Sterilize/disinfect sugar for lab use

Sterilize/disinfect sugar for lab use

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How do I sterilize/disinfect ordinary table sugar for lab use?
I'm using the sugar in an agar and I want it to be as clean as possible. Are there any effective, conventional ways of doing this?

Autoclaving media with carbohydrates (or sugar solutions on its own) is not a good idea for two reasons:

  1. The Maillard reaction: This occurs when you heat mixtures of amino acids and sugars. The amino group of an amino acid reacts with a carbonyl group of a sugar, fusing the two molecules together. This is a common reaction in the kitchen which is for example responsible for making the bread crust brown. It also changes flavors.

  2. Caramellization: This is the heat induced breakdown of sugars - also leading to brown products, but much more undefined than the Maillard reaction. What products arise depends on pH, temperature and other reactands.

Both reactions may lead to products which can be inhibitory to microbe growth and should be avoided. There is also a paper which analyzed the effect of autoclaving on sugars which might be interesting to read in this context (see reference below).

So prepare a higher concentrated stock solution of your sugars, which can then be added under sterile conditions to your autoclaved and cooled down media or the agar solution (still warm enough to pour).

Sterilize this solution by filtrating it through a 0.2µM filter - depending on the volume either through syringe filters or through bottle top filters. Make sure to maintain sterile conditions.


Safety of Equipment in Laboratory: Precautions and Procedures

Read this article to learn about some of the precautions and procedures to be observed with some commonly used laboratory equipment for its safety.

Equipment Safety:

Whenever lab equipment is purchased, preference should be given to equipment that:

i. Limits contact between the operator and hazardous material, and mechanical and electrical energy

ii. Is corrosion-resistant, easy to decontaminate and impermeable to liquids

iii. Has no sharp edges or burrs.

Every effort should be made to prevent equipment from becoming contaminated.

To reduce the likelihood of equipment malfunction that could result in leakage, spill or unnecessary generation of aerosolized pathogens:

i. Review the manufacturer’s documentation. Keep for future reference.

ii. Use and service equipment according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

iii. Ensure that anyone who uses a specific instrument or piece of equipment is properly trained in set-up, use and cleaning of the item.

iv. Decontaminate equipment before it is sent out for repairs or discarded.

The following sections outline some of the precautions and procedures to be observed with some commonly used laboratory equipment.


Improperly used or maintained centrifuges can present significant hazards to users. Failed mechani­cal parts can result in release of flying objects, hazardous chemicals and bio-hazardous aerosols. The high speed spins generated by centrifuges can create large amounts of aerosol if a spill, leak or tube breakage occurs.

To avoid contaminating your centrifuge:

i. Check glass and plastic centrifuge tubes for stress lines, hairline cracks and chipped rims before use. Use unbreakable tubes whenever possible.

ii. Avoid filling tubes to the rim.

iii. Use caps or stoppers on centrifuge tubes. Avoid using lightweight materials such as aluminum foil as caps.

iv. Use sealed centrifuge buckets (safety cups) or rotors that can be loaded and unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. Decontaminate the outside of the cups or buckets before and after centrifugation. Inspect O-rings regularly and replace if cracked or dry.

v. Ensure that the centrifuge is properly balanced.

vi. Do not open the lid during or immediately after operation, attempt to stop a spinning rotor by hand or with an object, or interfere with the interlock safety device.

vii. Decant supernatants carefully and avoid vigorous shaking when re-suspending.

When using high-speed or ultra-centrifuges, follow the additional practices:

i. Connect the vacuum pump exhaust to a trap.

ii. Record each run in a logbook, keep a record of speed and run time for each rotor.

iii. Install a HEPA filter between the centrifuge and the vacuum pump when working with bio-hazardous material.

iv. Never exceed the specified speed limitations of the rotor.

Electrophoresis Equipment:

i. Ensure that electrophoresis equipment is properly grounded and has electrical interlocks. Do not bypass safety interlocks.

ii. Inspect electrophoresis equipment regularly for damage and potential tank leaks.

iii. Locate equipment away from high traffic areas, and away from wet areas such as sinks or washing apparatus.

Heating Baths, Water Baths:

Heating baths keep immersed materials immersed at a constant temperature. They may be filled with a variety of materials, depending on the bath temperature required they may contain water, mineral oil, glycerin, paraffin or silicone oils, with bath temperatures ranging up to 300°C.

The following precautions are appropriate for heating baths:

i. Set up on a stable surface, away from flammable and combustible materials including wood and paper

ii. Relocate only after the liquid inside has cooled

iii. Ensure baths are equipped with redundant heat controls or automatic cut-offs that will turn off the power if the temperature exceeds a preset limit

iv. Use with the thermostat set well below the flash point of the heating liquid in use

v. Equip with a thermometer to allow a visual check of the bath temperature.

