional trisomy 21


Biology OER

Down&rsquos Syndrome is a common genetic abnormality referred to as Trisomy 21. Instead of having the complement of 46 chromosomes of 22 homologous pairs plus 2 sex chromosomes, there are 47 chromosomes consisting of an additional Chromosome 21.

Standard Human Karyotype with 46 chromosomes. Both XX and XY also shown here. The appearance of extra or missing chromosomes arises during meiosis in an event called nondisjunction . After fertilization, a zygote with an improper chromosome complement occurs.

From left to right, the ploidy of the resultant zygotes: 2N, 2N, 2N+1, 2N-1 2N+1, 2N+1, 2N-1, 2N-1 Nondisjunction can occur during Meiosis I or Meiosis II to yield aneuploid states of 2N+1 or 2N-1.

Down&rsquos syndrome karytope showing the traditional trisomy 21


Human Karyotyping SE - bio

A chromosome is a rod-shaped structure made of coils of DNA. Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

come from?) We have two sets because we get one set from each parent.

  1. How do you think different people’s chromosomes would compare? I think that they would be really different

Gizmo Warm-up Scientists use karyotypes to study the chromosomes in a cell. A karyotype is a picture showing a cell’s chromosomes grouped together in pairs.

In the Human Karyotyping Gizmo, you will make karyotypes for five individuals. Take a look at the SIMULATION pane. Use the arrows to click through the numbered list of chromosomes at the

Bottom right of the pane.

you move through the list? The size and shape changes

  1. Examine the chromosomes labeled x and y. How do these two chromosomes compare?

One is bigger than the other

Activity A: Male and female karyotypes

Get the Gizmo ready:  Click Reset.

Question: How are male karyotypes different from female karyotypes?

  1. Compare : In the SIMULATION pane, make sure Subject A is selected. Click on and drag one of subject A’s chromosomes to the area labeled Identify. Use the arrows to compare the chromosome you picked with chromosomes 1 through 22 and also with X and Y.

Which chromosome did you select? I picked 2

  1. Create : Drag the chromosome to the appropriate position on the KARYOTYPING pane. Then select another chromosome, identify it, and place it on the karyotype.

When you have identified and placed all of the chromosomes, click the camera ( ) to take a snapshot of the karyotype. Paste the snapshot into a document, and label it “Subject A.”

  1. Count : Chromosomes 1 through 22 are called autosomes. Examine the karyotype you have

created. How many total autosomes do human cells have? 22

  1. Draw conclusions : Look at chromosome pair 23. These chromosomes are known as sexchromosomes because they determine the sex of an individual. Females have two copies of the X chromosome. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

Examine the karyotype. Is subject A a male or female? male

How do you know? Because subject A has both X and Y chromosomes

Click the DIAGNOSIS tab to check your answer.

Disorder Description Subject Symptoms

Small head, respiratory problems, vision and speech problems, hearing loss, and heart defects

C Testicular changes in puberty and secondary sex characteristics do not develop

D Incorrect development of ovaries and hormone production-sex hormones

Use the table to determine which disorder subject C has. Record your diagnosis in the third column of the table, and then click on the DIAGNOSIS tab to check your answer. Summarize the information on the DIAGNOSIS tab in the fourth column of the table.

  1. Repeat : Complete the karyotypes for Subject D and Subject E. Determine which disorder each subject has, and use the information from the Gizmo’s DIAGNOSIS tab to complete the table. Be sure to keep snapshots of both karyotypes.

(Activity B continued on next page)

Activity B (continued from previous page)

  1. Generalize : Another chromosomal disorder, called Edward’s syndrome, occurs when a person’s cells have three copies of chromosome 18. People who have Edward’s syndrome have severe intellectual disabilities and their skeletons are malformed. Most people with Edward’s syndrome die in infancy.

Use the above information about Edward’s syndrome and the descriptions of Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Turner syndrome in the table on the previous page to compare these four different chromosomal disorders.

A. Which type of chromosomal disorders seems to have the greatest affect on a person’s health—disorders involving autosomes or sex chromosomes?

Having three copies of chromosome 18 causes people to die as infants

B. Why do you think this might be the case? I think this might happen because is affect the body somehow were if the body cant fight it they die

  1. Extend your thinking : Klinefelter syndrome only affects males, and Turner synd rome only affects females. Examine the karyotypes of the subjects you diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome.

A. How do you think sex is determined in a person with a chromosomal disorder

involving the sex chromosomes? I think if it has all X chromosomes it’s a female and

two X and one Y is a male

B. Individuals with a genetic disorder called trisomy X have three X chromosomes. (These individuals are normal and do not have any particular symptoms.)


What are some of the medical applications of karyotyping?

Karyotyping. Karyotyping is a test to examine chromosomes in a sample of cells. This test can help identify genetic problems as the cause of a disorder or disease.

One may also ask, what is a karyotype example? noun. Karyotype is defined as the general appearance of chromosomes. An example of karyotype is the size, number and shape of chromosomes in a person's body.

