5.1: Why It Matters: History of Life - Biology

5.1: Why It Matters: History of Life - Biology

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Why discuss the history of life on Earth?

Human beings are just one of countless examples of life on Earth. With the phylogenetic tree and the taxonomic classification system, scientists have grouped and organized organisms by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

The term kingdom is likely familiar to you, and you may even know the genus and species names of some organisms, as these names are used to create scientific names such as Canis lupus familiaris (dogs) and Felis catus (cats). But how does this type of organization matter in everyday life?

Evolutionary biologists could list many reasons why understanding phylogeny is important to everyday life in human society. For botanists, phylogeny acts as a guide to discovering new plants that can be used to benefit people. Think of all the ways humans use plants—food, medicine, and clothing are a few examples. If a plant contains a compound that is effective in treating disease, scientists might want to examine all of the relatives of that plant for other useful drugs.

36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection

In this section, you will explore the following questions:

  • How are life history patterns influenced by natural selection?
  • What are different life history patterns, and how do different reproductive strategies affect species survival?

Connection for AP ® Courses

All living systems, including populations, require free energy to maintain order, to grow and to reproduce. As we learned in earlier chapters, changes in free energy availability can cause fluctuations in population. All species have an energy budget and must balance energy intake with their use of energy for metabolism, parental care, and energy storage.

It’s amazing how much free energy is required for reproduction and the subsequent care of offspring. Fecundity describes how many offspring could be produced if an individual has as many offspring as possible. In animals, fecundity is inversely proportional to the amount of care given to an individual offspring.

Information presented and the examples highlighted in the section support concepts outlined in Big Idea 1 and Big Idea 2 of the AP ® Biology Curriculum Framework. The AP ® Learning Objectives listed in the Curriculum Framework provide a transparent foundation for the AP ® Biology course, an inquiry-based laboratory experience, instructional activities, and AP ® exam questions. A learning objective merges required content with one or more of the seven science practices.

Big Idea 1 The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Enduring Understanding 1.A Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
Essential Knowledge 1.A.2 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations.
Science Practice 2.2 The student can apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe natural phenomena.
Science Practice 5.3 The student can evaluate the evidence provided by data sets in relation to a particular scientific question.
Learning Objective 1.2 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the role of natural selection in evolution.
Big Idea 2 Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.A Growth, reproduction and maintenance of living systems require free energy and matter.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy.
Science Practice 6.2 The student can construct explanations of phenomena based on evidence produced through scientific practices.
Learning Objective 2.1 The student is able to explain how biological systems use free energy based on empirical data that all organisms require constant energy input to maintain organization, to grow and to reproduce.

A species’ life history describes the series of events over its lifetime, such as how resources are allocated for growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Life history traits affect the life table of an organism. A species’ life history is genetically determined and shaped by the environment and natural selection.

Life History Patterns and Energy Budgets

Energy is required by all living organisms for their growth, maintenance, and reproduction at the same time, energy is often a major limiting factor in determining an organism’s survival. Plants, for example, acquire energy from the sun via photosynthesis, but must expend this energy to grow, maintain health, and produce energy-rich seeds to produce the next generation. Animals have the additional burden of using some of their energy reserves to acquire food. Furthermore, some animals must expend energy caring for their offspring. Thus, all species have an energy budget: they must balance energy intake with their use of energy for metabolism, reproduction, parental care, and energy storage (such as bears building up body fat for winter hibernation).

Parental Care and Fecundity

Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of an individual within a population. In other words, fecundity describes how many offspring could ideally be produced if an individual has as many offspring as possible, repeating the reproductive cycle as soon as possible after the birth of the offspring. In animals, fecundity is inversely related to the amount of parental care given to an individual offspring. Species, such as many marine invertebrates, that produce many offspring usually provide little if any care for the offspring (they would not have the energy or the ability to do so anyway). Most of their energy budget is used to produce many tiny offspring. Animals with this strategy are often self-sufficient at a very early age. This is because of the energy tradeoff these organisms have made to maximize their evolutionary fitness. Because their energy is used for producing offspring instead of parental care, it makes sense that these offspring have some ability to be able to move within their environment and find food and perhaps shelter. Even with these abilities, their small size makes them extremely vulnerable to predation, so the production of many offspring allows enough of them to survive to maintain the species.

Animal species that have few offspring during a reproductive event usually give extensive parental care, devoting much of their energy budget to these activities, sometimes at the expense of their own health. This is the case with many mammals, such as humans, kangaroos, and pandas. The offspring of these species are relatively helpless at birth and need to develop before they achieve self-sufficiency.

Plants with low fecundity produce few energy-rich seeds (such as coconuts and chestnuts) with each having a good chance to germinate into a new organism plants with high fecundity usually have many small, energy-poor seeds (like orchids) that have a relatively poor chance of surviving. Although it may seem that coconuts and chestnuts have a better chance of surviving, the energy tradeoff of the orchid is also very effective. It is a matter of where the energy is used, for large numbers of seeds or for fewer seeds with more energy.