The most common heating bath used in laboratories is the water bath. When using a water bath:

i. Clean regularly a disinfectant, such as a phenolic detergent, can be added to the water

ii. Avoid using sodium azide to prevent growth of micro-organisms sodium azide forms explosive compounds with some metals

iii. Raise the temperature to 90°C or higher for 30 minutes once a week for decontamination purposes

iv. Unplug the unit before filling or emptying, and have the continuity-to-ground checked regularly.

Shakers, Blenders and Sonicators:

When used with infectious agents, mixing equipment such as shakers, blenders, sonicators, grinders and homogenizers can release significant amounts of hazardous aerosols, and should be operated inside a biological safety cabinet whenever possible. Equipment such as blenders and stirrers can also produce large amounts of flammable vapours.

The hazards associated with this type of equip­ment can be minimized by:

i. Selecting and purchasing equipment with safety features that minimize leaking

ii. Selecting and purchasing mixing apparatus with non-sparking motors.

iii. Checking integrity of gaskets, caps and bottles before using. Discard damaged items.

iv. Allowing aerosols to settle for at least one minute before opening containers

v. Covering tops of blenders with a disinfectant-soaked towel during operation, when us­ing bio-hazardous material

vi. When using a sonicator, immersing the tip deeply enough into the solution to avoid creation of aerosols

vii. Decontaminating exposed surfaces after use.

Ovens and Hot Plates:

Laboratory ovens are useful for baking or curing material, off-gassing, dehydrating samples and drying glassware.

i. Select and purchase an oven whose design prevents contact between flammable vapours and heating elements or spark-producing components.

ii. Discontinue use of any oven whose backup thermostat, pilot light or temperature controllers have failed.

iii. Avoid heating toxic materials in an oven unless it is vented outdoors (via a canopy hood, for example).

iv. Never use laboratory ovens for preparation of food for human consumption.

v. Glassware that has been rinsed with an organic solvent should be rinsed with distilled water before it is placed in a drying oven.

Analytical Equipment:

The following instructions for safe use of analytical equipment are general guidelines consult the user’s manual for more detailed information on the specific hazards:

i. Ensure that installation, modification and repairs of analytical equipment are carried out by authorized service personnel.

ii. Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions before using this equipment.

iii. Make sure that preventive maintenance procedures are performed as required.

iv. Do not attempt to defeat safety interlocks.

v. Wear safety glasses and lab coats (and other appropriate personal protective equipment’s as specified) for all procedures.

Scintillation Counters:

i. Use sample vials that meet the manufacturer’s specifications.

ii. Keep counters clean and free of foreign materials.

iii. To avoid contaminating the counter and its accessories with radioactivity, change gloves before loading racks in the counter or using the computer keyboard. Verify on a regular basis (by wipe testing) that the equipment has not become contaminated.

Atomic absorption (AA) spectrometers:

Sample preparation for atomic absorption procedures often requires handling of flammable, toxic and corrosive products. Familiarize yourself with the physical, chemical and toxicological proper­ties of these materials and follow the recommended safety precautions. Atomic absorption equip­ment must be adequately vented, as toxic gases, fumes and vapours are emitted during operation.

Other recommendations to follow when carrying out atomic absorption analysis are:

i. Wear safety glasses for mechanical protection.

ii. Check the integrity of the burner, drain and gas systems before use.

iii. Inspect the drain system regularly empty the drain bottle frequently when running or­ganic solvents.

iv. Allow the burner head to cool to room temperature before handling.

v. Never leave the flame unattended. A fire extinguisher should be located nearby.

vi. Avoid viewing the flame or furnace during atomization unless wearing protective eyewear.

vii. Hollow cathode lamps are under negative pressure and should be handled with care and disposed of properly to minimize implosion risks.

Mass Spectrometers (MS):

Mass spectrometry requires the handling of compressed gases and flammable and toxic chemicals. Consult MSDSs for products before using them.

Specific precautions for working with the mass spectrometer include:

i. Avoid contact with heated parts while the mass spectrometer is in operation.

ii. Verify gas, pump, exhaust and drain system tubing and connections before each use.

iii. Ensure that pumps are vented outside the laboratory, as pump exhaust may contain traces of the samples being analyzed, solvents and reagent gas.

iv. Used pump oil may also contain traces of analytes and should be handled as hazardous waste.

Gas Chromatographs (GC):

Gas chromatography requires handling compressed gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, helium), and flammable and toxic chemicals. Consult product MSDSs before using such hazardous products.

