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I'm using Alconox powder detergent to clean my laboratory glassware, the powder is a pain to store near the sink and to use. Would like to make a concentrated liquid to use in its stead.
I have tried a few things, obviously just water and mixing, even up to overnight. It really doesn't go into solution very well, even at seemingly low concentrations. Ive got it up to about 20% w/v but I've tried heat, glycerin, adjusting pH to ~8.8, adding EDTA. I have not added these things in any scientific way, just kind of pouring glycerol or EDTA in.
Wondering if anyone in here has experience with detergents like this , or has done something like this before. Thanks in advance!
If you're just using it for hand washing, you probably don't need an ultra-concentrated solution. A very small amount of detergent goes a long way. (Think about it - what would you do with an ultra-concentrated solution? Probably squirt a small amount on the glassware and then add water.)
What I've seen done is to make your "dilute" solution of Alconox, put it in a squirt bottle, and then use a healthy squirt of it when washing. In fact, you probably find you don't even need a healthy squirt of it. A small amount of even the dilute solution is fine.
The approaches I've seen have been rather cavalier - basically just throwing a bunch of the powder in the squirt bottle and filling it with water. You quickly get a sense of how much will dissolve, and if you use a squirt bottle with a drop tube that doesn't go all the way to the bottom, you don't need to worry if not all of it dissolves.
Alternatively, as you you seem the fastidious type, you can fill another (non-squirt) bottle partway with Alconox, the rest of the way with water and let that sit (perhaps with occasional mixing). This should give you a saturated Alconox solution, which you can use to fill the squirt bottle, being careful not to transfer residual powder from the bottle. Then you can add more Alconox powder and water to the stock bottle, let dissolve, and you should be ready for the next time.
Again, this may only give you a 10-20% solution of Alconox in water, but that should be more than sufficiently concentrated for most usages.
In our labs we just use something like palmolive or bleach followed by a 95% EtOH rinse and finally rinsing with DI water.
Discover the Best Nature & Biology Gifts
We see a lot of unique gifts here at the GeekWrapped office, but LYFE is one of the most unusual. It's a zero-gravity growing system that hovers over an oak base via magnetic levitation! Your plant gets 360-degree sunlight exposure.
Cognitive Surplus Notebooks
Upgrade your notebook with stunning, classic science illustrations. These premium notebooks feature high-quality hardcovers with a satin, waterproof coating. They're custom made in Portland, Oregon from recycled paper.
Bellaa Rhino Bookends
Check out this cool gift for book lovers and nature fans. These golden bookends are mesmerizing and made from sculpted polyresin and wood. They come in a pair (no surprise there) and will add a touch of design to any living room!
USB Squirming Tentacle
Just plug this tentacle into any USB port and watch it wiggle and squirm! It's a great gift for biology fans and the perfect office toy. You'll be stunned by how realistic this moves - anybody who passes by will be amazed!
The Dino Sphere is an incredible, living object that's filled with thousands of non-toxic plankton organisms called Dinoflagellates. They will start glowing bright blue at night when you shake them. Really unique!
Human Organ Lunch Bag
This insulated lunch tote will keep your food cool, prepped, and ready for transplant right into your hungry stomach! It's great for keeping your snacks alive and well on the go. Get ready for jealous looks!
Grass Flip Flops
All right, let's talk about these epic flip flops for a moment. You know that feeling of fresh summer grass below your feet? That's exactly what these casual flip flops are designed to do. Plus, they look incredibly unique.
Faux Taxidermy Moose Head
Is this awesome, or what? This artistically crafted moose head is made from fine resin and is very easy to hang on any wall with the included keyhole in the back. Get ready to take your living room or office space to the next level!
Disappearing Dino Mug
Watch eons pass before your eyes over a cup of coffee! Ok, what kind of coffee are you drinking? In all seriousness, this mug is super fun! Pour in your favorite hot beverage, and the dinosaurs transform into museum exhibition fossils.
IFetch Ball Launcher
iFetch is an interactive, on-demand ball launcher that lets your dog play fetch to its heart's content. It's ideal for healthy exercise and comes with three soft, pet-safe tennis balls. You can get the tiny version for smaller dogs right here.
Women in Science
This New York Times bestselling book highlights the contributions of fifty notable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). An empowering read, created by the super talented Rachel Ignotofsky.
Spinning Crystal Earth Sphere
This globe crystal sphere is incredible: It shows a geographically accurate, full-color Earth, including all continents and more than 50 major rivers. You can easily spin this shiny 1.5" marble on the included glass base to explore it in detail.
DNA (hmm, we think it's spelled Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions of what makes you you. So it's only fitting to give it as a romantic gift to science and nature fans! Available in many colors.
Endangered Species Erasers
Want to get a stylish and functional eraser and also help to support endangered species? We thought so! :) Check out these really cool erasers, created in partnership with the Center for Biological Diversity.
Watermelon Lollies Slicer
Reduce the mess and increase the fun with this super useful watermelon slicer. It combines the healthy and refreshing qualities of delicious watermelon with the fun ergonomics of ice-lollies. Perfect for kids, parties, picnics, and more!
Natural Teeth Whitening Stick
Get whiter teeth without using ANY chemicals or toothpaste. What's the secret? This ingenious teeth whitening stick! It's made from a branch of the Arak tree. The wood is 100% natural, whitens your teeth, and freshens your breath!
Cat Smartphone Stand
Time for a nap? This funny smartphone stand will securely hold your phone. It's available in a variety of cat designs. Just put kitty on the back and drop in your phone. And if you get several you can build a purramid or meowtain!
3D Butterfly Wall Stickers
We think adding more nature-inspired design into homes is long overdue! One of the most unique ways to do it on the cheap are these incredibly lifelike 3D butterfly stickers. They're easy to remove and come in beautiful colors.
Mr. Bones Skeleton Ice Tray
Mr. Bones is a cool guy who knows how to chill your drinks while sending a cold tingle down your spine! Jiggle him in your drink and feel the temperature drop all the way down to perfect. His silicone spine allows for macabre dances!
Chick Egg Mold
Yup, you're seeing this right. This ridiculously awesome egg mold turns your eggs into winsome chickies that brighten up your plate alongside the bacon. The food-safe mold comes with two legs so your chicken can stand up.
Titanium Octopus Ring
If you're a fan of octopuses, sea monsters, squids, Kraken, or anything else from the depth of the ocean, this beautiful titanium steel ring is for you. It's totally unique and will gently wrap around your finger with its tiny arms.
Animal Butt Magnets
You know we've had too much coffee when we add products like this, but they are so fun and crazy - we had to! Grab these hilarious animal butt magnets for your fridge and home. Available as cats, dogs, and many other animals.
Nomskulls Baking Cups
Looking for really unique baking cups? Here you go! These fun, silicone cupcake molds are fantastic: Simply pour in batter and bake for skull shaped cupcakes. The gift box also includes the brain icing recipe we used for the photo above!
Hedgehog Dryer Balls
Want softer clothes? We thought so! just throw these two bad boys into the dryer to lift and separate your laundry, allowing hot air to flow more efficiently. The result? You'll save money and energy and get naturally softer fabric!
Cypress Tree Coffee Table
One of the best tables you've ever seen? Yup, we felt the same way! Using a clever aluminium-iron structure, this coffee table is both lightweight and ultra-sturdy. Plus, it looks astonishing! A unique furniture piece that'll turn heads.
Bear Hands Oven Mitts
Made from made from insulated cotton with heat-resistant, silicone paw pads, these bear hand oven mitts are all kinds of awesome! They combine fun and functionality and also make the perfect, cute housewarming gift!
Silicone Shark Tea Infuser
This friendly shark is here to entertain you while you make tea. Just put loose leafs into his silicone body, put him into water, and watch as he relaxes while steeping calmly. The best part? He does all the work so that you can relax!
MoMA Skull Lamp
This famous skull lamp was designed by Nir Chehanowski for MoMA in New York. Turn it on, and you'll see an amazing optical illusion that will challenge your understanding of light and space. Perfect as a geeky housewarming gift!
Driftwood Orb Air Plant
Air plants are unusual life forms. They don't need soil, just air, water, and love. In this designer set, you get four of them, plus a handmade driftwood orb where they can mingle. Your plants will last 50 times longer than traditional flowers.
Giant Hand Garden Rakes
If only scientists and engineers could think of a way to make your hands bigger for all that gardening work. oh wait, you guessed it: Experience the power of having gigantic claws and take all tasks around the home to the next level!
Branch & Twig Pencils
If you're a nature and biology fan than these branch and twig pencils are a clever way to express your passion. They're made from real forest woods (plus graphite) and are one of the most stylish ways to naturally take notes.
Designed by Joris Sparenberg, the Vanishing Vase has become an iconic product. Because of its minimalist appearance it allows whatever you put into it to be in the spotlight. A tasteful and unusual gift for him or her.