Early versus Late Reproduction

The timing of reproduction in a life history also affects species survival. Organisms that reproduce at an early age have a greater chance of producing offspring, but this is usually at the expense of their growth and the maintenance of their health. Conversely, organisms that start reproducing later in life often have greater fecundity or are better able to provide parental care, but they risk that they will not survive to reproductive age. Examples of this can be seen in fishes. Small fish like guppies use their energy to reproduce rapidly, but never attain the size that would give them defense against some predators. Larger fish, like the bluegill or shark, use their energy to attain a large size, but do so with the risk that they will die before they can reproduce or at least reproduce to their maximum. These different energy strategies and tradeoffs are key to understanding the evolution of each species as it maximizes its fitness and fills its niche. In terms of energy budgeting, some species “blow it all” and use up most of their energy reserves to reproduce early before they die. Other species delay having reproduction to become stronger, more experienced individuals and to make sure that they are strong enough to provide parental care if necessary.

Single versus Multiple Reproductive Events

Some life history traits, such as fecundity, timing of reproduction, and parental care, can be grouped together into general strategies that are used by multiple species. Semelparity occurs when a species reproduces only once during its lifetime and then dies. Such species use most of their resource budget during a single reproductive event, sacrificing their health to the point that they do not survive. Examples of semelparity are bamboo, which flowers once and then dies, and the Chinook salmon (Figure 36.7a), which uses most of its energy reserves to migrate from the ocean to its freshwater nesting area, where it reproduces and then dies. Scientists have posited alternate explanations for the evolutionary advantage of the Chinook’s post-reproduction death: a programmed suicide caused by a massive release of corticosteroid hormones, presumably so the parents can become food for the offspring, or simple exhaustion caused by the energy demands of reproduction these are still being debated.

Iteroparity describes species that reproduce repeatedly during their lives. Some animals are able to mate only once per year, but survive multiple mating seasons. The pronghorn antelope is an example of an animal that goes into a seasonal estrus cycle (“heat”): a hormonally induced physiological condition preparing the body for successful mating (Figure 36.7b). Females of these species mate only during the estrus phase of the cycle. A different pattern is observed in primates, including humans and chimpanzees, which may attempt reproduction at any time during their reproductive years, even though their menstrual cycles make pregnancy likely only a few days per month during ovulation (Figure 36.7c).

Link to Learning

Play this interactive PBS evolution-based mating game to learn more about reproductive strategies.

Jesus Christ: The Last Adam

The Bible teaches that Adam was the first human being, who was created by a special act of God from the dust of the ground. Through Adam’s disobedience death entered the world, affecting all humanity. In contrast, life comes through the obedience of the second and last Adam, Jesus Christ.


This essay focuses on the biblical portrait of Adam and his relation to Christ. First, I will consider what the OT says about Adam, including the covenant made with Adam. In the beginning God entered into a covenant with Adam promising him eternal life on the condition of perfect obedience. Adam is therefore best understood as a covenant head whose actions affect all those who are “in him.” Second, I will look at the NT witness of Adam, which is closely tied to the person and work of Christ. This is evident especially in the Gospels, Acts, and Paul’s epistles. Like Adam, Jesus is also a covenant head. Unlike Adam, Jesus loved and obeyed God fully. Jesus’s representative obedience overcomes the disobedience of Adam and benefits all those who are united to Christ by faith. Third, I will consider some practical implications of the Bible’s teaching on Adam.


The Bible teaches that Adam was the first person in world history. Yet the historicity of Adam is widely debated and often denied, especially in light of the rise of evolutionary theories that teach the creation of humanity is the result of a long process of development. It is important to consider carefully what the Old and New Testaments say about Adam, and why it matters. Far from being simply an interesting piece of biblical trivia, the role of Adam in biblical history and in the accomplishment of redemption is epochally consequential.

Adam in the Old Testament


Genesis teaches that on the sixth day of creation, God created man and woman (Gen 1:26–27). This account is expanded in Genesis 2, where we are told that the Lord God created man from the dust of the ground (Gen 2:7). This is a special act of creation Adam is not described as coming from any kind of lower life form. Further, Adam is created as a male first, and the female Eve is created from his side later (Gen 2:21–23). This male-female order has been God’s design from the beginning (cf. Matt 19:4–6 1Tim 2:13).

Adamic Covenant and Fall

Genesis also teaches that God entered into a covenant with Adam, which is often called the Covenant of Works (also known as the Covenant of Creation, the Covenant of Life, or the Covenant of Nature). This covenant has been debated, and many have objected to the term “Covenant of Works,” but understood rightly, it best reflects the biblical text. The Covenant of Works does not mean that Adam could work his way to God for he was a creature who owed God obedience by his existence. Instead, the Covenant of Works teaches that God freely entered into a covenant relationship with Adam, promising life on the condition of perfect obedience. Though the term covenant is not used in Genesis 1–3, the elements of a covenant are present (e.g., covenant members, stipulations, possibility of rewards or curses), and Hosea 6:7 most likely refers to this covenant with Adam.

