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8.19: Algae - Biology

8.19: Algae - Biology


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8.19: Algae

7 Major Types of Algae

Pond scum, seaweed, and giant kelp are all examples of algae. Algae are protists with plant-like characteristics, that are typically found in aquatic environments. Like plants, algae are eukaryotic organisms that contain chloroplasts and are capable of photosynthesis. Like animals, some algae possess flagella, centrioles, and are capable of feeding on organic material in their habitat. Algae range in size from a single cell to very large multicellular species, and they can live in various environments including salt water, freshwater, wet soil, or on moist rocks. The large algae are generally referred to as simple aquatic plants. Unlike angiosperms and higher plants, algae lack vascular tissue and do not possess roots, stems, leaves, or flowers. As primary producers, algae are the foundation of the food chain in aquatic environments. They are a food source for many marine organisms including brine shrimp and krill, which in turn serve as the nutrition basis for other marine animals.

Algae can reproduce sexually, asexually or by a combination of both processes through alternation of generations. The types which reproduce asexually divide naturally (in the case of single-celled organisms) or release spores which may be motile or non-motile. Algae that reproduce sexually are generally induced to produce gametes when certain environmental stimuli – including temperature, salinity, and nutrients – become unfavorable. These algae species will produce a fertilized egg or zygote to create a new organism or a dormant zygospore that activates with favorable environmental stimuli.

Algae can be categorized into seven major types, each with distinct sizes, functions, and color. The different divisions include:

  • Euglenophyta (Euglenoids)
  • Chrysophyta (Golden-brown algae and Diatoms)
  • Pyrrophyta (Fire algae)
  • Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  • Rhodophyta (Red algae)
  • Paeophyta (Brown algae)
  • Xanthophyta (Yellow-green algae)

Algae

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Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants and animals. In addition to their ecological roles as oxygen producers and as the food base for almost all aquatic life, algae are economically important as a source of crude oil and as sources of food and a number of pharmaceutical and industrial products for humans. The taxonomy of algae is contentious and subject to rapid change as new molecular information is discovered. The study of algae is called phycology, and a person who studies algae is a phycologist.

What are algae?

Algae are defined as a group of predominantly aquatic, photosynthetic, and nucleus-bearing organisms that lack the true roots, stems, leaves, and specialized multicellular reproductive structures of plants. Their photosynthetic pigments are also more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants and animals.

What organelles do algae contain?

Algae are eukaryotic organisms and contain three types of double-membrane-bound organelles: the nucleus, the chloroplast, and the mitochondrion. In most algal cells, there is only a single nucleus, although some cells are multinucleate.

Are algae toxic?

Some species of algae produce toxins that are lethal to fish, or render shellfish and finfish unsafe for consumption. The (taxonomically contentious) dinoflagellates are responsible for red tides, which not only release toxins into the water that may be lethal to aquatic life, but also wind-sprayed toxic cells that can cause health problems for air-breathing organisms.

What size are algae?

Algae range in size from picoplankton, which are between 0.2 to 2 micrometers (0.000008 to 0.000079 inches) in diameter, to giant kelp, which can be 60 metres (200 feet) long.

Why are algae important?

Algae produce up to half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and algae help keep carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere by storing it. Algae are also the food base for almost all aquatic life, and are economically important as a source of crude oil and as sources of food and a number of pharmaceutical and industrial products for humans.

In this article the algae are defined as eukaryotic (nucleus-bearing) organisms that photosynthesize but lack the specialized multicellular reproductive structures of plants, which always contain fertile gamete-producing cells surrounded by sterile cells. Algae also lack true roots, stems, and leaves—features they share with the avascular lower plants (e.g., mosses, liverworts, and hornworts). Additionally, the algae as treated in this article exclude the prokaryotic (nucleus-lacking) blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).

Beginning in the 1830s, algae were classified into major groups based on colour—e.g., red, brown, and green. The colours are a reflection of different chloroplast pigments, such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins. Many more than three groups of pigments are recognized, and each class of algae shares a common set of pigment types distinct from those of all other groups.

The algae are not closely related in an evolutionary sense, and the phylogeny of the group remains to be delineated. Specific groups of algae share features with protozoa and fungi that, without the presence of chloroplasts and photosynthesis as delimiting features, make them difficult to distinguish from those organisms. Indeed, some algae appear to have a closer evolutionary relationship with the protozoa or fungi than they do with other algae.