Keeping this in view, how are karyotypes used to diagnose medical conditions?

A chromosomal karyotype is used to detect chromosome abnormalities and is therefore used to diagnose genetic diseases, some birth defects, and certain haematologic and lymphoid disorders. It may be performed for: A fetus, using amniotic fluid or chorionic villi (tissue from the placenta):

What does a normal karyotype mean?

Medical Definition of Karyotype Karyotype: A standard arrangement of the chromosome complement prepared for chromosome analysis. A normal female karyotype would include each of the 22 pairs of autosomes (nonsex chromosomes), arranged in numeric order, together with the two X chromosomes.


Karyotypes Appearance - Biology

Human karyotypes: 2n = 48 or 46?

Early studies of the human karyotype simply stained chromosomes within cells with Giemsa and " squashed " them between the cover slip and slide. Most cells were not at the proper mitotic phase for chromosomes to be observed, and chromosome separation was poor. The exact count was uncertain: most workers accepted the number 48 . The breakthrough came in 1952 (left) when a technician in the lab of T. C. Hsu accidentally substituted distilled water for the normal saline solution used in washing the cells just before " squashing ". This " hypotonic " treatment caused the cell nuclei to swell, and allowed the chromosomes to separate before squashing. A further refinement was " dropping " the cells onto the slide at arm's length, which caused the nuclei to burst on impact, further separating them (middle slide). Finally, the use of a plant spindle-poison Colchicine allows chromosomes to be arrested at mitotic metaphase, during their maximum state of compaction [right] These experiments quickly established the human chromosome number as 2n = 46 chromosomes.

Classification of chromosomes into seven groups by size and relative centromere position established the so-called " Denver System " (right) in 1960. Chromosomes within groups B - G were not readily distinguishable from each other. The X chromosome is in the C group, and the Y is in the G group: males are recognizable by five small G-type chromosomes. Modern banding techniques allow each chromosome in the karyotype to be distinguished individually.


Identification of Chromosomes

The isolation and microscopic observation of chromosomes forms the basis of cytogenetics and is the primary method by which clinicians detect chromosomal abnormalities in humans. A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes. To obtain a view of an individual&rsquos karyotype, cytologists photograph the chromosomes and then cut and paste each chromosome into a chart, or karyogram, also known as an ideogram.

In a given species, chromosomes can be identified by their number, size, centromere position, and banding pattern. In a human karyotype, autosomes or &ldquobody chromosomes&rdquo (all of the non&ndashsex chromosomes) are generally organized in approximate order of size from largest (chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22). However, chromosome 21 is actually shorter than chromosome 22. This was discovered after the naming of Down syndrome as trisomy 21, reflecting how this disease results from possessing one extra chromosome 21 (three total). Not wanting to change the name of this important disease, chromosome 21 retained its numbering, despite describing the shortest set of chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are not autosomes and are referred to as the sex chromosomes.

The chromosome &ldquoarms&rdquo projecting from either end of the centromere may be designated as short or long, depending on their relative lengths. The short arm is abbreviated p (for &ldquopetite&rdquo), whereas the long arm is abbreviated q (because it follows &ldquop&rdquo alphabetically). Each arm is further subdivided and denoted by a number. Using this naming system, locations on chromosomes can be described consistently in the scientific literature.

Although Mendel is referred to as the &ldquofather of modern genetics,&rdquo he performed his experiments with none of the tools that the geneticists of today routinely employ. One such powerful cytological technique is karyotyping, a method in which traits characterized by chromosomal abnormalities can be identified from a single cell. To observe an individual&rsquos karyotype, a person&rsquos cells (like white blood cells) are first collected from a blood sample or other tissue. In the laboratory, the isolated cells are stimulated to begin actively dividing. A chemical called colchicine is then applied to cells to arrest condensed chromosomes in metaphase. Cells are then made to swell using a hypotonic solution so the chromosomes spread apart. Finally, the sample is preserved in a fixative and applied to a slide.

The geneticist then stains chromosomes with one of several dyes to better visualize the distinct and reproducible banding patterns of each chromosome pair. Following staining, the chromosomes are viewed using bright-field microscopy. A common stain choice is the Giemsa stain. Giemsa staining results in approximately 400&ndash800 bands (of tightly coiled DNA and condensed proteins) arranged along all of the 23 chromosome pairs. An experienced geneticist can identify each chromosome based on its characteristic banding pattern. In addition to the banding patterns, chromosomes are further identified on the basis of size and centromere location. To obtain the classic depiction of the karyotype in which homologous pairs of chromosomes are aligned in numerical order from longest to shortest, the geneticist obtains a digital image, identifies each chromosome, and manually arranges the chromosomes into this pattern.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): A human karyotype: This karyotype is of a male human. Notice that homologous chromosomes are the same size, and have the same centromere positions and banding patterns. A human female would have an XX chromosome pair instead of the XY pair shown.