Specific precautions for working with gas chromatographs include:

i. Perform periodic visual inspections and pressure leak tests of the sampling system plumb­ing, fittings and valves.

ii. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions when installing columns. Glass or fused capillary columns are fragile handle them with care and wear safety glasses to protect eyes from flying particles while handling, cutting or installing capillary columns.

iii. Turn off and allow heated areas such as the oven, inlet and detector, as well as connected hardware, to cool down before touching them.

iv. To avoid electrical shock, turn off the instrument and disconnect the power cord at its receptacle whenever the access panel is removed.

v. Turn off the hydrogen gas supply at its source when changing columns or servicing the instrument.

vi. When using hydrogen as fuel (flame ionization FID and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors NPD), ensure that a column or cap is connected to the inlet fitting whenever hydrogen is supplied to the instrument to avoid build-up of explosive hydrogen gas in the oven.

vii. Measure hydrogen gas and air separately when determining gas flow rates.

viii. Perform a radioactive leak test (wipe test) on electron capture detectors (ECDs) at least every 6 months for sources of 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or greater.

ix. Ensure that the exhaust from (ECDs) is vented to the outside.

x. When performing split sampling, connect the split vent to an exhaust ventilation system or appropriate chemical trap if toxic materials are analyzed or hydrogen is used as the carrier gas.

xi. Use only helium or nitrogen gas, never hydrogen, to condition a chemical trap.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Equipment:

The superconducting magnet of NMR equipment produces strong magnetic and electromagnetic fields that can interfere with the function of cardiac pacemakers. Users of pacemakers and other implanted ferromagnetic medical devices are advised to consult with their physicians, the pacemaker’s manual and pacemaker manufacturer before entering facilities which house NMR equipment.

Pre­cautions for work with NMR include the following:

i. Post clearly visible warning signs in areas with strong magnetic fields.

ii. Measure stray fields with a gauss meter, and restrict public access to areas of 5 gausses or higher.

iii. The strong magnetic field can suddenly pull nearby unrestrained magnetic objects into the magnet with considerable force. Keep all tools, equipment and personal items con­taining ferromagnetic material (e.g., steel, iron) at least 2 metres away from the magnet.

iv. Though not a safety issue, advise users that the magnetic field can erase magnetic media such as tapes and floppy disks disable credit and automated teller machine (ATM) cards, and damage analog watches.

v. Avoid skin contact with cryogenic (liquid) helium and nitrogen wear a protective face mask and loose-fitting thermal gloves during Dewar servicing and when handling frozen samples.

vi. Ensure that ventilation is sufficient to remove the helium or nitrogen gas exhausted by the instrument.

vii. Avoid positioning your head over the helium and nitrogen exit tubes.

viii. NMR tubes are thin-walled handle them carefully and reserve them for NMR use only.

High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Equipment:

HPLC procedures may require handling of compressed gas (helium) and flammable and toxic chemicals. Familiarize yourself with the hazardous properties of these products, as well as recom­mended precautionary measures by referring to MSDSs.

i. Inspect the drain system regularly empty the waste container frequently when using or­ganic solvents.

ii. Ensure that waste collection vessels are vented.

iii. Never use solvents with auto ignition temperatures below 110°C.

iv. Be sure to use a heavy walled flask if you plan to use vacuum to degas the solvent.

v. Never clean a flow-cell by forcing solvents through a syringe: syringes under pressure can leak or rupture, resulting in sudden release of syringe contents.

vi. High voltage and internal moving parts are present in the pump. Switch off the electrical power and disconnect the line cord when performing routine maintenance of the pump.

vii. Shut down and allow the system to return to atmospheric pressure before carrying out maintenance procedures.

Liquid Chromatography (LC/MS) Equipment:

LC/MS requires the handling of compressed nitrogen and flammable and toxic chemicals. Consult product MSDSs before using them.

Take the following specific precautions for working with LC/ MS equipment:

i. Verify gas, pump exhaust and drain system tubing and connections before each use.

Hands-on Activity Sugar Spill! Bioremediation Cleanup Experiment

Units serve as guides to a particular content or subject area. Nested under units are lessons (in purple) and hands-on activities (in blue).

Note that not all lessons and activities will exist under a unit, and instead may exist as "standalone" curriculum.

TE Newsletter


Students work to clean up a toxic spill

Engineering Connection

Environmental engineers involved with bioremediation need to have a solid background in science to understand the characteristics of different microorganisms to know how to use them. Engineers also need to know how pollutants may impact the ecosystem around them.

Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to:

  • Understand the process of bioremediation.
  • Explain how engineers make sure bacteria have everything they need to help degrade harmful compounds.
  • Gain experience with mass and volume measurements.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source e.g., by state within source by type e.g., science or mathematics within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science

5-ESS3-1. Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment. (Grade 5)

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Science findings are limited to questions that can be answered with empirical evidence.

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MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. (Grades 6 - 8)

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The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.

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Common Core State Standards - Math
  • Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. (Grade 7) More Details

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International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
  • Technologies can be used to repair damage caused by natural disasters and to break down waste from the use of various products and systems. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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State Standards
Colorado - Math
  • State the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (Grade 8) More Details

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Colorado - Science

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Materials List

  • 2-4 small test tubes or small plastic water bottles (small enough for a balloon to fit over the opening)
  • 2-4 balloons
  • 2-4 teaspoons of yeast
  • 2-4 teaspoons of sugar
  • Graduated cylinder (optional)
  • Enough goggles/safety glasses for each group member.
  • 3 copies of the Yeast Experiment Worksheet

To share with the entire class:

  • Vinegar
  • Water
  • Hot plate or Bunsen burner
  • Other materials students could add to yeast that may hamper or help yeast grow (i.e., lemon juice, chocolate powder, soda, etc.)
  • Triple beam balance or digital scale (optional)

Worksheets and Attachments

More Curriculum Like This

Students learn about a special branch of engineering called bioremediation, which is the use of living organisms to aid in the clean-up of pollutant spills. Students learn all about bioremediation and see examples of its importance. In the associated activity, students conduct an experiment and see .

Students explore an important role of environmental engineers—cleaning the environment. They learn details about the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which was one of the most publicized and studied human-caused environmental tragedies in history.

Students learn about the basics of cellular respiration. They also learn about the application of cellular respiration to engineering and bioremediation. And, they are introduced to the process of bioremediation and examples of how bioremediation is used during the cleanup of environmental contamina.

Students use yeast to clean up sugar spills.

Pre-Req Knowledge

Students should know how to calculate the volume of a sphere. They should also have some experience with designing their own experiment. If they do not, you may want to add an extra day to this experiment.


Imagine you are kayaking through the beautiful coastal waters of Alaska. There are bald eagles flying over you, and humpback whales diving in and out of the ocean water near your kayak. Suddenly, you notice an icky black substance dripping off of some of the rocks nearby. What is it? It's the awful sludge of polluting oil, left over from an accidental oil spill in a nearby bay. Luckily, environmental engineers are working hard to help clean up this terrible mess and return the waters to their healthy, beautiful state!

Bioremediation is the process of using live microorganisms (mostly bacteria) to remediate or clean up pollution, such as manmade chemicals found in oil. Biodegradation is the process of living organisms breaking down matter for energy. What is the difference between bioremediation and biodegradation? Engineering! While biodegradation happens naturally, engineers involved in bioremediation create products that help nature do its job of getting rid of pollutants. Often times, biodegradation does not take place naturally because the bacteria present do not have one of the essential needs of living things (i.e., energy, water, living space and homeostasis). Engineers come to the rescue by providing these needs.

In today's activity, you get to be environmental engineers cleaning up an oil spill through bioremediation. Luckily, there are organisms that can help "eat up" the oil and turn it into harmless substances. Following the important design step of gathering information, you conduct an experiment to see how you can create the right living conditions to make these organisms thrive. In our experiment today, we use sugar to represent the oil, and yeast to represent the organisms that clean up oil by eating it.

When yeast eats, it gives off carbon dioxide (CO2), much like we do when we breathe out. To measure how well the yeast is eating (and therefore cleaning up the spill), we can measure the amount of carbon dioxide it gives off. How do you think we could measure the carbon dioxide gas? (Let students give a few ideas. Give a hint by showing them the balloon.) That's a great idea! Let's put the balloon over the bottle of yeast. As the balloon gets blown up bigger and bigger, we can determine that the yeast is giving of lots of carbon dioxide. Therefore, we also know that the yeast is eating well and cleaning up the sugar spill. The bigger the balloon gets, the better the yeast is eating. By looking at how big the balloon gets, we are able to tell which conditions are most ideal for yeast to grow in.


  • Buy and gather supplies.
  • Make enough copies of the Yeast Experiment Worksheet so that each student has one worksheet.