This article discusses the algae in terms of their morphology, ecology, and evolutionary features. For a discussion of the related protists, see the articles protozoan and protist. For a more complete discussion of photosynthesis, see the articles photosynthesis and plant.


Abstract

Motivated by some lab and field observations of the hump shaped effects of water temperature and light on the growth of phytoplankton, a bottom-up nutrient phytoplankton model, which incorporates the combined effects of temperature and light, is proposed and analyzed to explore the dynamics of phytoplankton bloom. The population growth model reasonably captures such observed dynamics qualitatively. An ecological reproductive index is defined to characterize the growth of the phytoplankton which also allows a comprehensive analysis of the role of temperature and light on the growth and reproductive characteristics of phytoplankton in general. The model provides a framework to study the mechanisms of phytoplankton dynamics in shallow lake and may even be employed to study the controlled phytoplankton bloom.


8.19: Algae - Biology

Algae are kept in division Thallophyta along with fungi. They differ from fungi in the presence of chlorophyll pigment and mode of their nutrition.

General characteristics of algae

  • Algae are of universal occurrence. They are found in the variety of habitats like some member of algae grow in fresh water. Some are grown in marine water, on moist soil, on moist rocks, on snow, within or in animal or plant bodies.
  1. Epizoic- algae grow on the outer surface of the animal body.
  2. Endozoic- algae grow in the inner part of the animal body.
  3. Epiphytic- algae grow in the plant body.
  4. Endophytic- algae grow inside the plant body.
  • Gametophytic plant body of algae is thallus which may be branched or unbranched
  • Some members of algae are unicellular. Eg Chlamydomonas. Some are multicellular. eg macrocystis
  • Each of the cells is bounded by the cellulosic cell wall. It is further differentiated into the outer mucilaginous sheath and inner cellulosic layer. Mucilaginoussheath makes plants body slippery to touch and protect from dead and decaying of the plant body.
  • Reproduction takes place by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods. Vegetative multiplication by fragmentation, fission and tumor formation. Asexually reproduce by spore formation and common asexual spores are zoospores, autospore, aplanospore etc. Sexually reproduce by isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.
  • Embryo stage is absent in algae.

Process involved in sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction takes place by isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.

The fusion process of morphologically similar but physiologically dissimilar gametes is called isogamy. Male having the positive strain and female having negative strain are involved. Due to the opposite strains, they come close to each other and fuse together to form a diploid zygote. This process is also called conjugation.

The fusion process of morphologically as well as physiologically different gametes is called anisogamy. The male is smaller and motile and female is larger and non-motile. Such types of gametes are called anisogamete and fusion process is called anisogamy or anisogamous sexual reproduction.

The fusion process of male gamete antherozoid and female gamete ovum or egg is called oogamy. Male gametes are developed in antheridium and female gametes are developed in archegonium. If the antherozoid and egg are developed in a separative reproductive sex organ fertilized product is zygote called oogamous type of sexual reproduction.

Classification of algae

On the basis of dominant photosynthetic pigment, storage food material, and cell wall component division algae are divided into three classes

Fucoxanthin and fucocynin

r-phycoerythrin and allophycoerythrin

It reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods.

Sexually reproduce by isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.

It reproduces by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods.

Sexually reproduce by anisogamy and oogamy.

It reproduces by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods.

Sexually reproduce by oogamy.

  • Chlorophyll-a - C55H70O5N4 mg
  • Chlorophyll-b- C55H70O6N4 mg
  • Carotene- C40H56
  • Xanthophyll- C40H56O2

Economic importance of Algae

  • Seaweeds such as Laminaria japonica and religiosa are used for the treatment of goiter as they contain iodine.
  • Gelidium (as agar) is used in medicine as a laxative and in a culture medium for the growth of bacteria and for the manufacture of pills and ointments.
  • Extracts of some algae like Digenea, Codium, alsidium, and Durvillea are effective vermifuge.
  • Corallina cure worm infections and its extracts are used for the treatment of kidney, bladder and lungs diseases.
  • Chlorella culturing tanks are kept during space journey because of their rapid oxygen liberating capacity so that cosmonauts could breathe clean air.

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Things to remember
  • Algae are of universal occurrence. They are found in the variety of habitats like some member of algae grow in fresh water. Some are grown in marine water, on moist soil, on moist rocks, on snow, within or in animal or plant bodies.
  • Algae are kept in division Thallophyta along with fungi.
  • Embryo stage is absent in algae.
  • The fusion process of morphologically similar but physiologically dissimilar gametes is called isogamy.
  • The fusion process of morphologically as well as physiologically different gametes is called anisogamy.
  • The fusion process of male gamete antherozoid and female gamete ovum or egg is called oogamy.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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Characterization of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases which stimulate secretion of fatty acids in green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Background: Microalgae biofuel has become the most promising renewable energy over the past few years. But limitations still exist because of its high cost. Although, efforts have been made in enhancement of lipid productivity, the major cost problem in harvesting and oil extraction is still intractable. Thus, the idea of fatty acids (FAs) secretion which can massively facilitate algae harvesting and oil extraction was investigated here.

Results: The cDNAs of two long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACSs) genes were cloned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and named as cracs1 and cracs2. They showed different substrate adaptation in the yeast complementation experiments. Cracs2 could utilize FAs C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C16:1 and C18:1, while crac1 could only utilize substrate C14:0, C16:1 and C18:1. Knockdown of cracs1 and cracs2 in C. reinhardtii resulted in accumulation of intracellular lipids. The total intracellular lipids contents of transgenic algae q-15 (knockdown of cracs1) and p-13 (knockdown of cracs2) were 45 and 55 %, respectively higher than that of cc849. Furthermore, FAs secretion was discovered in both transgenic algae. Secreted FAs can reach 8.19 and 9.66 mg/10(9) cells in q-15 and p-13, respectively.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated the possibility of FAs secretion by microalgae and may give a new strategy of low-cost oil extraction. According to our findings, we proposed that FAs secretion may also be achieved in other species besides Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by knocking-down cracs genes, which may promote the future industrial application of microalgae biofuels.

Keywords: Antisense knockdown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Fatty acids secretion Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase.

Figures

Sequence analysis of deduced amino…

Sequence analysis of deduced amino acids of C. reinhardtii LACSs homologs. a Multiple…

Substrate utilization profiles of yeast…

Substrate utilization profiles of yeast strains expressing cracs1 and cracs2 . Cells expressing…

Functional analysis of cracs in…

Functional analysis of cracs in transgenic yeast YB525. Cells expressing cracs1 and cracs2…

mRNA expression patterns of cracs1…

mRNA expression patterns of cracs1 and cracs2 in algae q-15, p-13 and control…

Transgenic algae q-15 and p-13…

Transgenic algae q-15 and p-13 accumulated more intracellular lipids. (*) indicates significant difference…

Profile of intracellular fatty acids…

Profile of intracellular fatty acids in algae q-15, p-13, and control cc849 are…


Using light-harvesting polymers to speed up photosynthesis in algae

A team of researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences has found a way to speed up photosynthesis in algae by applying a conjugated polymer. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes experiments with applying polymers to algae and what they learned from them.

As the world continues to wrestle with the problem of global warming, scientists are searching for new ways to solve the problem—one approach involves finding an immediate replacement for gasoline. In this new effort, the researchers looked into the possibility of speeding up the photosynthesis process in algae for making biofuels.

Prior work with algae has shown it to be unsuitable for use in creating biofuels—its photosynthesis process is slow, resulting in low yields of proteins and fatty lipids—the parts of the plant needed to make biofuels. In this new effort, the researchers looked into the possibility of boosting the plants' photosynthesis rate, and by extension, its production of proteins and fatty lipids, by applying a type of conjugated polymer to the surfaces of their cells.

To test their idea, the researchers used an electrostatic process to force the synthetic, light-harvesting polymer PBF to adhere to the plant's cell surfaces. They found that doing so forced an immediate increase in the rate of overall growth—in the best case, by 110 percent. Testing showed the plants to have elevated levels of ATP and oxygen created by photosynthesis—the researchers also found higher levels of proteins and lipids. As an additional test, they also tried applying PBF to the roots of a flowering plant. They found that high doses tended to stunt growth, but low levels made the plant grow faster, leading to early maturation.

The work is still in the preliminary stages, thus, it is not yet known how well the process could be ramped up or commercialized, or how well it would stack up against other biofuel sources. But thus far, it does suggest that algae may yet turn out to be an alternative to fossil fuels.


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234th ACS National Meeting, Abstracts of Scientific Papers. 2007. (ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts).