At its most basic, the karyotype may reveal genetic abnormalities in which an individual has too many or too few chromosomes per cell. Examples of this are Down Syndrome, which is identified by a third copy of chromosome 21, and Turner Syndrome, which is characterized by the presence of only one X chromosome in women instead of the normal two. Geneticists can also identify large deletions or insertions of DNA. For instance, Jacobsen Syndrome, which involves distinctive facial features as well as heart and bleeding defects, is identified by a deletion on chromosome 11. Finally, the karyotype can pinpoint translocations, which occur when a segment of genetic material breaks from one chromosome and reattaches to another chromosome or to a different part of the same chromosome. Translocations are implicated in certain cancers, including chronic myelogenous leukemia.

During Mendel&rsquos lifetime, inheritance was an abstract concept that could only be inferred by performing crosses and observing the traits expressed by offspring. By observing a karyotype, today&rsquos geneticists can actually visualize the chromosomal composition of an individual to confirm or predict genetic abnormalities in offspring, even before birth.


Observations on karyotypes

Staining

The study of karyotypes is made possible by staining. Usually, a suitable dye, such as Giemsa, [19] is applied after cells have been arrested during cell division by a solution of colchicine. For humans, white blood cells are used most frequently because they are easily induced to divide and grow in tissue culture. [20] Sometimes observations may be made on non-dividing (interphase) cells. The sex of an unborn fetus can be determined by observation of interphase cells (see amniotic centesis and Barr body).

Observations

Six different characteristics of karyotypes are usually observed and compared: [21]

  1. Differences in absolute sizes of chromosomes. Chromosomes can vary in absolute size by as much as twenty-fold between genera of the same family. For example, the legumes Lotus tenuis and Vicia faba each have six pairs of chromosomes, yet V. faba chromosomes are many times larger. These differences probably reflect different amounts of DNA duplication.
  2. Differences in the position of centromeres. These differences probably came about through translocations.
  3. Differences in relative size of chromosomes. These differences probably arose from segmental interchange of unequal lengths.
  4. Differences in basic number of chromosomes. These differences could have resulted from successive unequal translocations which removed all the essential genetic material from a chromosome, permitting its loss without penalty to the organism (the dislocation hypothesis) or through fusion. Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than the great apes. Human chromosome 2 appears to have resulted from the fusion of two ancestral chromosomes, and many of the genes of those two original chromosomes have been translocated to other chromosomes.
  5. Differences in number and position of satellites. Satellites are small bodies attached to a chromosome by a thin thread.
  6. Differences in degree and distribution of heterochromatic regions. Heterochromatin stains darker than euchromatin. Heterochromatin is packed tighter. Heterochromatin consists mainly of genetically inactive and repetitive DNA sequences. Euchromatin is usually under active transcription.

A full account of a karyotype may therefore include the number, type, shape and banding of the chromosomes, as well as other cytogenetic information.

  1. between the sexes,
  2. between the germ-line and soma (between gametes and the rest of the body),
  3. between members of a population (chromosome polymorphism),
  4. in geographic specialization, and
  5. in Mosaics or otherwise abnormal individuals. [9]

Human karyotype

The normal human karyotypes contain 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Normal karyotypes forfemales contain two X chromosomes and are denoted 46,XX males have both an X and a Y chromosome denoted 46,XY. Any variation from the standard karyotype may lead to developmental abnormalities.


Difference Between Male and Female Karyotypes

Definition

The male karyotype refers to the appearance of the complete set of chromosomes in a somatic cell of a male while the female karyotype refers to the appearance of the complete set of chromosomes in a somatic cell of a female.

Sex Chromosomes

More importantly, the male karyotype contains one X and one Y chromosome as their sex chromosomes while the female karyotype contains two X chromosomes as their sex chromosomes. Thus, this is the main difference between male and female karyotypes.

Denotation

Another difference between male and female karyotypes is that the male karyotype is denoted as 46:XY while the female karyotype is denoted as 46:XX.

Working Genes

Generally, the Y chromosome of males contains less than 200 working genes while the X chromosome of females contains more than 1000 working genes.

Sex Abnormalities

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) and XYY syndrome are examples of sex abnormalities found in male karyotypes while Turner syndrome (X0) and triple X syndrome are the examples of sex abnormalities found in female karyotypes. Hence, this is another difference between male and female karyotypes.

Conclusion

The male karyotype is the number and the appearance of the complete chromosome set of a male. It contains 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes including one X and one Y chromosome. In comparison, the female karyotype is the number and appearance of the complete set of chromosomes of a somatic cell of a female. Though it contains a similar number of autosomal chromosome pairs with a similar appearance, the female karyotype contains a pair of X chromosomes as sex chromosomes. Therefore, the main difference between male and female karyotypes is the difference in the sex chromosomes.

References:

1. “Chromosome Analysis (Karyotyping).” Lab Tests Online – Explaining Pathology, Available Here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Human karyotype” By Mikael Häggström (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Human chromosomesXXY01” By User:Nami-ja – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things



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