In Genesis 2:16–17 Adam is given a probationary test: he is commanded not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, lest he die. This was no arbitrary command but was a summary command that tested Adam’s entire love for God. Adam was required to be fully obedient to God in every way. In the context of the covenant, love and obedience go hand in hand. Though it is not stated explicitly, the implication is that if Adam passed the probationary test, then he would inherit eternal life. Adam was created upright (Eccl 7:29), but he also had a goal in front of him: fullness of life. Adam tragically failed this test, and death resulted (Gen 2:17 3:19). Even so, the Lord promised redemption by the seed of the woman (Gen 3:15).

Legacy in Old Testament

Adam is mentioned by name only occasionally in the rest of the OT, but everywhere it is assumed that God is the creator of all people, and the promise to the woman is worked out in many ways. Adam as a historical figure is reflected in the genealogies of Genesis 5:1–3 and 1 Chronicles 1:1, and these are affirmed in the NT (Luke 3:38 Jude 14). In addition to Hosea 6:7, Adam’s first sin is echoed in Joshua 7:21 and possibly in Job 31:33 and Isaiah 43:27.

Adam in the New Testament


The New Testament also speaks explicitly of Adam as the first human being. Jesus virginal conception breaks the pattern of natural birth that has been the norm since Adam, and places Jesus as the holy head of a new humanity (cf. Luke 1:31­–35 3:38). Adam is in one sense son of God (Gen 5:1–3) Jesus is Son of God in a more fundamental sense. This is exemplified in Luke’s Gospel, where Jesus’s supernatural sonship is proclaimed in his baptism (Luke 3:22) and tested in the wilderness (Luke 4:1–13). Bridging the baptism and temptation account is the genealogy, which recounts the Adamic sonship of Christ (Luke 3:38). Similarly, Mark’s Gospel makes it clear that when Jesus obeys in the face of temptation, he does so as a new Adam who reverses the results of the curse. Whereas Adam’s sin led to disharmony and thorns, Jesus obeys in the wilderness and dwells peaceably with the wild animals (Mark 1:12–13).

Adamic elements abound in the Gospels. It is likely that Jesus’s favorite self-designation—“Son of Man”—derives from Daniel 7:13–14 where the kingdom of the Son of Man (drawing on Genesis 1–2 Psalm 8) is contrasted with the beastly, ungodly kingdoms. Adam was created with great dignity, to rule over God’s creation. The Son of Man is a new Adam, who reigns over a lasting kingdom. Jesus accomplishes salvation in Gospels as a representative man who overcomes the sin of the first man. Jesus binds the strong man by his obedience, freeing those who are in bondage to the devil, and offering forgiveness of sins (Matt 12:22–32 Mark 3:22–30). 1

Jesus is also portrayed in Adamic terms in his death. In the Gospel of John Pilate presents Jesus to the crowd as King of the Jews, wearing a crown of thorns and a purple robe. Pilate proclaims, “Behold the man” (John 19:5), echoing God’s words in reference to Adam in Genesis 3:22. This ironic episode again echoes the royal dimensions of Christ’s Adamic work. Though Jesus is condemned to die as a supposed messianic pretender, he rises to new life demonstrating sin had no claim on him. Unlike Adam, Jesus did not fail in his love for God as the perfectly obedient God-man, Jesus rises from the dead and reigns over an everlasting kingdom. It is fitting that Mary mistakes the risen Jesus for the gardener in John 20:15 (cf. 19:41)—just as the first Adam was tasked with obeying God in a garden, so Jesus emerges to new life in a garden. 2

The church father Irenaeus captured the parallels between Adam and Christ poetically, not least with respect to his death and resurrection. Just as sin came into the world through sin occasioned by a tree, so Jesus overcomes sin by his obedience on a tree (i.e., on the cross). 3 As death comes through Adam, life comes through Christ. This point is made even more explicit in Paul’s letters.

Acts and Paul’s Epistles

The Apostle Paul has much to say about Adam, especially in relation to the person and work of Jesus Christ. Two key texts are Romans 5:12–21 and 1 Corinthians 15:20–49. In Romans 5:12­–21 Paul speaks of the sin of one man (Adam), which led to death and condemnation for all people (5:12, 18). In contrast to Adam’s representative disobedience is the representative obedience of Jesus, which leads to justification and life for all those who are in him (5:18–19). Adam is more than an illustration in this passage here Paul speaks of historical and spiritual realities, as he explains the origins of sin and the realities of salvation from sin. Adam is the real head of humanity whose actions explain the universality of death and condemnation. Adam’s actions in history have to be overcome by the work of another man in history—Jesus Christ, who brings justification and life.

Paul speaks further about Adam in relation to Christ in 1 Corinthians 15:21–22, 44–49. In this passage Paul again reveals his covenantal frameworks that envisions two heads of humanity: Adam and Christ. In 15:21 Paul states that through man comes death, so through man comes the resurrection of the dead. Paul speaks of two representative men in world history: the first man, Adam (15:45), and the last Adam, who is the second man—Jesus Christ (15:45, 47). One’s destiny hinges on one’s relationship to these two men (15:48–49), and this applies to all people in world history. 4

Likewise, in Paul’s sermon at Athens in Acts 17 he speaks of God as the creator of all people, noting that from one man (Greek: ex henos, 17:26) God made every nation of mankind to live on the earth. This is most likely a reference to Adam, and Paul then teaches that all people are subject to this one man—the man Jesus Christ, who has been raised from the dead and is judge of all people (Acts 17:30–31).