  1. Have students break into groups of 3-4 (you can choose or let the students choose). As a group, students should plan an experiment that helps determine how to make the yeast thrive. Their Yeast Experiment Worksheet guides them through the process.
  2. To complete the first page of their worksheet, it may help if you review the scientific method with students. Remind them that a testable question should ask how one variable (the independent variable) affects another (the dependent variable). Give some examples (see Yeast Experiment Worksheet–Answers for suggestions). Also, students may need to be reminded that scientific experiments require that we control our variables. Explain what the control is for this experiment (to make the yeast thrive).
  3. Have students plan their experiment. Quickly check their answers on the first page of their worksheet before they begin their experiment.
  4. When ready, allow students to start their experiment. The procedure section of the Yeast Experiment Worksheet guides them through the experimental steps. Students should know the exact amount of yeast, water and sugar that went into their control. (Note: it may be useful to have students measure out yeast, water and sugar using the appropriate measuring devices so that they know exact amounts.) Figures 2 and 3 show examples of students measuring yeast and putting a balloon over the test tube. Figure 2. A student measures out yeast using a triple beam balance.

Figure 3. A student records information taken from test tubes.


bioremediation: The process of using microorganisms to clean up an environmental hazard.

microorganism: A life form that is so small, it can only be seen with a microscope.

pollutant: A chemical that causes harm to the environment.


Discussion Questions: Solicit, integrate and summarize student responses. Ask the students:

Activity Embedded Assessment

Yeast Experiment Worksheet: Check student answers during the activity to gauge student mastery.

Discussion: Ask students what they found. Which conditions were the best for the yeast? Why? Discuss any uncertainties in data and if there is anything else they should re-test. If they were environmental engineers using yeast for a sugar spill clean-up, what would they add to the yeast so that it would do its job the most effectively?

Safety Issues

Although yeast is used as food, students are in a lab and should not eat it.

Use eye protection (goggles or safety glasses) during this activity.

Troubleshooting Tips

Have students put the balloon half way on the bottle top, add the water and then put the balloon the rest of the way on the bottle top. If students have trouble getting the balloon on, get a smaller container.

If carbon dioxide does not fill balloon, get a smaller balloon or use more yeast.

Reaction times vary, encourage students to come back and check on their balloons if they do not see results within the class period.

It may be useful to seal the balloon to the flask using duct tape or masking tape to prevent air from leaking.

Activity Extensions

If students are interested, or there is funding available, oil eating bacteria kits are available online and may further demonstrate how bioremediation can be applied in the real world. You may start with the following website:, but there are several additional sources.

Activity Scaling

For younger students, work through the math calculations as a class using average values.

For older students, have students present their findings to the class along with a suggestion or idea on why bioremediation is important to use in the environment.

Sterilization vs Disinfection (Similarities and Differences between Sterilization and Disinfection in Microbiology)

Microbes are present in almost all types of habitats. They are so ubiquitous that the presence of many microbes causes undesirable consequences such as food spoilage and diseases. Thus in many situations, it is mandatory to kill the microbes or inhibit their growth to minimize or completely nullify their destructive activities. Sterilization and Disinfection are the two commonly used methods to kill or inhibit the growth of microbes to avoid their undesirable consequences.

Sterilization is a process by which an article, surface or medium is freed of all living microorganisms either in vegetative or in spore state. The materials that have been subjected to the process is said to be Sterile. Usually, the sterilization process is done by physical agents such as heat, steam or radiation.

Disinfection is the use of chemical agents that destroy pathogenic microorganisms. Disinfection reduces the number of microbes to a minimal level so that it is no longer harmful. Disinfection destroys only vegetative cells, not the spores (endospores and fungal spores)

The present post discusses the Similarities and Differences between Sterilization and Disinfection with a Comparison Table.

Similarities between Sterilization and Disinfection

Ø Both sterilization and disinfection are decontamination processes.

Ø Both kill harmful and harmless microbes.

Ø Both are used to destroy bacteria, fungi, protozoans and viruses.

Ø Both sterilization and disinfection use agents called sterilants or disinfectants respectively.

SOP for Cleaning of Microbiology Laboratory

5.6.1 After daily work activity, clean the area as follows. Cleaning is carried out after completion of work activity. Ensure, aseptic activities are not in progress Enter in the area as per SOP for entry and exit in microbiological testing area. Clean the equipment outer surfaces and pendants with a lint free wet cloth with IPA 70% v/v solution. Clean the Laminar Air Flow surfaces with a lint free wet cloth (except filters). Ensure that the filter surface is not in contact with cleanings equipment and cleaning agents, during the cleaning activity. Clean the glass pans of the windows and doors with a lint free duster Spray the disinfectant solution on the walls starting from sterility room backward to first change room. Allow the solution to remain in contact with the surface for 5 – 10 minutes Mop the wall of the sterile area by moving the mop with top to bottom strokes Put disinfectant solution on floor & mop so as to remove the dust and other foreign material. (Start from working area to first change room) