What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

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I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.

Diploid organisms, such as we are, generally have two copies of each gene (excepting the sex chromosomes in males). In order to display the genotype for each, geneticists use shorthand. When referring to a gene, + means the wildtype, which is the "normal" version, and - means that the gene is missing, often a knockout. So a typical individual's genome for a particular gene will be +/+, a hemizygote (one copy deleted) is +/-, and a complete knockout is -/-.

The image is talking about peroxisomes, claiming that they are required for life, specifically the gene Pex5. You can look at the graph at see that compared to the wildtype (open circles), the -/- individuals (open squares) don't make it to a normal birth weight; their lifespan is less than three days. The +/- hemizygotes (filled circles) match the +/+ wildtype, indicating that this locus displays haplosufficiency, which means that only one functioning copy is needed for a typical phenotype.

Here are 10 signs of high intelligence. Do you have them?

by Reece Robertson November 9, 2019, 2:19 am

Let’s be honest, most people think they’re a whole lot smarter than they are. They read a couple of books, and suddenly, they start spouting off facts like they’re Einstein.

However, what are some true signs of intelligence? What does it really mean to be smarter than average?

1. Bad Breath

Dogs aren't known for having wonderfully minty breath, but if you notice a marked change with even a little halitosis, it might be time to take a trip to the veterinarian. There could be something wrong with your dog's oral health.

A change in the smell of your dog's breath may also be a cause for concern with respect to his gastrointestinal tract, liver, or kidneys. If your dog's breath smells of urine, for instance, he could have a kidney problem. Sweet-smelling breath is a sign to vets that your dog may have diabetes (especially if he's drinking more water and urinating more often). His overall dog mood may appear happy, but if his breath has changed, pay attention - let your veterinarian know.

Hair follicle minituarisation before its death

During hair thinning or balding process that could happen due to a variety of reasons – terminal hair progresses back into vellus hair during hair follicle miniaturisation stage, before completely dying.

However for the hair follicle to die completely it takes a long time and some research around stem cells in the hair growing areas point to the fact that even after hair follicle does effectively die (i.e. it does not produce any type of hair, including vellus) – some stem cells can create new hair follicles.

For now, it is important to remember, that just because there is no visible hair – it does not mean that hair follicle is dead. Oftentimes even visibly completely bald scalp has some peach fuzz, which points to the fact that the follicles aren’t dead, they are just in a different stage however, going through hair follicle minitiarrisation stage as a vellus hair.

Difference Between Signs and Symptoms

Signs vs Symptoms
Though signs and symptoms describe the same conditions, these two are different in many characteristics. While signs are what a doctor sees, symptoms are what a patient experiences. A symptom can be defined as one of the characters of a disease. Meanwhile, sign is the definite indication of a specific disease.

While signs are the physical manifestation of injury, illness or disease, symptoms can be described as what a patient experiences about the injury, illness or disease. When the patient notices symptoms, it is the others, especially the physician or doctor who notices signs. A high temperature, a rapid pulse, low blood pressure, open wound and bruising can be called as signs. Chills, shivering, fever, nausea, shaking and vertigo are the symptoms.

While signs are objective, symptoms on the other hand are subjective. Signs are called objective in the sense that they can be felt, heard or seen. Bleeding, bruising, swelling and fever are signs. Symptoms are subjective in the sense that they are not outwardly visible to others. It is only the patient who perceives and experiences the symptoms.

It is only when the patient experiences certain symptoms that he or she approaches a physician. Symptoms help the physician diagnose the problem. As symptoms are not visible outwards, it is most important that the patient be as descriptive so that the doctor or the physician may be able to assess and evaluate the symptoms.

Symptoms can also be defined as what the patient reports, but which cannot be verified. Feeling tired, feeling dizzy and having pain are some of the symptoms, which cannot be verified. But signs on the other hand can be verified. Signs can be measured in a clinical setting. High or low blood pressure, rapid heart rate or fever, can be measured.

Symptoms are vague but signs are visible. Sign is only an objective indication of some medical fact that may be detected by a physician. These signs may not have any meaning to patients but they are significant for a physician to diagnosis the medical conditions.