Theologian Thomas Goodwin (1600–1680) memorably portrays Paul’s understanding of Adam and Christ as two covenant heads: Paul speaks of Adam and Christ as if there had never been anyone else in the world for these two men have all other people hanging from their belts. 5

Practical Implications

  1. The God of Scripture is not the distant God of deism he governs the world and relates to his creatures. He created Adam from the dust of the ground, and entered into a covenant with him, offering him a reward far beyond what Adam could ever deserve. When Adam sin God did not destroy the human race but intervened to save.
  2. The biblical teaching on Adam challenges us to believe the Scriptures. Many today doubt the plain biblical teaching on Adam. Any number of intricate, intellectual arguments can be mounted against the notion that Adam was the first human being. We must make a choice: will we believe the plain teaching of Scripture, even where it seems improbable or impossible? The clarity and truthfulness of Scripture is at stake.
    • Further, if Scripture cannot be trusted where it speaks plainly of the historical figure Adam, then where else can Scripture not be trusted? If Adam is not historical, then Paul’s logic about the work of Christ in Romans 5 and 1 Corinthians 15 is wrong. The implications of this are massive. Is Paul not an inspired apostle? Can he not be trusted, not even on matters of salvation? If Paul believes that the representative work of Christ parallels the representative work of Adam, but Adam is not real, then how is it possible for the work of Christ to count for us? Would Paul have an answer to this?
    • To deny the historicity of Adam means not only is Paul wrong, but also (at least) the authors of Genesis, 1 Chronicles, Luke, Acts, John, and Jude are wrong. We are not Scripture’s authority Scripture is our authority. We dare not set ourselves up as judge over the writings of Paul or any other biblical author. We must believe in the Scriptures, even if it is out of accord with the spirit of our age.
  3. Christ’s work must be understood in representative, and Adamic terms. Christ’s obedience is the answer to Adam’s disobedience. Adam acted representatively as a covenant head. Jesus similarly acts as a covenant head, which means his actions are counted to others vicariously. “[T]here is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men, by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12).


Further Reading

  • Bavinck, Herman. Reformed Dogmatics. Edited by John Bolt. Translated by John Vriend. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003–8, esp. §§294–97 (2:564–76) §349 (3:224–28).
  • Begg, Alistair and Sinclair B. Ferguson. Name Above All Names. Wheaton: Crossway, 2013.
  • Crowe, Brandon D. The Last Adam: A Theology of the Obedient Life of Jesus in the Gospels. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2017. and here.

This essay is part of the Concise Theology series. All views expressed in this essay are those of the author. This essay is freely available under Creative Commons License with Attribution-ShareAlike, allowing users to share it in other mediums/formats and adapt/translate the content as long as an attribution link, indication of changes, and the same Creative Commons License applies to that material. If you are interested in translating our content or are interested in joining our community of translators, please reach out to us.

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1 . Synthetic biology is linked to the study of.

Synthetic biology is the field of research in which the main objective is to create fully operational biological systems from the smallest constituent parts possible, including DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules.

Synthetic biology is the field of research in which the main objective is to create fully operational biological systems from the smallest constituent parts possible, including DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules.

Synthetic biology is the field of research in which the main objective is to create fully operational biological systems from the smallest constituent parts possible, including DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules.

Synthetic biology is the field of research in which the main objective is to create fully operational biological systems from the smallest constituent parts possible, including DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules.

Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes.

Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes.

Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes.

Biomimetics is an interdisciplinary field in which principles from engineering, chemistry and biology are applied to the synthesis of materials, synthetic systems or machines that have functions that mimic biological processes.

1 . 2010 marks the watershed year for artificial life research. Why?

Scientists at J. Craig Venter Institute constructed the first cell with a synthetic genome in 2010.

Scientists at J. Craig Venter Institute constructed the first cell with a synthetic genome in 2010.

Scientists at J. Craig Venter Institute constructed the first cell with a synthetic genome in 2010.

Scientists at J. Craig Venter Institute constructed the first cell with a synthetic genome in 2010.

1 . Sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003. How many other species have been genome-sequenced so far?

More than 250 animal species and 50 species of birds alone have been genome-sequenced, and the list continues to grow almost daily.

More than 250 animal species and 50 species of birds alone have been genome-sequenced, and the list continues to grow almost daily.

More than 250 animal species and 50 species of birds alone have been genome-sequenced, and the list continues to grow almost daily.

More than 250 animal species and 50 species of birds alone have been genome-sequenced, and the list continues to grow almost daily.

1 . By now we all know that humans and chimps share almost 99% of genes. What's the score of the cow?

Humans share a more recent common ancestor with rodents than they do with cows.

Humans share a more recent common ancestor with rodents than they do with cows.

Humans share a more recent common ancestor with rodents than they do with cows.

Humans share a more recent common ancestor with rodents than they do with cows.