Research output : Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution

T1 - Mass culture of microalgae on wastewater and gases from sludge burning for production of biomass feedstock for biodiesel

N2 - Sustainability is an essential aspect of biobased economy. The development of biofuels, an important component of biobased economy, must conform to sustainable behaviours. The work is centered on development of a new biofuel strategy, in which production of high oil content microalgae for biodiesel fuel is coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas emission control, and thus provides significant environmental benefits and improves the economic feasibility. The work addresses the two priority areas defined "Development of new biofuel resources or technologies" and "Biofuels, the environment, and the economy", and will involve expertise in multiple areas including algae production, biology, waste treatment, water quality, engineering, biomass processing, and biofuel production. Management of wastewater and associated gaseous emission is very costly and technically challenging. With increasingly stringent regulations and limits on wastewater discharge and gaseous emission, modification of current conventional processes must be made to meet these new limits. These process modifications will require substantial capital investment and would also likely substantially increase operating costs. The present proposed project takes a creative approach in which microalgae is grown on nutrients supplied from wastewater and gaseous emission from wastewater treatment plants, harvested and extracted for oil that is converted to biodiesel fuel. This would create a win-win situation where water and air conditions are preserved while renewable energy is generated. Furthermore, savings/credits from the wastewater and emission treatments will significantly improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biodiesel.

AB - Sustainability is an essential aspect of biobased economy. The development of biofuels, an important component of biobased economy, must conform to sustainable behaviours. The work is centered on development of a new biofuel strategy, in which production of high oil content microalgae for biodiesel fuel is coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas emission control, and thus provides significant environmental benefits and improves the economic feasibility. The work addresses the two priority areas defined "Development of new biofuel resources or technologies" and "Biofuels, the environment, and the economy", and will involve expertise in multiple areas including algae production, biology, waste treatment, water quality, engineering, biomass processing, and biofuel production. Management of wastewater and associated gaseous emission is very costly and technically challenging. With increasingly stringent regulations and limits on wastewater discharge and gaseous emission, modification of current conventional processes must be made to meet these new limits. These process modifications will require substantial capital investment and would also likely substantially increase operating costs. The present proposed project takes a creative approach in which microalgae is grown on nutrients supplied from wastewater and gaseous emission from wastewater treatment plants, harvested and extracted for oil that is converted to biodiesel fuel. This would create a win-win situation where water and air conditions are preserved while renewable energy is generated. Furthermore, savings/credits from the wastewater and emission treatments will significantly improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biodiesel.


JAMB Biology Repeated Questions 2021 | Likely Questions

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Likely JAMB Biology Repeated Questions 2021

You’ll answer 40 Biology questions in Jamb if it is one of your selected subjects.

1. Which of the following is a homostatic response in humans?
A. Withdrawing the hand from a hot object
B. The mouth getting watery when food is sighted
C. yawning owing to tiredness
D. shivering in a cold environment

2. The similarity among organisms belonging to the same group will be least within each
A. order B. family C. species D. kingdom

3. In Nigeria, the guinea savanna belt borders the
A. mangrove swamps and the sahel savanna
B. rainforests and the sudan savanna
C. desert and the sudan savanna
D. rainforests and the deserts

4. The population density of Tridex in an abandoned square farm land of side 200 m was found to be 5 plants per m . The population size of the plant on the farm is
A. 40
B. 1000
C. 40000
D. 200000

5. Secondary succession is much faster than primary succession because
A. pioneer colonizers are more in number
B. soil is already present
C. secondary seres require less nutrients
D. species competition is increased

6. Which of the following is used to test for the presence of lime in a soil sample?
A. H2SO(aq)
B. NaOH(aq)
C. HCl(aq)
D. HNO3(aq)

7. The importance of practising crop rotation in agriculture is to
A. maintain soil fertility
B. improve the nutritional value of crops
C. control soil erosion
D. ensure the growth of crops

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8. The recycling method of solid waste disposal is unsuitable for
A. organic matter
B. glass
C. plastic
D. metal scraps

9. A non – renewable alternative source of energy is
A. wind generator
B. solar panels
C. nuclear energy
D. hydroelectric power

10. Which of the following is the best explanation for a child who is phenotypically short and born of two tall parents
A. The father possesses a gene for shortness
B. The mother possesses a gene for shortness
C. Nature makes the child short
D. Both parents possess gene for shortness