One can describe symptom as one that is experienced and reported by a patient. Meanwhile the doctor discovers signs of a disease during a patient’s examination.

1. Signs are what a doctor sees, symptoms are what a patient experiences.
2. While signs are the physical manifestation of injury, illness or disease, symptoms can be described as what a patient experience about the injury, illness or disease.
3. Signs are objective. Symptoms on the other hand are subjective

More Boolean Search Examples

Below are some more examples of Boolean operators. Remember that you can combine them and utilize other advanced search options such as quotes to define phrases.

Boolean operators need to be in all uppercase letters for the search engine to understand them as an operator and not a regular word.

Helps find free games by including both words.

Searches for video chat apps that can run on both Windows and iOS devices.

Locate open houses that are open either day.

If you're not sure how the article might be worded, you can try a search like this to cover both words.

Finds movies mentioning 2019, but excludes all pages that have the word comedy.

Locates web pages about paleo recipes but ensures that none of them include the word sugar.

Signs of Life on Venus Hint at Biology Pretty Much Anywhere in the Universe

T o go to Venus is to go to hell. One of the most brilliant and beautiful objects in the night sky, Venus is a near twin of Earth in size and mass but it is radically different in almost every other way. Its surface temperature averages 470º C (880º F), or hot enough to melt lead. Its atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide, with a ground-level pressure 90 times greater than that on Earth&mdashthe equivalent of being under 914 m (3,000 ft.) of water. Spacecraft that descend through the Venusian atmosphere can make much of the trip without a parachute, descending like a marble in a can of house paint.

This is not&mdashit needn’t be said&mdasha place that could likely harbor life. Except that now it very much needs to be said that it looks like it might.

That astonishing possibility arose out of observations made by the James Clerk Maxwell telescope in Hawaii and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array telescope in Chile’s Atacama Desert, and published yesterday in Nature Astronomy. The study’s authors, led by Cardiff University astronomer and professor Jane Greaves, did not find life itself. What they found instead were significant quantities of the toxic gas phosphine, which is a known byproduct of microorganisms that thrive in anaerobic environments&mdashor those lacking free oxygen. In theory, the gas could be produced by volcanoes or the interaction of lightning with the atmosphere, but the concentrations in which the researchers found the stuff on Venus seemed far too high for those periodic, non-biological processes to be responsible. Instead, something must be steadily producing and regularly replenishing the gas, and that something looks to investigators like it could well be biology.

“[We] exhaustively went through every possibility and ruled all of them out: volcanoes, lightning strikes, small meteorites falling into the atmosphere,” Sara Seager, an MIT planetary scientist and co-author of the paper, told the Associated Press. “Not a single process we looked at could produce phosphine in high enough quantities to explain our team&rsquos findings.&rdquo

This is by no means the first time investigators have contemplated the possibility of life in so inhospitable a place as Venus. Early in the planet’s history, Venus, like Mars, was likely a watery world similar at least in that way to Earth. Due to its lack of a magnetic field, Mars’s atmosphere was stripped away by the sun at some point, causing the water to sputter away into space. In the case of Venus, the planet’s lack of global plate tectonics prevented carbon dioxide from being plowed back into the ground, leading to a runaway greenhouse effect&mdashexacerbated by the planet’s closer proximity to the sun than Earth’s&mdashcausing the oceans to boil away. The water vapor in the air only made the greenhouse heating worse.

But Venus had hundreds of millions of temperate years before it lost its water in which microbial life could have formed on the ground and then migrated up through the atmosphere to higher elevations&mdash50 or so km (31 mi.)&mdashwhere the pressure is closer to that of the Earth at sea level and the temperature is a balmy, shirtsleeves 30º C (86° F). There, bacteria could survive and thrive.

Not everyone is persuaded that the new findings mean biology on Earth’s sister planet. For one thing, the Venusian clouds are exceedingly high in sulfuric acid, meaning the microbes would have had to evolve a way to deal with its corrosive effects. For another thing, just because investigators have ruled out known alternative sources of phosphine doesn’t mean unknown ones aren’t responsible.