Biology – High school textbook UEN OER

This high school Biology textbook is an Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook written specifically for students to have a reputable source for them to obtain materials and information aligned to the Utah school biology curriculum. The hope is that teachers use these resources for their students, as they keep records and suggestions on how to improve this amazing biology open textbook. The book is revised every year, based on teachers feedback and new objectives on improving the book.

Utah’s first OER project was science. USBE has been working with science for over several years. UEN recognizes the support of the Hewlett Foundation, the CK12 Foundation, and Brigham Young University in development of these materials. Visit the Science Activities webpage to view all of the Online Interactive Activities that are included in each textbook.

This textbook is licensed CC-BY-NC, providing open educational content for high school biology.

The majority of content was created from CK-12 flexbooks project, – Thanks!

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Biology High School Textbook – Table of Contents

Sample Biology – Open Educational Resource

1.1 Flow of Energy How Does Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem?
Am I all alone? Do organisms live in isolation? No, organisms are not separated from their environment or from other organisms. They interact in many ways with their surroundings.

For example, this deer may be drinking from this stream or eating nearby plants. Ecology is the study of living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) interactions in an environment. All organisms have the ability to grow and reproduce. To grow and reproduce, organisms must get materials and energy from the environment. Plants obtain their energy from the sun through photosynthesis, whereas animals obtain their energy from other organisms. Either way, these plants and animals, as well as bacteria and fungi, are constantly interacting with other species as well as the nonliving parts of their ecosystem (the interaction of all of the living and nonliving parts of a community). An organism’s environment includes two types of factors:

• Abiotic factors are the parts of the environment that are not living, such as sunlight, climate, soil, water, and air.

• Biotic factors are the parts of the environment that are alive, or were alive and then died, such as plants, animals, and their remains. Biotic factors also include bacteria, fungi and protists. Ecology studies the interactions between biotic factors, such as organisms like plants and animals, and abiotic factors. For example, all animals (biotic factors) breathe in oxygen (abiotic factor). All plants (biotic factor) absorb carbon dioxide (abiotic factor) and need water (abiotic factor) to survive.

• Ecosystems can be studied at small levels or at large levels. The levels of organization are described below from the smallest to the largest: 17

• Individuals are members of the same species (a group of individuals who are genetically related and can breed to produce fertile offspring), if their members cannot produce offspring that can also have children. The second word in the two-word specific name given to every organism is the species name. For example, in Homo sapiens, sapiens is the species name and Homo is the genus.

• A population is a group of organisms belonging to the same species that live in the same area and interact with one another.

• A community is all of the populations of different species that live in the same area and interact with one another.

• An ecosystem includes the living (biotic) organisms (all the populations) in an area and the non-living (abiotic) aspects of the environment and their interactions.

• The biosphere in the figure below, is the highest level of ecological organization. It is the part of the earth, including the air, land, surface rocks, and water, where life is found and includes almost all of the Earth. Parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere make up the biosphere.

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Grade 1 Workbooks - This post contains all our Grade 1 and Kindergarten (Pre-K, K) textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. Enjoy! ****** Grade 1 English Language and Arts Workbooks All our kindergarten and grade 1 English Language and Arts (ELA, EFL, ESL, grammar, art, music) workbooks and open education resources. Grade 1 to 2 ELA Activity Books and Teachers Guides . Grade 2 Workbooks - This post contains all our grade 2 free school textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets, perfect for classroom or homeschool use. Enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 2 Grade 2 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects. Grade 1 to 2 ELA Activity Workbooks and Teacher Guides Publisher: Open Schools BC . Grade 3 Workbooks - This post contains all our grade 3 free school textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. These free school resources and OER textbooks are perfect for classroom or homeschool use. Enjoy! Grade 3 English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 3 English language and arts (ELA), including EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects. English Banana Big . Grade 4 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 4, perfect for classroom and homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 4 Grade 4 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects. Engage NY – Grade 4 English Resources US CCSS Engage NY Grade 4 English Language . Grade 5 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks, workbooks, activity books, and tests for Grade 5, perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 5 Grade 5 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects Grade 5 English Textbooks India * NCERT/CBSE Grade 5 English . Grade 6 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 6, perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 6 Grade 6 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects Grade 6 English Textbooks India * NCERT/CBSE Grade 6 English Textbook, Honeysuckle, and supplementary reader A Pact . Grade 7 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 7, these open education resources are perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 7 Grade 7 English including ELA, EFL, ESL, EAL, and all art related subjects Engage NY – Grade 7 English Resources US CCSS Engage NY . Grade 8 Textbooks - This post contains all our free grade 8 textbooks, workbooks, and worksheets. These open education resources are perfect for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! ****** Grade 8 ELA Textbooks Below are all our English Language and Arts free school textbooks. Engage NY – Grade 8 English Resources US CCSS Engage NY Grade 8 English Language resources, . Grade 9 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 9, awesome free high-school OER textbooks for classroom or homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 9 This section includes all our Grade 9 textbooks in English (EFL, ESL, EAL), and all mediums of arts including music. Writing on the Run Grade . Grade 10 Textbooks - This post has all of our free school textbooks for Grade 10 free textbooks, perfect for classroom and homeschool use, enjoy! English Language and Arts Textbooks Grade 10 Note – for US Subjects which cover Grades 9 to 12 please see Grade 9 – Engage NY – Grade 10 English Resources US CCSS Engage NY .