Marble Soap Rocks
Are these rocks or are they soaps? Well, they're both! Featuring refreshing scents and realistic designs they add a timeless look to any bathroom. These rock-star soaps are also the perfect nerdy birthday gift or unique teacher gift.
Be careful! Deep between the pages of your favorite book lies a crocodile, guarding the spot you've left off. It's also a fun, cheap, and unique gift. So know you have yet another reason to say that your weekend is so booked.
Hovering Bonsai Tree
You guessed it: This floating, living bonsai tree doesn't use ancient magic but the science of magnets. It's the ultimate geek gift for home and work! You can even transplant your favorite own plant and make it float impossibly.
Bear Sandwich Bread
Ok, cuteness overload, right? These bear sandwich molds make it super easy to make your own delicious, bear-shaped treats! Just warm any kind of bread, put it in the mold, and voila - you've got super adorable food.
These fun pens are made from silicone to look and feel just like real grass blades. Show your love of nature and biology the next time you pen a new masterpiece! They're also amazing as an affordable party favor.
Human Anatomy Felt Toy
Used around the world by science educators and parents, this felt anatomy set helps to teach kids how their body works. It's approachable, funny, and easy to use. It's the official version, as seen on NBC News' Geek Gift Guide.
Dinosaur Baking Mold
These new dinosaur cake baking molds are totally awesome! Just fill them with any dough, bake, and then decorate them however you want. You get three different types of dinosaur, all in a food-grade silicone mold. Yum!
These new designer leggings are the perfect way to show off your love for science in style! Choose from 15 different designs ranging from galaxy and peacock feathers to muscles and bones. A totally unique fashion accessory!
Bone Shapes Ballpoint Pens
A whole set of awesome ballpoint pens that are shaped like human bones? Yeah, you heard that right! Get ready to own the most unique writing utensil ever. These pens look totally amazing and make for a really unusual gift.
Lifelike Elephant Wall Plaque
Looking for a breathtaking art piece for your room? This incredibly detailed, lifelike elephant sculpture mounts right on your wall and will make your friends' jaws drop. It's also a perfect unusual gift idea for nature and wildlife fans!
DNA Helix Earrings
These new, white gold dangle earrings show off the beauty of the DNA helix. They're an incredibly unique way to celebrate human discovery and science. Get them for yourself or as the perfect geek gift for your loved one.
River Stones Bowl
Wow, this designer bowl is incredible: It mimics the natural look of pebbles under river water. To do this, the bowl features small, hand-picked natural stones suspended in clear acrylic resin. Plus, it's food-safe and washable.
Zebra Vinyl Wall Mural
We're constantly asked about fun new animal and biology gifts. Well, here's a really cool zebra wall mural that turns your home into a safari experience. We love how this decal uses negative space to create an amazing design!
Air Plant Amethyst Crystal
This gold dipped air plant garden is totally amazing. It's a handmade piece of affordable art that combines a minimal-care air plant with a stunning amethyst rock crystal. The perfect birthday or housewarming gift!
Giant Cockroach Pool Float
Check out our favorite pool toy: This gigantic cockroach pool float will be a huge hit at your next summer party or a trip to the beach! The perfect gag gift for nature and bug fans. It's probably the most unique geek product ever!
Eye to Eye
In this eye-popping new book, award-winning author-illustrator Steve Jenkins explains how animals see the world! It shows you how eyes evolved one billion years ago and have since grown into an amazing variety.
Natural Ingredient Lollipops
You have to check out this fun Etsy shop which sells handmade lollipops made from real ingredients you can see and pronounce. They offer many flavors including strawberry, cherry, orange, lavender, and more.
Ghost Chili Pepper
The Scoville scale measures the spiciness of food. Normal chilies have about 10,000 SHU, but this bad boy clocks in at over 1 Million SHU. It's spicy, crazy spicy. The only question is, will you have the nerves to try it?
4D Vision Anatomy Models
These ultra-realistic models take discovering anatomy to a whole new level. Each one contains dozens of detachable parts that let you explore the inner workings of humans and many animals.
Paper Taxidermy Kit
Give your living room a really unique touch of design with this paper animal taxidermy head sculpture! No need to shed any blood, of course, just assemble the 75 handmade pieces and watch as your friends' jaws drop!
Dinosaur Rolling Pin
The perfect geek gift for Nomnomnivores! Make your friends roar at the next birthday with this custom made, wooden rolling pin that allows you to print dinosaurs on any dough, including cookies and cakes!
Anti-Fatigue Faux Grass Rug
Make your feet smile with this faux grass stress-relief mat. Just kick off your shoes and enjoy a gentle foot massage. The included anti-fatigue feature is perfect for standing and sitting desks. Your feet will feel amazing!
Tiny Snow Forest Ring
Handmade from fresh wood, jewelry-resin, and beeswax, this ring is an incredible novelty gift! It features a beautiful, miniature landscape showing a snowy forest scene. You can find many other designs here!
Watermelon Shark Bowl
This ceramic watermelon shark bowl will add jaw-dropping, focus-grabbing fun to your next party or BBQ! It looks absolutely real, just like a watermelon (but with some extra bite). The perfect science teacher gift idea!
Dried Flower Phone Case
Ready for the most unique phone case you can buy? These incredible, handmade cases are filled with real dried flowers. They are available in a huge variety of colors and designs for iPhone, Samsung, and other phones.
T. Rex Skull Statue
This is a scientifically accurate, 1/10 scale model of the Tyrannosaurus Rex's fearsome skull. Every detail is hand painted, making it the perfect gift for science fans. It's museum quality, it's affordable, and it's really epic!
Shark Attack Slippers
Love to live on the edge and take things to the limit? We totally get it! Well, if you're brave enough, then these adult shark slippers can't wait to roam around your living room with you. Totally unique and fintastic!
Skull Ice Molds
If you're looking to take your beverages and cocktails to the next level, then this unique product is for you! Make two creep-tastic ice cube skulls that will be a huge hit at your next party or poker night! Tip: Add cranberry!
There's a reason why bees use hexagon honeycomb structures for their hives: They're one of nature's most effective ways to maximize storage space while minimizing material. Now you can bring nature's engineering home.
Lotus 3D LED Desk Lamp
This desk lamp is part engineering and part art! It's made of four millimeter thin acrylic glass and ultra-bright LED lights, shaped into an incredible looking 3D design! Customize the look with seven included colors.
Octopus Parafoil Kite
Looking for a unique kite for the park or beach? This is it! This hilarious octopus is a skilled flyer, flapping its tentacles while drifting through the air above you. It's really fun to fly and will definitely draw a big crowd!
Polar Bear + Penguin Ice Cubes
The coolest ice cubes you will ever see (32 degrees)! Utilizes high-tech iceberg technology to keep your polar animals afloat. Just remember, Polar bears do not live in Antarctica, but our friends the penguins do.
This is Spinal Tape
Give your geek gifts and packages some spine! Crazy long, this 1,000 inch (25 meters) spool of backbone tape contains 2475 vertebrae with which you can decorate and customize any surface or box. So cool!
4D Vision Shark
The Great White Shark first swam Earth's waters 16 million years ago and evolution has not changed it. See the inner workings of the planet's most perfect predator in the safety of your own home with this 13” model.
If you're looking for a fun new pair of socks that show off your love for science and biology, this is it! This pair showcases the human body's anatomical structure - all while looking fascinating and seriously stylish on your feet.
T. Rex Skull Shower Head
Get clean with a little prehistoric fun and give your bathroom some bite. This 3D printed dinosaur skulls spews water right from its mouth and fits any shower! Pretty much the coolest way to get ready in the morning.
Lion Mane Cat Costume
Turn your cat (or dog) into the king of all animals with this hilarious lion mane! Just put it on and close the velcro under the chin, done. If you love biology (or just your kitty), this is the best party costume ever.
Sloth Tea Infuser
If you're like us, mornings are always more fun with a nice, warm cup of tea. Now you can make it in style with this sleepy sloth infuser made from BPA-free silicone. It'll hang patiently in your cup to make you smile!
The Drunken Botanist
This fun book explores the dizzying array of herbs, flowers, trees, fruits, and fungi that humans have, through ingenuity, inspiration, and sheer desperation contrived to transform into alcohol. Have fun and cheers!
Dinosaur Fossil Ice Tray
Need to dig up a cool, geeky gift? Look no further than these awesome ice-cold fossils! Includes two food-grade silicone ice trays: T-Rex and Triceratops! Create an ice age in your freezer or use them as Jell-O molds.
Dinosaur Origami Book
This awesome origami book shows you how to easily fold prehistoric favorites such as a brooding Brontosaurus, feisty Triceratops, menacing T. Rex, and ravaging Pterosauria. Tons of fun and includes everything you need.
Live Aquatic Moss Ball Plant
Hi! I'm your new Marimo Cladophora Ball, or Moss Ball. I am a rare algae that only forms in a few lakes in Iceland, Scotland, and Japan. Many cultures consider me good luck and I'm very easy to care for. See you soon!
X-Ray Body Suit
All right, this one is super unusual: CIt's an ultra realistic X-ray suit showing every detail of the human body. Wilhelm Röntgen would love it! Oh yeah, and needless to say: It's also the best skeleton costume in the world!
Triceratops Dog Costume
Scary! This costume is so awesome, we barely have words for it. Turn your pooch into a fearsome, horned Triceratops who's sure to be the center of attention! Look for that fierce and confident expression on his or her face!
LifeStraw Water Filter
Get the award-winning LifeStraw water filter, used by millions around the world! Based on cutting edge science, it removes 99.99% of waterborne bacteria and parasites. Perfect for your next adventure in nature!
Penguin Rice Mold
These little rice ball molds make it easy to design tiny rice penguins. Use the included stencils to quickly cut out the penguins' features from seaweed sheets or other foods. Your friends and family will love this unique gift!
Tentacle Cupcake Toppers
Style your desserts with a sweet and awesome design from the depths of the ocean! These reusable, acrylic toppers look amazing on cakes, cupcakes, and all other treats. They will make huge waves at your next party!
The smart way to get clean! Three lavish handcrafted soaps made with the finest quality glycerin, Shea butter, goats milk, cosmetic grade colors and scents. Great as a gift, party favor, or simply to keep for yourself!
Real Velociraptor Claw
The real deal and one of the coolest gifts we've ever seen: A genuine velociraptor claw! It’s 75-71 million years old (Cretaceous Period) and was excavated in Montana. Definitely luxurious but also absolute dino-mite!
Dinosaur Cookie Cutters
Now: This is prehistoric party-perfection! Easily cut crisp cookie outlines with this dino cutter, then emboss perfect fossil remains with the included stamper. Bake delicious cookies and dinoscore big at the next birthday!
One of the finest specimens of a Smilodon Fatalis (saber-toothed cat) from the world famous La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles. A ferocious animal from 10,000 years ago that had massive 11-inch canines. Meow!
Planet Earth Watch
Looking for a gift for an earth science or astronomy lover? This beautiful golden planet earth watch is custom made by hand for each order. Plus, it’s waterproof in case you want to take a meteor shower with it.
Darwin's Dinosaur Egg Puzzle
Evolve your brain power with this dinosaur egg puzzle. This will test your imagination as you attempt to rebuild the egg from its pieces. Inspired by Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species.
Dinosaur Table Lamps
Add some prehistoric fun to your living room with these dinosaur table lamps. You get two of them, a fierce T.Rex and a friendly Brachiosaurus. A great and really unique geek gift for dinosaur fans! Also the perfect night light.
Portrait of Your DNA
DNA Portraits are the world’s most personalized form of art. A beautiful showcase of what makes you you. Your personal DNA picture will be as unique as you are: No two prints are ever alike! A great student or teacher gift.
Brain Ice Mold
These ice cube molds are a no-brainer for your next party or dinner. They create fun, anatomically correct ice cubes that will cause a splash at birthdays and on Halloween! Made from high quality, food safe silicone.
DNA Helix Necklace
This beautiful, handmade silver necklace showcases DNA’s incredible structure. DNA is the molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. GATC!
Frog Life Cycle Art Piece
See the frog’s life cycle up close inside this durable, ultra-clear acrylic block. Includes a real specimen of each of the life cycle stages of this amazing species. A great gift for biology lovers! And yes, they're ethically collected.
These mushrooms glow by themselves! You will see them shine in your garden or on your balcony, even in low light. They're an amazing gift idea for nature and biology fans. Absolutely safe and jaw dropping at night!
Coffee Table Aquarium
The ultimate gift for anybody who likes biology and fish. This ever-changing aquatic habitat is illuminated from below and includes everything to keep your fish healthy and comfortable. Incredibly cool and fun!
X-Ray Oven Glove
Ever wondered what youɽ look like doing everyday things under an X-ray? This glove protects your hand in the kitchen while giving you a sneak peek at what lies beneath. An amazing housewarming gift!
Lavender Orchid Bowl
Orchids are one of the most successful plants on our planet, with over 26,000 known species. That’s four times the number of mammal species! Bring their colorful beauty home with this everlasting work of botanical art.
Glow In The Dark Fish
Yes, we’re serious – these are real, live fish that actually glow in the dark. Is doesn’t get much cooler than watching these amazing creatures swim around in your home at night. Trust us, none of your friends have ever seen this.
This hand-blown glow in the dark glass jellyfish paperweight looks absolutely magnificent from any angle. The jellyfish seems to float in the air! It's the perfect gift for the marine biologist and nature fan in your life!
Vintage Science Pillow
This colorful print is a modified version of a vintage science illustration. Perfect for your botanist friends! It's fresh greens and yellows will bring nature inside. A gorgeous handmade decoration for any room.
Tree Root Chandelier
This impressive, handmade chandelier is the perfect artwork to illuminate your living room or office. Made to order by a team of artists, it's available also in gold, white, and brown. Perfect for the botany and biology lover.
Rice Krispie Brains
Got sweets on your mind? Get these colorful chocolate brains that are filled with yummy rice krispie treats! They're freshly made and delicious! Why not send your friends and loved ones a gift they will truly enjoy?
Ethical Octopus Specimen
Discover this extra special science beaker that contains a quartz crystal and. one of the most magnificent creatures of the sea, a baby octopus! The ultimate gift for any science geek collection. They are ethically collected.
Giant Eagle Kite
Turn any beach day or nature trip into a spectacular show with this enormous 9’ x 3’ flying eagle. An elaborate frame keeps the wings spread wide and ready for flight. Features detailed print that looks amazing in the sky.
Air Plant Terrarium
Anatomically designed to hold your blooming greenery. These handmade guys are ready to join you in your garden and proudly display your verdant vegetation wherever you see fit. High quality porcelain.
Plant attack! Seed Bombs are for making things more beautiful. Throw a bomb on some dirt and wait to see what happens. As long as it gets some sunlight and water, you'll have a patch of colorful flowers or herbs in no time!
Giant Sequoia Kit
All you need to grow your own Giant Sequoia, the world’s largest tree and the largest living thing! Grows perfectly in any climate. Plus, your tree could be around for thousands of years – the current record is 2,700.
Zombie Plant Kit
There’s a zombie on your lawn!! This plant rapidly closes its leaves when you touch them and then comes back to life. See the first leaves grow within a week! Great for teaching kids about plants and evolution. Braaaiiins!
DIY Blood Test Kit
Find out your blood type quickly and easily, because knowing is half the battle. Each special kit is good for one blood test inside the ABO- and Rhesus-D systems. Also makes for a useful and fun DIY science project!
Root Vue Farm
Get access to your own secret, underground bio-lab! See the magic of roots growing underneath the ground. Watch carrot, radish, and onion seeds grow up and roots grow down through the viewing window.
Bring the dinosaurs back with this giant inflatable green stegosaurus model! Makes a captivating 46” display and is sure to turn heads for people to ask "Is that real?” Perfect for your home, office, party, or classroom!
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Sample Biology Resume Template
Dedicated biological researcher with more than 4 years of experience using molecular biology techniques including sample preparation and sequencing. Looking to leverage mastery of biolyzers and electron microscopes in biological research at Qyl Inc.
- Performed DNA/RNA detection using full automated systems
- Supported test method validation from internal and external labs
- Performed DNA cloning tests with team of 3 research interns
- Running PCR and submitting samples for sequencing
- Training biology research interns
- Synthesized organic compounds on both small and large scales.
- Created encrypted database for compiling lab results of plant dissections and distillation.
- Collaborated with state authorities to control disease outbreaks in farm crops.
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
- Developed reference for future habitat monitoring of groundhog nesting using mapping and survey techniques now used by the State of Michigan.
- Analytical thinking
- Creative problem solving
- Data entry
- DNA and RNA analysis
- Attention to detail
- Grant and proposal writing
- Run blog &ldquoBiology Every Day&rdquo, breaking down newest research and biology findings into layman terms.
This is how to write a job-winning biology resume:
I’ve loved science ever since I can remember.
I have a Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a master’s in Engineering Physics (concentration: Solid State Physics), and a bachelor’s in Engineering Physics (concentration: electrical engineering.)
As a NASA Graduate Fellow, I worked with NASA on a series of material science microgravity missions that were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle, and I conducted research as a Graduate Fellow with Oak Ridge National Lab on new materials in their Solid State Physics Division.
I switched to life sciences and went into Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. I started a biotech company that developed new tools for discovering drugs to combat drug resistant forms of HIV. I now love researching ways we can fix the body more naturally.
I also am an avid innovator, and have developed concepts for new medical devices, 3D printing technologies, cellular assays, nanotechnologies, sensors, new materials, etc— I have competed against a pool of 350,000 engineers and scientists from around the world and won licenses with private and public entities for further development of
30 of these technologies. For these awards, I was named a Super Solver. For these awards, I am featured as a Super Solver in the book :”One Smart Crowd” (see below for a partial list of challenges I have won)
I am a Christian and believe that God is the author of all science, mathematics, logic, reason, life, and love.
I have a beautiful wife and 4 wonderful children who I love dearly.
Check out my blog on this site, as well as my books. I think you will find the information interesting and engaging.
I’ve written a book titled, “The Author of Light”, which you can learn more about by —-> CLICKING HERE
If you would like me to speak at your group, organization, or event, please send me an email –> [email protected]
Partial List of Innovation Challenges I’ve Won:
- Design and Method to Fabricate a 3D Printed Kidney Glomerulus on-a-Chip.
- Use of Microfluidic Pulsed Jets to Produce Artificial Cells.
- Real Time Measurement of Steroid Metabolites in Single Cells.
- Phenotypic Assays for Screening Chemogenomics Libraries.
- Innovative Method for the 3D printing of Cotton Fabric.
- Novel Methodology to 3D Print High-Index Glass at Low Temperatures.
- Nanosensor for Real Time and Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds within the Atmosphere.
- Design of a Microarray Assay for Evaluating Biological Efficacy.
- Device and App for Real Time Monitoring of Sleep Apnea.
- Method For Manufacturing Nano-Ordered Magnetic Biphasic Composite Materials
- Design of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting the Global Impact of Climate Shocks.
- Application of Electroactive Polymers to Develop a Tactile Digital Interface for the Visually Impaired.
- Innovative Use of Aragonite as a Neural Biomatrix.
- Method for Producing Flexible and Thin Light Emitting Panels for Residential and Commercial Lighting.
- Design of Game Control System for Disabled Individuals.
- Innovative Method to 3D Print Electrical Wire Harnesses and Connectors.
- Nanoporous Solid Phase Biocatalyst to Increase Mass Transfer Rate of Gas Phase Reactants in a Bioreactor for Fermenting Long-chain Hydrocarbon Biofuels.
- Design of Nanocomposite Coating for Increasing Corona Resistance
- Process to Produce Sterile Food Pellets at Low Temperature.
- Novel Applications of a Smart Shape-Shifting Material.
- Novel Nanoparticle Technology to Protect Hair from Excessive Heat
- Application of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Tape for Wind Turbines.
- New Cleaning Technique – Supersonic Steam Jet Carpet Cleaner.
- Novel Application of Nanoferromagnetic Particles for Optically Active Coatings.
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Molecular Biology Instruments & Equipment
Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a broad range of instruments, equipment, plastics, and service plans providing complete solutions for productivity at all stages of your molecular biology workflow.
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Shake 'n' Stack Hybridization Ovens
Hybridize bottles with rotisserie or shaking platforms in the versatile Shake 'n' Stack hybridization oven. Ideal for molecular biology labs looking to obtain uniformity with a small footprint.
OWL electrophoresis systems
Separate and analyze macromolecules and their fragments like DNA and RNA for applications in molecular biology. Includes tanks, chambers, casters, plates, spacers, combs, power supplies, and other accessories.
Digital dry baths/block heaters
Designed for basic to advanced applications in a molecular biology lab workflow to safely heat samples. Our dry bath block heaters offer a range of configurations with interchangeable modular blocks with a max temperature of 130°C and a timer. Available in 1, 2 and 4 block sizes.
LP Vortex mixer
Vortex mixers employ precision temperature control at various mixing speeds which make them ideal for a wide variety of molecular biology applications including immunochemical reactions, enzyme and protein analysis, and microarray analysis.
Laboratory hotplates and stirrers
Get a large selection of choices in hotplate stirrers that offer precise control of solution temperature for molecular biology applications.
Thermo Scientific Barnstead GenPure xCAD Plus Ultrapure Water Purification System
Designed for flexibility in the lab with advanced technology allowing for simultaneous dispensing from up to three remote dispensers. The water system comes with leak detection, electronic dispensing for fully automatic volume control, and feed water monitoring that alerts users to fluctuations in the feed water quality. The GenPure UV/UF models produce water free of DNA, RNA, endotoxins, and particles.
Thermo Scientific Orion Versa Star Pro pH/LogR Benchtop Meter
Meet your most challenging applications for pH, mV, ORP and LogR temperature. Easily view measurements on the stunning color display and customize the four meter channels with interchangeable modules. Use LogR technology to measure both pH and temperature using the glass-bulb of most pH electrodes. The unique LogR technology allows for pH and temperature to be measured simultaneously using one probe, which condenses the measuring process for small sample vessels.
Thermo Scientific Orion PerpHecT ROSS Combination pH Micro Electrode
Utilizing ROSS technology to deliver fast, high-accuracy responses in varying temperature, micro-electrodes enable measurement in small, confined spaces. The smaller bulb size allows for measurements within MCT’s and plates. Partnered with the Orion Versa Star Pro pH/LogR measurements, you can measure temperature without the bulkiness of a separate ATC probe.
Thermo Scientific Versette Automated Liquid Handler
Utilizing automation in liquid handling molecular biology applications can reduce hands-on processing time and facilitates consistency, accuracy and a streamlined extraction workflow. The Versette automated liquid handler is a compact, easy-to-use 96/384-channel instrument providing excellent reproducibility, offering a convenient solution for in plate reformatting, plate replication, and plate filling applications.
Thermo Scientific Multidrop dispensers
Increase walk-away time by filling plates with automated precision and reproducibility. Compact Thermo Scientific Multidrop reagent dispensers utilize peristaltic pump dispensing technology and work with detachable autoclavable Multidrop cassettes for the dispensing of reagents, diluents, cells and beads. Choose the right multidrop reagent dispenser for your molecular biology applications.
Thermo Scientific ART Barrier Pipette Tips
Discover the only pipette tips that provide 100% security against liquid and aerosol contamination to better protect the qualitative and quantitative results obtained in your molecular biology applications. ART Barrier Pipette Tips include a one-of-a-kind self-sealing barrier to completely prevent cross contamination of your pipettes and associated samples, by blocking aerosols, liquids, radioactive isotopes and biological materials. Use ART tips on virtually any brand of manual handheld pipettes in your lab.
Thermo Scientific E1-ClipTip Pipettes and My Pipette Creator
Connect your E1-ClipTip pipette to My Pipette Creator, a new web-based pipetting app designed to revolutionize the way you pipette. Create programs and share with multiple connected pipettes and colleagues at once, all from the comfort of your PC. You can also download and share pre-programed prototocols that are specifically optimized for many of your favorite molecular biology sample prep, qPCR, and ELISA reagent kits as well as additional workflow protocols including serial dispensing, dilute and serial dilute.
Thermo Scientific Microcentrifuges
Support micro-volume protocols such as nucleic acid or protein lysate preparation and PCR reaction set-up all in a small footprint with Thermo Scientific microcentrifuges. Combining intuitive controls, easy-to-read displays, and fast one-click centrifuge lid closure with fast acceleration and deceleration, these microcentrifuges provide the flexibility and convenience you need to maximize your lab's productivity.
Thermo Scientific Precision General Purpose Baths
Thermo Scientific Precision general purpose water baths play an important role in the sample prep stage of any molecular biology workflow. Designed to maintain water temperature from ambient to 100°C, you can rapidly thaw frozen samples in a controlled environment, bringing the samples to a precise temperature in preparation for further analysis and cell manipulation. These rugged, high-performance baths range from 2L to 28L, including shallow models to support a wide range of applications and feature auto-on and auto-off timers to optimize operation schedules.
Thermo Scientific Orbital Shakers
Every molecular biology lab needs a reliable, flexible orbital shaker to mix, blend, or agitate bacterial cells. Thermo Scientific MaxQ 6000 or 8000 orbital shakers offer a stackable, space-saving design that provides outstanding drive mechanisms for continuous 24-hour operation, easy-to-use controls, and a choice of incubation or refrigerated solutions.
How to kill your RNA
It all started with a petunia. Now, one Nobel prize later, this technique could prompt molecular medicine’s long-awaited revolution. The technology is RNA interference, and enthusiasts predict it could soon be used to treat every ailment - from cancer and pandemic flu to type 2 diabetes and heart disease - by shutting down rogue genes.
RNAi has gone from discovery into clinical trials with astonishing speed. Large pharmaceutical companies are signing billion-dollar deals to access gene silencing know-how - hedging their bets on its clinical potential. The stakes are high, but the rewards could be colossal.
There is a catch, however, and that is delivery. ’RNAi reagents don’t necessarily go where you want them to,’ says Dmitry Samarsky, vice president of technology development at RXi Pharmaceuticals in Worcester, Massachusetts in the US. He presented his company’s latest research and spoke to Chemistry World at the RNAi Europe conference in Barcelona, Spain on 21 September 2007.
Getting RNAi therapies into specific parts of the body and across the cell membrane is the main challenge. ’The great promise of selective gene silencing has been tempered by many barriers. The major barrier to using RNAi as a therapy is to move it from blood to inside the cell,’ says Paul White from Monash University in Australia.
Given that the hurdle is considerable, is the hype over RNAi therapeutics warranted? ’People in the pharmaceutical industry are saying "the delivery issue needs to be resolved",’ Samarsky said in his presentation. ’Pharma always looks at it from the small molecule perspective: you gulp down an aspirin, it floods the body, it goes everywhere and does the job. We should be looking at RNAi in a different way.’
Fortunes are likely to be made from whoever resolves these issues, so no one is about to give up on medical applications. In fact, quite the contrary. The first generation therapies for age-related blindness, cancer, and respiratory syncytial virus are already being cautiously tested on humans.
Clinical interest is such that it is easy to forget that RNAi is a natural process that operates in mammals as well as in lower organisms and plants. The mechanism probably evolved as a way to fight off pathogenic viruses. Many viruses have their genetic material made from RNA. So when they infect a cell, the RNAi pathway strikes back, shutting off key viral genes and aborting the infection.
The first clues of gene silencing were spotted in petunias in 1990. Dutch researchers were trying to produce more vibrantly coloured purple flowers by inserting extra RNA into normal plants. Instead, they lost pigmentation and turned white. Scientists were intrigued, though exactly what triggered these effects was not clear at the time.
Nobel winners Andrew Fire (left) and Craig Mello (right) (seen here with a statue of Paul Ehrlich) discovered RNAi in worms
A few years later, scientists discovered that the silencing mechanism is triggered by double-stranded RNA molecules, just 20 to 30 base pairs long, known as small interfering RNAs or siRNAs. These short strands target matching pieces of messenger RNA (mRNA) that contain the information necessary to manufacture a particular protein. Adding a few of these siRNAs to a cell disrupts that message. With no message there is no protein and the target gene shuts down.
Scientists soon found that it is relatively easy to create a piece of artificial RNA to trip up the cell’s mRNA machinery and turn off gene expression. They began exploiting RNAi to discover the function of thousands of genes.
This tool became so useful that in 2006 the Nobel prize for physiology and medicine was shared by US scientists Andrew Fire of Stanford University and Craig Mello of the University of Massachusetts, barely eight years after their discovery of the phenomenon in worms.
It soon became obvious to biomedical scientists that, at least in theory, short snippets of RNA could be used to treat every disease imaginable. From bird flu to permanent hair removal, there are companies racing to harness
RNAi’s tremendous therapeutic potential.
RNAi is a natural process that was first spotted in petunias
Ahead of the game is Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, of Cambridge Massachusetts. The company is entering Phase II studies with a treatment for respiratory syncytial virus, a childhood lung infection for which there is no treatment. If the strategy works, it could lead to a slew of anti-viral therapies.
RNAi could also be the ideal solution for the notoriously unpredictable HIV. Scientists already know that in the lab, a gene silencing mechanism prevents the virus’s replication in T cells, by cleaving its RNA and turning off its main proteins. But the virus mutates and evolves resistance so rapidly that fighting it will take more than a single RNA target. ’The virus always manages to escape from a single RNAi molecule, admits Karin von Eije from University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The team has been testing different short hairpin (sh)RNAs and their ability to stop viral replication in human T cells in culture. ’It works well at first but eventually the HIV virus sneaks out. It mutates to become RNAi resistant,’ she says.
It takes four different types of RNA molecule, each designed to interfere with a different aspect of the virus, to stop HIV-1 escaping from RNAi. To turn this finding into a therapeutic, the researchers from the Berkhout lab in Amsterdam envisage taking progenitor cells from patient’s bone marrow and genetically modifying them with a lentivirus vector carrying the four therapeutic RNAs. The cells are then returned to the patient, who develops a healthy immune system protected against HIV.
Trials for HIV/Aids using a similar strategy are taking place at the City of Hope biomedical research centre in California, US, directed by John Rossi, and in collaboration with Australian biotechnology company, Benitec.
Simone Hess, a molecular biologist at the Max Plank Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin, Germany, is bullish about this approach. ’If the virus mutates too much, you can easily switch RNA sequences. It’s much faster than developing another small molecule,’ she says. Finding good drug candidates is costly and time consuming. If, at the end of that effort, the molecule fails, it’s back to the drawing board. By contrast RNAi relies on tweaking a few bits of RNA. ’It is several orders of magnitude faster and more specific than conventional drugs,’ says Hess.
Topical RNAi applied to the genital tract could be especially effective. Judy Lieberman, senior investigator at Harvard Medical School, US has found that vaginal applications of siRNAs protect mice from a sexually transmitted infection - lethal herpes simplex virus type 2.
An siRNA used as a microbicide could protect against viral infections with a similar infection route.
While siRNAs work well if delivered into tissues that are relatively easy to access, systemic delivery remains a vexing problem. The challenge is in getting them to cross the cell membrane. They need to be bound to liposomes, cholesterol, aptamers (small DNA molecules), chitosan or nanoparticles to get across and maintain high levels in the body. Flooding the system with RNA molecules does not work either - most particles remain in the liver.
By contrast, a guided missile strategy using antibody fusion works beautifully, says Lieberman. ’You can deliver your drug specifically to the cells you want to target, you use less drug and it is less toxic.’ The Harvard researcher has fused an antibody fragment (for instance an antibody to LFA1, a protein manufactured by active T cells) to a fragment of protamine. While the protamine binds to siRNAs, the antibody discriminates between disease-activated T cells and resting T cells. ’It’s an advantage when treating autoimmune disease or in transplant rejection, where you may not want to globally reduce the immune system, only to stop those cells causing the problem,’ she notes.
The idea of a simple switch-off is especially appealing in cancer, where tumours generally arise from aberrant genes. But unless the RNA therapeutic reaches every tumour cell and wipes it out, the cancer will return. Takahiro Ochiya, from the National Cancer Centre Research Institute in Japan, is pinning his hopes on one formulation: the atelo-collagen molecule. This pepsin-treated collagen has all the attributes of an excellent drug carrier. ’It’s charged, stable and well-accepted by the body. It resists digestion,’ he says.
In prostate cancer, atelo-collagen RNAi has yielded encouraging results. Bone metastasis is the main problem in the human disease, and Ochiya has created a luciferase (bioluminescent enzyme) mouse model to track progress. After a systemic injection, atelo-collagen-based RNA therapy rapidly disappears from all tissues, but it persists in the tumour for up to a week, probably due to poor lymphatic drainage. The Japanese researchers designed siRNAs for two prostate cancer genes to attach to the carrier. ’It was a hit. Both those genes were good targets and there was no recurrence for two months.’
Ochiya has also silenced the breast cancer ’slug’ gene with atelo-collagen RNAi. Although tumour growth was unaffected, the lymph nodes were clear - the cancer had not spread. ’Slug could be a novel target to inhibit metastasis,’ he says.
RNAi therapies could shut down troublesome genes that kick in with ageing. As baby boomers grow older, the toll of Alzheimer’s disease, for instance, is expected to rocket. The ideal therapy would stop beta-amyloid protein - associated with the formation of Alzheimer’s disease plaques - from accumulating in the brain. Xavier de Mollerat du Jeu, at Invitrogen in San Diego, US, has shown that, in a mouse model of the disease, injecting siRNAs (StealthTMRNAi) against the human amyloid precursor protein directly into the brain ameliorates the neurodegeneration. ’The neurons took it up - we were very excited.’ But, the Invitrogen scientist stresses, ’I don’t see grandma with a pump on her head. We are looking at some delivery reagents which will allow us to do a single injection rather than using a pump.’
RXi Pharmaceuticals is tackling ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), a neurodegenerative disorder also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. ’ALS is rare but it’s gruesome, and there is nothing to help these patients,’ RXi’s Samarsky explains. A mutation in a gene called SOD1 triggers this devastating, progressive motor-neuron degeneration, leading to paralysis and death. So far, a pump delivering RNAi into the spinal column of a mouse ALS model shuts down up to 50 per cent of the harmful gene and extends lifespan by 20-35 per cent. It is a promising start. ’When it works, it will be a great proof of principle for other neurodegenerative diseases - Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s, even pain. That’s our vision.’