&ldquoIt&rsquos not a smoking gun,&rdquo co-author David Clements, an Imperial College of London astrophysicist, told the AP. &ldquoIt&rsquos not even gunshot residue on the hands of your prime suspect, but there is a distinct whiff of cordite in the air which may be suggesting something.&rdquo

One of the things it suggests is that the solar system&mdashand perhaps the universe by implication&mdashcould well be teeming with life. If a blast-furnace world like Venus could harbor atmospheric organisms and frigid desert like Mars could harbor them in aquifers underground, what does it say about rich water worlds like the Jovian moons Europa and Ganymede, the Saturnian moon Enceladus and the dwarf planet Pluto, which are believed to harbor salty, liquid oceans beneath their surface, where life would have had billions of years to evolve? What does it say about the larger cosmos, where water is abundant? What does it say about even humble asteroids and meteorites that have landed on Earth carrying hydrocarbons and amino acids?

Life may well be exceedingly hard to achieve&mdashfound only on a one-off world like Earth and nowhere else. Or, it might be exceedingly easy, requiring nothing more than chemistry, energy and time to emerge&mdashor maybe it falls somewhere in between. Today, the betting feels a little more like it tips to the easy side. Our solar system is more dynamic than we ever believed&mdashand there is no reason the same could not be true of the cosmos as a whole.

Synonyms for sign

sign, mark, token, note, symptom mean a discernible indication of what is not itself directly perceptible. sign applies to any indication to be perceived by the senses or the reason. encouraging signs for the economy mark suggests something impressed on or inherently characteristic of a thing often in contrast to general outward appearance. a mark of a good upbringing token applies to something that serves as a proof of something intangible. this gift is a token of our esteem note suggests a distinguishing mark or characteristic. a note of irony in her writing symptom suggests an outward indication of an internal change or condition. rampant crime is a symptom of that city's decay

Sucrose Structure

As mentioned above, sucrose is disaccharide, or a molecule made of two monosaccharides. Glucose and fructose are both monosaccharides, but together they make the disaccharide sucrose. This is an important process for the storage and compression of energy. Plants do this to make it easier to transport large amounts of energy, via sucrose. This process can be seen in the following image.

Glucose is seen on the left. Glucose is known as an aldose, meaning the carbonyl group (carbon double bonded to an oxygen) is found at the end of the chain of carbons. When the molecule creates a ring back on itself, it forms a 6-sided ring. Fructose, on the other hand, is a ketose. This means that the carbonyl group is found in the middle of the middle of the molecule. In this case, it forces fructose into a five-sided ring.


If a pixel of the satellite image , which covers 1 square kilometer, contains fire, it is labeled a hot spot.

In this very speech, he took a passing shot at “highly political” district attorneys trying “to remake state and local prosecutorial offices in their preferred progressive image .”

Brand takeovers typically run for three to five seconds and are either videos or image s.

The record number of women running for Congress is official after the last state primary, Barbados will remove the Queen as its head of state, and a model attempts to reclaim her image .

A week after the image was taken, things have only gone worse on the West Coast.

The effort to sterilize his image first began when Epstein hired Los Angeles-based spin doctors Sitrick Co.

Oh, and the first press image they released was a pair of black dudes in tracksuits as a troll of sorts to NME.

Of course, Kim Jong-Un takes an image hit as a Katy Perry-obsessed, margarita-drinking maniac with daddy issues.

When his agent asked if he missed his wife, his mind flashed to an image of Alison.

What image are you hoping people who pick up this book and read it, come away with?

This harmless image of a fierce beast Yung Pak would pull about the floor with a string by the hour.

The object is to produce a concurrence or connection between the sight- image of the Person and a sound- image of his Name.

In return, each of the priests placed an image of Buddha on a tree-root, turning it into an altar.

The stainless image fearing to disturb,So faithfully reflected in my breastAs winds disturb the mirror of the lake.

The image stillWas seen, and in the sun's uncertain lightAbove my couch she seemed to linger still.


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