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Microbiology Today Magazine

Microbiology Today is the Society's membership magazine. The magazine aims to provide informative and enjoyable broad-interest articles for all readers, including parliamentarians and policy-makers. Each issue focuses on a topic, and topics are chosen with the aim of covering all fields of microbiology.

Regular features of Microbiology Today include:

  • Themed feature articles on the topic of the issue.
  • News focusing on members and the Society.
  • Articles covering a wide range of subjects representing the interests of members, from publishing and policy through to career advice and public engagement.
  • Previews of future Society conferences and events.
  • Grants, prizes and membership information.
  • Comment for airing opinions, including more controversial views.

In 2021, two issues of Microbiology Today will be published in May and October, rather than in February, May, August and November as in previous years. Eligible Members are sent print copies of Microbiology Today as part of their annual subscription.

Current Issue

Microbiology Today May 2021: Life on a Changing Planet

Through each of our featured articles, the authors explore the chronic changes that have been inflicted on Earth's climate and how the microbial world has adapted, been impacted and how microbes could potentially offer solutions.

Houston Passes $5.1 Billion Annual Budget, Using Federal Aid To Plug Deficit

The city avoided budget cuts and layoffs, though Mayor Sylvester Turner said the pandemic caused the worst deficit in the city’s history.

Mayor Sylvester Turner at a Houston City Council meeting on June 2, 2021. Council passed Turner's $5.1 billion budget.

Houston City Council on Wednesday approved a $5.1 billion city budget for Fiscal Year 2022 that includes pay increases for firefighters and an additional $30 million for the police department, thanks to more than $600 million in federal COVID-19 relief.

In past years, the budget cycle has focused on closing significant funding gaps, but this year cuts or layoffs weren't on the table, thanks to $604 million from the American Rescue Plan Act, signed into law by President Biden.

The city will receive half of that federal funding this year and the second half next year.

The final budget passed by council increases just slightly the city's spending over last year. Mayor Sylvester Turner said that while the federal COVID relief funding prevented cuts, the city did lose significant revenue during the pandemic.

"2020, in many ways, from a financial end, was worse than Hurricane Harvey, because it has lasted for the last 14 months," Turner said. "Revenue reduction, quite frankly, of over $200 million. This is the worst budgetary deficit that we've faced in the history of the city."

In May, council members unanimously voted to give Turner control of those federal dollars despite pushback from some members of the public who asked the city to form a community task force to oversee the money.

The FY 2022 police department budget rose to $984 million while the fire department received $514 million. The city's housing department came in at $417,000 — though the department is in reality much larger, as the majority of its budget comes from federal funding.

According to the housing department's annual financial report, the department spent $193 million in FY 2020.

Turner said he's allocating some of the ARPA funding to pay for firefighter salary increases — an 18% increase over the next three years, beginning in July. The mayor and the firefighters union have been mired in an ongoing legal battle since the firefighters' contract expired in 2017.

Members of the Houston City Council on June 2, 2021.

The news comes the same day that the firefighters union announced it was pushing for a November ballot measure to require the city enter into binding arbitration in the case of a contract dispute.

Union President Marty Lancton had also called the purported raise a "bonus," since it is being funded by temporary federal dollars. The union has stressed that a raise must come through collective bargaining.

The budget also boosts police spending by $30 million, adding around 200 officers and 50 cadets. Violent crime has increased over the past year, with murders up around 40%.

In a workshop meeting last month to discuss the police department budget, HPD Chief Troy Finner argued Houston needs more cops on the streets.

"You have to be practical and look at your city," Finner said. "We need more police and we need much more funding."

But council has heard from dozens of community members in recent weeks calling for the city to reallocate part of the police department budget for others services, and some remarked that they didn't feel council members heard their feedback.

"It makes me sad to think that the thoughtfulness and curiosity and openness of some questions might be dismissed," Houstonian Saba Blanding said, calling in to the council meeting to speak on the budget. "What has been asked for is willingness to offer the citizens of Houston more than a false dichotomy of police or no police, an acknowledgement of the dignity and worth of all Houstonians — especially those that are frequently marginalized, such as the unhoused and the undocumented — for the city to address issues of health and safety that arise when departments are underfunded and understaffed, for a more participatory process to include the voices of our dynamic and diverse city."

Others echoed Blanding's request to rethink the city's budget process and shift some police funding to other departments.

"I just think it’d be great to start reinvesting that money into housing and healthcare and putting money away from policing for mental health," said Christopher Rivera, a community outreach coordinator with the Texas Civil Rights Project, citing results from a recent budget priorities survey from At Large Council member Sallie Alcorn's office.

Houston City Council Member Letitia Plummer on June 2, 2021.

With responses from more than 1,600 Houstonians, three spending priorities topped the list: homelessness and mental health, public works, and public safety.

"Homelessness & mental health services were selected by more than double the amount of respondents compared to last year," the report concluded, "likely a result of evictions during the pandemic and a heightened public focus on the role of mental health services in our criminal justice system."