At RXi, obesity and type 2 diabetes are also in the therapeutic firing line. Because the RIP140 gene is the body’s overall metabolic controller, it makes an excellent target. Mice genetically engineered to turn off RIP140 production are lean and resistant to diabetes even on a high fat diet. It’s a dream scenario for many consumers - to avoid a health risk commonly associated with eating a fatty diet, and even resist gaining weight. Traditional small molecule approaches have failed to tackle this key protein, but it may be treatable with RNAi.
So how long will it be before the delivery issue is resolved? ’Having it in every cell is probably not going to happen. But maybe you don’t want that,’ says Samarsky. He suggests that investigators should see whether any of the 110 different administration routes approved so far by the US Food and Drug Administration is good for their particular application.
Despite the hurdles, the RNAi field is set to grow aggressively. RNAi-based therapies could be in the clinic by 2009, and their arrival will shake up healthcare.
Set against the backdrop of the traditional, small molecule approach, Samarsky says RNAi is ’a completely different story’.
Lisa Melton is a freelance writer based in London, UK
The next big thing is tiny
Small pieces of RNA, no more than a couple of dozen nucleotides long, are stirring up the cancer field. ’If you look in tumour tissue, you will probably identify microRNAs 80 per cent of the time,’ says Stephanie Urschel, an application scientist from ThermoFisher Scientific in Germany - a company that provides tools for microRNA analysis. As the results from pioneering labs flood in, it seems that miRNA profiles could be used to distinguish normal from cancerous cells, and even to classify human cancers.
Because they play important roles in embryonic development, scientists suspected these small, 20 nucleotide-long RNAs might be involved in cancer. Some researchers are finding that microRNAs can act as cancer-triggering oncogenes. Reuven Agami at the Netherlands Cancer Institute has traced their involvement in human testicular germ cell tumours. Work by David Bartel at MIT suggests approximately 1000 human microRNAs regulate around one third of our genes.
MicroRNAs turn human genes on and off, not just individually, but as whole networks. So antagonising microRNAs could correct an entire disease pathway in a way that is impossible by today’s medicines. How microRNAs operate, however, remains largely mysterious. ’Scientists are intrigued and challenged by microRNAs,’ says Urschel.
The field is exploding, but some results suggest that microRNAs could be constitutively expressed in a number of tissues, which could put a dampener on therapeutic efforts, as inhibiting microRNAs could lead to toxicity. ’Everyone was so excited when it happened, but there are microRNAs everywhere, and people have realised it is very complex,’ says Susan Magdaleno, a scientist with RNAi company Ambion, in Austin, Texas.
While most agree that microRNA therapeutics set a new paradigm for treating disease, it may be some time before they can be fully exploited as treatments. ’That’s the next big thing: elucidating exactly how microRNAs do it,’ says Urschel.
- Dr. Li-Meng Yan - who was among the first people to tout the Wuhan lab theory - said in her latest report COVID-19 is 'an unrestricted bioweapon'
- She said the Chinese government and 'certain overseas scientists and organizations' covered it up
- In an interview on Newsmax Wednesday night, Yan referenced a February 1, 2020 exchange from Fauci's email dump with one of his direct reports
- Dr. Hugh Auchincloss wrote in email to Fauci that the 'experiments were performed before the gain of function pause but have since been reviewed and approved by NIH (National Institutes of Health)'
- Yan's work has been heavily scrutinized, criticized and said to be 'deeply flawed' by other leading scientists
- Fauci said multiple times in interviews over the last two days he still believes the coronavirus origin jumped species not from a lab leak
Published: 17:40 BST, 3 June 2021 | Updated: 12:18 BST, 4 June 2021
A Chinese virologist who was among the first people to suggest that coronavirus leaked from a lab has accused Anthony Fauci and top scientists of covering the leak up.
Dr Li-Meng Jan claims coronavirus is a bioweapon and accuses Dr. Anthony Fauci of being among scientists and organizations who knew about it and tried to hide it.
There are growing calls across the world for claims that coronavirus accidentally leaked from the lab in Wuhan to be taken seriously after US intelligence agencies launched an investigation.
A growing number of experts believe that China was conducting gain of function research on coronavirus, which genetically enhances viruses so that scientists can develop vaccines, and an accident resulted in its release into the world.
The Chinese communist party is accused of hiding this gain of function research at the Wuhan Institue of Virology with the help of US scientists who funded it, however claims that the virus is a bio-weapon are still regarded with scepticism.
Fauci and a host of scientists still insist that it is most likely that coronavirus spread to humans from bats or pangolins while failing to rule out the lab leak theory.
But a Wednesday night interview on Newsmax, Dr. Li-Meng Yan said Fauci's emails, which were published by Buzzfeed and the Washington Post on Tuesday, proved he knew about the Chinese gain of function research before the pandemic started.
They showed leading virus experts warning Fauci that COVID-19 may have been created in a lab while he publicly played such claims down.
'These people knew what happened, but they chose to hide for the Chinese Communist Party and their own benefits,' Yan said.
The emails show that on Jan. 1 2020, shortly after the first cases of the virus were detected, Dr. Kristian Anderson, an immunologist at the Scripps Research Institute emailed Fauci saying that some features of the virus could potentially be man made.
Dr. Li-Meng Yan said Fauci 's emails proved he knew about warnings that coronavirus could be the result of Chinese gain of function research before the pandemic started
President Biden has ordered the intelligence community to redouble efforts into finding out whether the novel coronavirus emerged naturally or from a lab. Researchers at the Wuhan Institute for Virology are seen in this February 2017 file photo
The Wuhan Institute of Virology is about 20 miles from the Huanan Seafood Market where the first coronavirus cases were first reported
How Fauci flip-flopped on the origins of COVID
April 2020 : Fauci repeatedly made public statements suggesting that that COVID was the result of an 'unusual human-animal interface' in a Chinese 'wet market' and that 'the mutations that it took to get to the point where it is now is totally consistent with a jump of a species from an animal to a human.'
May 2020 : Still adamant that he didn't believe the coronavirus was man-made. 'If you look at the evolution of the virus in bats and what's out there now, [the scientific evidence] is very, very strongly leaning toward this could not have been artificially or deliberately manipulated,' he told National Geographic in an exclusive interview published May 4, 2020. 'Everything about the stepwise evolution over time strongly indicates that [this virus] evolved in nature and then jumped species.'
Late May 2021 to early June 2021 : During an event called 'United Facts of America: A Festival of Fact-Checking,' Fauci was asked if was 'still confident' that the virus evolved naturally.
'No, actually … I am not convinced about that. I think we should continue to investigate what went on in China until we continue to find out to the best of our ability what happened,' Fauci said. 'Certainly, the people who investigated it say it likely was the emergence from an animal reservoir that then infected individuals, but it could have been something else, and we need to find that out.'
He added: 'So, you know, that's the reason why I said I'm perfectly in favor of any investigation that looks into the origin of the virus.'
Shortly after, Fauci sent an urgent email to a deputy of his, Hugh Auchincloss, asking him to review a document he was attaching, which was titled 'baric, shi et al nature medicine SARS gain of function.'
Although the contents of the attachment are unknown, the title, it's claimed that is likely a reference to Dr. Ralph Baric a US-based virologist, who had performed US government-funded research in collaboration with Wuhan Institute scientist Dr. Shi Zhengli, who specializes in coronavirus transmission in bats.
In other emails from early in the pandemic, British medical researcher Dr. Jeremy Farrar, who was involved in early top secret conference calls discussing the virus, shared an article from the website ZeroHedge suggesting that the virus could be a bioweapon.
On April 17, 2020 Fauci announced that it was believed the virus had emerged from bats in China.
In an email sent two days after the announcement, Dr. Peter Daszak, a virologist who was doing US government-funded coronavirus research in Wuhan, thanked Fauci for: 'publicly standing up and stating that the scientific evidence supports a natural origin for Covid 19 from a bat-to-human spillover.'
Daszak then persuaded 26 other scientists to sign off on a letter he had written to world-leading scientific journal The Lancet claiming the virus could only have been natural in origin and to suggest otherwise creates 'fear, rumours, and prejudice'.
The letter flatly denied the virus could have originated in a lab in Wuhan and dismissed it as a 'conspiracy theory'.
The letter was seen as so influential it cowed most experts into refusing even to consider that the virus could have been man-made and escaped from the Wuhan Institute.
Jamie Metzl, who sits on the World Health Organization's advisory committee on human genome editing and is a form Bill Clinton administration staffer, said Dr Daszak's letter was a 'form of thuggery'.
He said: ‘The Lancet letter was scientific propaganda and a form of thuggery and intimidation.
Dr Yan has published three reports on the origins of coronavirus - two last year and one this year. The latest report published on March 31 said: 'The causative agent of COVID-19, is not a naturally occurring pathogen but an Unrestricted Bioweapon.