11. A yellow maize is crossed with a white maize and the first filial generation produce yellow maize only. The white trait is said to exhibit
A. dominance
B. recessiveness
C. codominance
D. incomplete dominance

12. Angiosperms and gymnosperms belong to the plants group known as
A. schizophyta
B. bryophyta
C. pteridophyta
D. spermatophyta

13. Which of the following are non-green plants?
A. Euglena
B. Fungi
C. Spirogyra
D. Angiosperms

14. Sting cells are normally found in
A. Flatworms
B. Hydra
C. Snails
D. Paramecium

15. Which of the following are differentiated into true roots, stems and leaves
A. Algae
B. Schizophyta
C. Pteridophyta
D. Bryophyta

16. To facilitate gaseous exchange, breathing roots have
A. stomata
B. mitochondria
C. cuticle
D. lenticels

17. The annulus of fern sporangium helps in
A. spore dispersal
B. conduction of mineral salt
C. trapping of light energy
D. water retention

18. One of the features which adapts Paramecium to its environment is the possession of
A. a regular shape
B. two nuclei
C. cilia
D. a pellicle

19. In the earthworm, the cocoon is secreted by the
A. chaeta
B. prostomium
C. peristomium
D. citellum

20. The function of maxillipeds in crayfish is to aid
A. walking
B. swimming
C. feeding
D. respiration

21. The respiratory organ in the land snail is the
A. radula
B. mantle
C. tentacle
D. foot

22. The gill rakers of fishes take part in
A. feeding
B. respiration
C. swimming
D. diffusion

23. A wide pith with a ring of conducting tissue is characteristic of the root of
A. sunflower
B. maize
C. bean
D. okra

24. Which of the following is formed immediately after the first product of photosynthesis?
A. Lipid
B. Starch
C. Oxygen
D. Sugar

25. One of the accessory organs of the digestive system is the
A. Kidney
B. Spleen
C. liver
D. lung

26. The element common to protein carbohydrate and lipid is
A. hydrogen
B. sulphur
C. nitrogen
D. phosphorus

27. The crown of the mammalian tooth is covered with
A. cement
B. dentine
C. caries
D. enamel

28. In the living cells, insufficient oxygen may cause a breakdown of glucose into
A. fatty acids
B. lactic acids
C. glycogen
D. carbon dioxide

29. Which of the following can bring about the greatest increase in the rate of transpiration?
A. Increased humidity
B. Reduced temperature
C. Reduced wind speed
D. Reduced humidity

30. In a food chain, each succeeding level in a forward direction represents
A. an increase in the number of individuals
B. a decrease in the number of individuals
C. an increase in the biomass of individuals
D. a gain in the total energy being transferred

31. The disaster that would have the least destructive impact on animal life and balance in nature is
A. chemical pollution
B. forest fires
C. oil spillage
D. grasshopper pests

32. The legs and beak of an egret resemble those of the heron because they
A. both feed on fishes
B. are both birds
C. occupy similar niche
D. occupy the same trophic level

33. The factors that determine the distribution of vegetation zones are
A. temperature, light, rain and humidity
B. light, humidity, air and mist
C. temperature, light, air and humidity
D. humidity, snow, frost and dew

34. A cross between an albino female and a genetically normal male will result in offspring that are
A. all albino
B. all phenotypically normal
C. all genetically normal
D. half albino and half normal

35. The pollutants that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere are
A. radioactive materials
B. oxides of sulphur
C. oxides of carbon
D. chlorofluorocarbons

36. Spines and shells on animals are adaptations for
A. physical defence B. camouflage C. chemical defence D. mimicry

37. Blood grouping in human beings is derived from combinations of
A. two different alleles
B. four different alleles
C. three different alleles
D. two different genes

38. The older fossil-bearing rocks, in contrast to the more recent ones, are more likely to contain
A. animal rather than plant remains
B. invertebrates rather than birds
C. flowering plants rather than mosses
D. reptiles rather than fishes

39. In a group of male Agama lizards, the one with the brightest head colour is the
A. dominant
B. youngest
C. oldest
D. largest

40. An argument against Lamarck’s heory of evolution is that
A. acquired traits cannot be passed onto the offspring
B. disuse of body part cannot weaken the part
C. disused part is dropped off in the offspring
D. traits cannot be acquired through constant use of body parts.

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