Controller Chris Brown warned in a recent opinion piece in the Houston Chronicle that the federal funding shouldn't go toward increasing recurring expenses, and some council members expressed concerns about how the city will continue to afford higher personnel costs after the ARPA funding has been spent.

"It really does worry me to spend one-time funding on recurring expenditures," Alcorn said.

Council approved the final budget, with At Large Council member Mike Knox voting "no." At Large Council member Letitia Plummer intended to vote against the budget as well, but was unable to change an accidental "yes" vote.

In a statement, Plummer said despite the administration's work creating the budget, she opposed raising firefighters' pay without going through the collective bargaining process, and the decision to use federal funding to plug immediate budget gaps instead of finding a longer-term use for the money.

"I am ever so grateful for the $7.9 million that is being spent on much-needed police reform, something that I have been pushing since my last budget amendments, but the fact that the program is using American Rescue Plan Act funds tells me that that this again is a temporary fix," Plummer said. "It is a program that in three years has a potential of dying out. The 60,000 people who marched last year deserve better."

What happened? When was the budget vote called? Let me be on record to say I DID NOT VOTE YES on this budget. See my statement below. #Houston #hounews #houcouncil

&mdash Council Member Letitia Plummer (@CMPlummer4) June 2, 2021

Council members filed more than 100 amendments to the budget, many of which were referred to council committees for further discussion or withdrawn due to opposition from the mayor.

Among the amendments that passed was a measure from Alcorn that will create a residential composting pilot program, an amendment from District A Council member Amy Peck advising the solid waste department to send automatic text messages for those who opt in to remind them of their trash and recycling days, and another from District C Council member Abbie Kamin that sets the groundwork for the city to create a mandatory recycling program for multi-family residential properties.

An amendment from District G Council member Greg Travis failed that would have used $2.4 million in ARPA funding to create an additional HPD cadet class.

Plummer introduced an apartment inspection reform amendment to boost apartment complex safety. The amendment would have created a new $250 fee for multi-family properties that would be used to hire eight additional inspectors, but it failed to pass.

Plummer said she wrote the amendment after seeing abysmal living conditions while she canvassed apartment complexes to inform renters about their rights under the federal CDC eviction order.

"I was devastated by what I saw. The way in which people are living is devastating," Plummer said. "From a public health perspective, I do believe this is critical."

Instead of passing the amendment, Turner referred it to a council committee for further discussion.

"It is something we need to consider in terms of whether or not there should be a fee, and what that fee should be," Turner said. "But there is still a lot of vetting that needs to take place and it needs to be presented in the form of an ordinance."

Turner said he supported the measure and committed to bring an ordinance to council within 90 days.

"I will allow this to go to committee," Plummer said, but insisted that council vote on the matter quickly. "It is very easy for us to sit here and have conversations about why it takes a long time for governing to occur, because we're not living in a rat-infested, mold-infested apartment. We're going to a very warm, comfortable space."

Anti-Meaning and Why It Matters

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5.1: Why It Matters: History of Life - Biology

If you think community is an important part of healthy church life, and I hope you do, then small groups should also be important to you. They are actually crucial to the life of any church. I&rsquom not the only one who thinks so&mdashwe have the research to back it up.

For the book Transformational Groups, which I co-authored with Eric Geiger, we conducted a survey of churchgoers in the United States and Canada. The results were telling.

Almost 8-in-10 (79 percent) of those surveyed agreed that small groups are very important in the church. Two-thirds said that their church regularly starts new small groups.

We saw widespread agreement, but perhaps not widespread engagement.

What's the Right Engagement?

Some would say that 50 percent of your Sunday morning attendance should be in small groups. I would say that that is low, because I believe all of the people who are involved in your church should also be plugged into small community in whatever form you offer it.

Realistically, though, I don&rsquot think that 70 percent is an unreachable goal for churches that rightly emphasize small groups. I&rsquove been in traditional churches with 94% involvement in small groups (in this case, Sunday School). That&rsquos a lot, but it&rsquos doable. And it&rsquos important because relationships within the church body are important.

Why It Matters?

I find that a lot of Christian discipleship deals with what you need to know, not who you need to be with. That is sad, because if we get the relationships right, the information will follow. If we connect people in real gospel community, they will learn. But the opposite is not always true.

We&rsquore too often concerned only with conversion and information download, and we don&rsquot take community and relationship-based discipleship seriously enough.

You can&rsquot build community by way of programming, but you can use a program to create a pathway through which community can happen. Maybe you should read that sentence again the difference in the two is subtle.

Programs do not community make. However, programs can create the pathway&mdashthe opportunity&mdashfor birthing healthy community.

The Value of Community

When we preach the gospel to one another in close-knit community, there is spiritual growth that changes us individually and as a whole. That change causes us to position for an outward focus and encourage gospel transformation in the communities outside the church walls.

As much as I love gathering with the whole of the local church for corporate worship, there is something powerfully unique about an intimate gathering around a living room, a small classroom, or a dining room table that forces us to think differently than when we are in a big room for worship.