'It is a product of the bioweapons program of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government, the network of which includes not only the CCP scientists but also certain overseas scientists and organizations.'
All three reports were published without peer review on Zenodo.
The scientific establishment and liberal media for months dismissed the Wuhan lab leak as a conspiracy theory after Donald Trump suggested it was a possibility - until President Joe Biden announced that intelligence agencies are investigating.
British intelligence reportedly assessed the theory recently and upgraded its likeliness from 'remote' to 'feasible'.
Then came Fauci's email dump on Tuesday, when more than 3,200 of his emails from January to June 2020 were obtained and published by Buzzfeed and the Washington Post.
Yan referenced another of these emails during her interview with Newsmax.
On February 1, 2020, one of Fauci's direct reports, Dr. Hugh Auchincloss, wrote in an email to Fauci that the 'experiments were performed before the gain of function pause but have since been reviewed and approved by NIH (National Institutes of Health).'
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Keeping Your Laboratory Water Bath Contaminant Free
Anything in a bath or that was in a bath can cause contamination if a scientist sidesteps ways to avoid the problem.
Mike May, PhD
Anyone who has ever incubated anything has also fought contamination at some time&mdashprobably many times&mdashand sometimes it starts in a bath. When asked about sample contamination in water baths, David Hayes, product manager for Cole-Parmer Laboratory Equipment & Supplies (Vernon Hills, IL), says, &ldquoThe effect is as varied as the types of samples that get thawed or brought to a specific temperature for an experiment.&rdquo
So the contamination can arise in cell cultures, samples of nucleic acids, and so on. In fact, anything in a bath or that was in a bath can cause contamination if a scientist sidesteps ways to avoid the problem. Usually the contamination comes from the water in a bath or from cross-contamination, which is something&mdashthe bench, a glove, a vessel&mdashthat was contaminated and touched the sample before it was placed in the bath.
Sometimes even being careful is not enough. &ldquoContamination can beset any and all samples incubated in a water bath, even with proper bath maintenance,&rdquo says Alexander Cranson, technical sales support, North America, at Sheldon Manufacturing (Cornelius, OR). A bath kept at human body temperature, 37° Celsius, creates the biggest risk because it generates an ideal environment for microbial growth.
Cutting the odds
Although nothing is foolproof, scientists can reduce the odds of bath-related contamination of samples. As Cranson points out, &ldquoProper bath-cleaning protocols are paramount.&rdquo For one thing, that means not cleaning with anything abrasive that creates fine scratches that enhance the possibility of algal or bacterial growth.
Certain bath features can reduce contamination risk. A fluoropolymer coating, for instance, resists contamination.
How scientists use a bath also matters. Some top tips include the following: use only distilled water, float the sample so the lids stay dry, and keep the bath covered as much as possible. Keeping the samples in place with racks also helps. Cranson adds, &ldquoPlace your bath away from high-traffic doorways and out of direct sunlight.&rdquo Borderline-obsessive cleaning won&rsquot hurt. &ldquoSanitize and wipe down the vessels, benches, and anything that comes in contact with the water, and change gloves frequently,&rdquo Hayes encourages.
Benefits of beads
With water serving as the vehicle of contamination in so many cases, one option is this: get rid of it. Sakthikumar Ambady, a molecular biologist in the biomedical engineering department at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Worcester, MA), says, &ldquoI can personally vouch for the success in eliminating contamination by avoiding the use of a water bath.&rdquo Instead, he uses a dry bath or keeps the reagents on the bench to bring the samples to the ambient temperature.
Ambady has trained more than 300 students over the past five years using this approach, and his students contaminated the cultures in only three instances. He points out: &ldquoThese students are novices, and as you can imagine, they are not attuned to the realities of contamination.&rdquo Still, omitting the water baths eliminated most of the contamination.
The beads also make it easy to hold a container at almost any angle without damaging the sample. If scientists use beads that do not collect moisture, it&rsquos easier to keep them clean. Still, beads need cleaning too. Nonetheless, Hayes says that the &ldquouse of metallic bath beads instead of water avoids splashing, dripping, and the majority of transfer contamination.&rdquo
Bead baths can also keep a lab greener. Some bead baths can heat samples while using less energy. In addition, the cleaners for beads can be less toxic than some things used in water baths.
Making changes in a lab might take some doing. &ldquoCell culturists are generally compulsively obsessive when it comes to their routine procedures,&rdquo says Ambady. But if contamination keeps coming up in your samples, it might be time to rethink your sample-heating approach.
Out On A Limb
Opening a freezer in his lab at the UF Cancer and Genetics Research Complex, developmental biologist Martin J. Cohn reveals dozens of glass vials containing tiny, embryonic organisms. He removes one of the bottles. Even blurred by condensation, there is no mistaking its contents. Sharks are instantly recognizable, even when they are embryos.
Cohn removes additional containers filled with embryos from other animals &mdash lampreys, mice, chickens, ducks, snakes, turtles, mollusks, more &mdash a menagerie of rudimentary life, frozen in time.
&ldquoPeople in my lab look at so many different organisms because we go to the species that is best suited to answer our questions,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoIf we want to understand how limbs were lost in evolution, we&rsquore not going to learn much by studying a mouse with a mutation that causes it to have no limbs. Uncovering the path that was taken by snakes or legless lizards or eels or whales requires us to study those organisms.&rdquo
With the sensibilities of an anthropologist and the techniques of a molecular biologist &mdash and the wide-eyed enthusiasm of a kid with a jar of tadpoles &mdash Cohn says the embryos have taught him about evolution and the molecular building blocks that shape appendages from feet to flippers.
His findings have shed light on evolutionary processes and human problems such as birth defects, including the recent rise in the incidence of malformed genitalia in newborns. And they&rsquove earned him recognition as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Early Career Scientist, the first in Florida and one of only 50 in the United States.
Each embryo in Cohn&rsquos collection provides its own take on life&rsquos multibillion-year-old story. But common genetic plotlines appear in all of them.
In chick embryos, for example, Cohn found the master switch for limb formation &mdash a multifunctional protein called fibroblast growth factor, or FGF &mdash that is now known to initiate limb development in all vertebrates, including humans.
From the embryos of the catshark and the lamprey, Cohn&rsquos research group traced the origin of the genetic instructions that build our own arms and legs and found that they were actually being perfected in the dorsal fins of fish nearly half a billion years ago &mdash about 200 million years before limbs evolved &mdash a completely new notion about life on Earth.
Shark embryos have been especially revealing. Cohn and his students discovered that the genes for development of fingers and toes were beginning to flicker on in the fins of sharks more than 200 million years before limbs made their debut.
Previous work suggested that the transition from fins to limbs involved the addition of a completely new phase of gene activity. Instead, Cohn&rsquos team demonstrated that what was thought to be an evolutionary innovation had actually existed in fish eons earlier than anyone suspected.
&ldquoEvolution has been remarkably unimaginative when it comes to inventing new ways to solve problems,&rdquo Cohn says, paraphrasing Lewis Wolpert, an emeritus professor in cell and developmental biology at University College London and one of Cohn&rsquos mentors.
&ldquoIf you look at the broad classes of genes involved in developmental processes, there are relatively few, and they&rsquove been used time and again,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoFor instance, you see the same gene network involved in patterning a fly wing and a human limb. That is not because the limbs evolved from a common ancestral limb. Limbs evolved lots of times. But every time limbs evolved, nature went back to the genetic tool kit, and used the same tools to fashion those appendages.&rdquo
Now, Cohn is taking that thought a step further. Could the same gene network that initiated fins and then limbs have been employed to build genitalia?
About 365 million years ago, when animals with four limbs gradually began to spend more and more time in the terrestrial world, an external sex organ became necessary for reproduction.
In the water, the meeting of sperm and egg is possible outside the body and most fish and amphibians reproduce by external fertilization. But on dry land, a sex organ is essential for delivering sperm to an egg safely inside the mother. So, the conquest of land may have required not only the evolution of fingers and toes, but also external genitalia.
&ldquoWe&rsquore pursuing the idea that the same gene network that builds fins and limbs was recycled yet again by evolution to build a new appendage in a new location, the genitalia,&rdquo says Cohn, who is a professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology.
Already, Cohn&rsquos lab has noticed striking similarities between the processes that control limb development and those that regulate development of genitalia.
&ldquoThe embryo has to solve many of the same problems to build limbs and genitalia, like initiating outgrowth of an appendage, and telling cells whether they are positioned at the top or bottom or left or right. It makes biological sense that the same signals would be used to accomplish the same goals, albeit in different locations,&rdquo he says.
This knowledge is being used to investigate why an increasing number of boys are being born with a birth defect called &ldquohypospadias,&rdquo which involves incomplete formation of the urethral tube.
&ldquoThe incidence of genitourinary malformations in humans came as a huge surprise to me,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoA staggeringly high frequency of one in 250 kids has a urethral tube defect, and that number has more than doubled in the past 30 years without an explanation.&rdquo
Even more surprising to Cohn was how little was known about the genetic control of genital development.
He suspects that toxic chemicals in the environment, known as endocrine disruptors, are contributing to the problem, and that defective genes are not solely to blame. However, by identifying how these contaminants interfere with the gene networks that build the urethral tube, Cohn believes his research group will be a step closer to preventing the disruptions that cause the birth defect.
During the course of his research, Cohn has asked fundamental developmental questions: What initiates the formation of external genitalia? What is the trigger that makes limbs develop? What molecular processes are at work to position the limbs so precisely? You never see a vertebrate with six limbs, only pairs of upper and lower limbs. And people are not born with two left feet, no matter how it may seem on the dance floor. Toes grow in standard positions at the end of feet positioned at the ends of legs.
To find the answers, he looks to his assortment of embryos. If he wants to know how the first fins evolved, he identifies the event on the evolutionary tree of life, and then finds organisms that can &ldquotell&rdquo him what happened.
&ldquoThe ideal solution would be to go back in time and study an embryo of a primitive vertebrate that had no fins, then, study the first organism that developed fins,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoWe would determine what occurred differently in the body walls of these animals during their embryonic development. But since we don&rsquot have a time machine, we do the next best thing and take a comparative approach, using extant living organisms whose lineages can be traced to these critical positions in evolution.&rdquo
That&rsquos why lampreys &mdash jawless, eel-like creatures abundant in the Great Lakes &mdash and sharks play important roles in Cohn&rsquos studies. The lamprey has hardly changed at all since its ancestors first appeared in the early Cambrian period 540 million years ago. The shark is only slightly more recent &mdash its lineage goes back about 500 million years ago as the first jawed fish with paired fins.
&ldquoLampreys tell us about the prefin condition because they retained that primitive, finless state,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoWe can then go to the other side of that event by looking at sharks, the most primitive vertebrate that has paired fins. These animals are no less evolved or specialized than we are, but the difference is their lineages are very ancient and even the modern versions retain some very primitive anatomy.&rdquo
Similarly, by analyzing genes at work in embryonic porpoises and pythons, Cohn and his colleagues discovered how the ancestors of today&rsquos whales and snakes abandoned their legs over vast expanses of time.
Fossils show that the ancestors of today&rsquos whales and dolphins were tromping about on land more than 50 million years ago. They were four-footed animals about the size of large dogs. They became the sleek swimmers we recognize today during the next 15 million years, losing their hind limbs in a dramatic example of evolutionary change.
Cohn says the gradual shrinking of the whales&rsquo hind limbs was the result of slowly accumulated genetic changes. Then, within a relatively short few million years, the limbs disappeared. What happened, Cohn&rsquos team determined, was that a gene called Hand2 became inactive in the hindlimb buds of those animals. Hand2 &mdash genes are often given names that make them memorable &mdash is essential for turning on yet another gene absolutely critical for limb development in vertebrates, called Sonic hedgehog.
Without Sonic hedgehog &mdash named after a video game character &mdash no creature with a backbone has a leg to stand on, including whales.
But why would any animal evolve to grow limbs, only to further evolve to lose them?
&ldquoWe&rsquove been able to answer questions about how limbs develop and evolve,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoWhy is harder.&rdquo
But you can tell he is thinking about it.
'Ardi' And Marty
The &ldquowhy&rdquo questions of natural selection &mdash Darwin&rsquos mechanism by which favorable traits such as limbs, or lack thereof, are passed along to succeeding generations &mdash began to grip Cohn while he was an undergraduate studying anthropology at the University of Texas. Later, when he met biological anthropologist C. Owen Lovejoy, his graduate adviser at Kent State University, Cohn figured out how to get a grip on the answers.
&ldquoOf course Marty is haunted by &lsquowhy,&rsquo&rdquo says Lovejoy. &ldquoAnybody who goes into anthropology is always going to be haunted by why. Here we are cognitive animals, talking about our evolution. It&rsquos a merry-go-round.&rdquo
Lovejoy is renowned for reconstructing the near-complete skeleton of &ldquoLucy,&rdquo a tiny female who was part human, part ape, and who lived at the edge of an African rainforest about three million years ago. But in October 2009, Lucy&rsquos days as the earliest-known human ancestor were at an end.
Lovejoy and colleagues had found an ancient ancestor that preceded &ldquoLucy&rdquo by an astounding million and a half years. The skeleton of a 4.4-million-year-old human-ape ancestor, a female dubbed &ldquoArdi,&rdquo was about to rewrite the story of human origins, and Lovejoy was reviewing proofs of 11 papers being prepared for the journal Science.
Even though sufficiently occupied with &ldquoArdi,&rdquo Lovejoy wanted to talk about &ldquoMarty.&rdquo
&ldquoHis most defining characteristics are a curiosity and drive that are unending,&rdquo Lovejoy says. &ldquoThere is no bottom to it. He gets so excited by every discovery &mdash and I&rsquom sure that is infectious for his students &mdash but it is like he has the discovery virus. When you have it, you can&rsquot put an experiment down until you finally have it all figured out.&rdquo
Cohn met Lovejoy at a pivotal time in the field of developmental biology, not long after fibroblast growth factor was discovered. Notions were growing about how FGF in its many forms seemed essential for normal development of vertebrate animals, and Cohn and Lovejoy were paying attention.
&ldquoThe whole discovery process of FGF and the early advanced work in limb bud development was going on,&rdquo Lovejoy says. &ldquoThose reports were being made almost weekly, and we would meet and read the latest article and get more and more excited.&rdquo
With Lovejoy&rsquos encouragement, Cohn spent a summer learning laboratory techniques at University College London from Cheryll Tickle, a world authority on the mechanisms of embryonic development. After three months, Cohn was offered Ph.D. funding, and Lovejoy advised him to accept. Cohn wrapped up his master&rsquos research with Lovejoy and would go on to receive his doctoral degree in developmental biology from University College London.
&ldquoAnthropology tends to lag behind the other sciences because it concentrates on descriptive things, like fossils, and we were both so excited by development,&rdquo Lovejoy says. &ldquoSo I thought he should take the offer. He did, and the next thing you know, everyone is reading about how he discovered that FGF is responsible for formation of the limb bud.&rdquo
Following The Blueprint
At this point, Cohn knew that if he was interested in anatomical changes over time, whether it involved hundreds of millions of years of evolution or 30 years for an increase in a human birth defect, his path was in developmental biology.
&ldquoOwen (Lovejoy) really got me thinking in a different way, less about why and more about how, which is a very mechanistic approach,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoI realized that if I wanted to understand how animal form changes during evolution, such as how limbs evolved from fins or how snakes lost their legs, I had to understand development, because that&rsquos when the genetic blueprint for the body is being executed.&rdquo
Since arriving in Gainesville in 2003, Cohn and his UF colleagues have discovered the evolutionary origin of the genetic program for fin development, shown how this program was modified to form fingers and toes, and identified the molecular basis for the loss of legs during whale evolution. The group has also published widely on the genetic control of external genital development.
Ultimately, it&rsquos hard to predict where Cohn&rsquos explorations into evolutionary processes will lead, Lovejoy says. Similar work has given the world the techniques of DNA analysis now used in medical diagnostics and criminal investigations, although that was never its original intention.
Cohn frequently cites the example of the developmental biologists who devoted 12 years of work studying a gene called &ldquopatched&rdquo in developing fruit flies. The same gene would later be implicated in the most common type of human skin cancer.
&ldquoAs soon as the link between patched and basal cell carcinoma was found, cancer biologists could utilize over a decade&rsquos worth of work on the function and regulation of that gene in the fly wing,&rdquo Cohn says. &ldquoIf none of that work had been done in the fly, I don&rsquot know if it would have even been discovered that this gene was involved in cancer.
&ldquoThat&rsquos the beauty of basic science. We&rsquore in the business of finding out how things work and we don&rsquot always know what sort of application will result,&rdquo he continues. &ldquoMy lab is trying to understand what causes evolutionary changes, and what causes birth defects, and the interesting part is how each of those areas can inform the other. By studying these weird animals and taking advantage of the diversity that evolution has produced, we are getting unexpected insights into disease.&rdquo
Reaching into his laboratory freezer, he removes another test tube and clears the mist from the glass to reveal a lump of unfamiliar contents &mdash nothing like the shark embryo, which looks like a miniature version of its adult self.
It&rsquos a duck embryo, and Cohn says its genetic thread in life&rsquos long, long story has some answers about the ever-increasing problems of birth defects in human genitalia &mdash once again, evolution and development, one informing the other.