Small groups, in fact, are where much of the theology taught in our pulpits begins to be fleshed out in conversation and action. If you want your church to be on mission, teach it from the pulpit and equip your people to wrestle with it in small groups. It&rsquos messy that way, but it&rsquos fruitful.

Recognizing that, there are also four factors we found in transformational churches that were foundational to small group success.

1. Personal Discovery

First, personal discovery happens in small groups better than large groups for a number of reasons. You can learn, ask questions, involve yourself in the lives of others, and generally make yourself vulnerable among other people who are doing the same in small groups.

You just can&rsquot do that in sermons. There is no conversation, no feedback, and no questions. There&rsquos no room to challenge the preacher or even question any part of what&rsquos being taught. Spiritual growth happens better with others, in community, with open lines of communication and freedom to speak into one another&rsquos lives.

2. Smaller Communities Are More Effective

Second and closely related to the first, smaller communities act more like, well, communities. That may seem like a given, but the bigger the group is, the less like community it feels. The kind of community I am advocating requires a level of intimacy easily lost as numbers grow.

You simply cannot know everyone beyond a certain point, and you certainly will not open up about your struggles and sins in a large group of people you don&rsquot know.

3. Deeper Friendships

With that in mind, the third factor is that small groups deliver deeper friendships that double as accountability. When people know you, really know you, your life becomes far more transparent, including your sin.

Others learn to read you and will call you out for those sins, creating opportunities to deal with real life difficulties as they surface. This is part of what we should expect from good friends.

4. Maximum Participation

Finally, small groups deliver maximum participation. There are opportunities to discuss the issues with others in the church. Church life issues can be discussed openly among trusted friends.

Mission can be planned out and participated in together. Lives are sharpened and leaders developed. Small groups are an absolute necessity for involving as many people as possible in the life and ministry of your church.

Make Space for Community

Community matters enough to be prioritized. It needs to be more than an afterthought, but needs to be part of our focus.

We often say there is not more important ministry in the life of our church that our small groups. It's that important.

Whatever your plan or program for small groups, keep these principles in mind. Understand why groups are good and take advantage of the good they can bring into your church.

15 best commentaries for studying the Pentateuch

Studying the Pentateuch is one of the best things you can do to grasp a more full understanding of God’s redemptive work throughout the whole of Scripture. Does the book of Hebrews seem confusing? A better understanding of the Feasts and the sacrificial system in Leviticus will make the significance of Christ’s once-for-all sacrifice in Hebrews 10 so much more clear.

Whether you’re new to using commentaries or you have a full shelf to choose from, they are a great aid to your study of these books. Here are 15 of the best commentaries on the Pentateuch.


    Word Biblical Commentary (WBC)
        by Gordon J. Wenham by Gordon J. Wenham
            by Victor P. Hamilton by Victor P. Hamilton





          The Pentateuch is the linchpin for understanding not only the whole Old Testament but also the New.
          And with the New International Commentary on the Pentateuch bundle, you can dive deep into these first five books of the Bible, knowing you’ll have a resource at hand that provides a solid exposition of Scripture that is abreast of modern scholarship but stays loyal to Scripture as the infallible Word of God.

          Related articles

          *The Torah here is used as the first five books of the Bible, not as the general word for “instruction” or “teaching” as in verses like Proverbs 1:8 (“Hear, my son, your father’s instruction (torah), or as the laws given to Israel on a certain subject, like “the law (torah) of the sin offering” (see e.g., Lev 6:25).

          1. “Torah” is translated “law” in the OT, derived from the Hebrew verbal root yarah , which means “to throw” or “to shoot.” The idea behind the word is to inform, instruct, direct, or guide. In Jewish tradition it is most frequently used to designate the text of the first five books of the Bible, also called the Pentateuch. Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale Bible Dictionary (Tyndale House Publishers), 2001.
          2. James E. Smith, The Pentateuch (College Press, 1993), 18
          3. John D. Barry, Lexham Bible Dictionary, “Pentateuch” (Lexham Press, Bellingham, WA) 2016.
          4. Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale Bible Dictionary (Tyndale House Publishers), 2001.
          5. Roger Cotton, Pentateuch , 9
          6. See also: Deut. 4:14 5:1–2 1 Kings. 2:3 8:9 2 Kings. 14:6 Ezra 7:6 Neh. 1:7 8:1 Ps. 103:7 Dan. 9:13 2 Chron. 23:18 25:4 Mal. 4:4 Matt. 19:7–8 22:24 Acts 3:22 7:37–38 Rom. 10:19 1 Cor. 9:9 Heb. 9:19 Rev. 15:3.
          7. James E. Smith, The Pentateuch (College Press, 1993), 20.
          8. The Documentary Hypothesis argued that the Pentateuch was actually four documents joined together by a series of redactors.

          You can discuss this post and others in the Faithlife Today group. Create an account or log in to get started.

          Watch the video: The mysterious origins of life on Earth - Luka Seamus Wright (May 2022).


  1. Athmore

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  2. Faer

    yes, they came up with such a thing ...

  3. Aethelisdun

    Bravo, very good idea

  4. Dall


  5. Caolan

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  6. Malazshura

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  7. Voodoorr

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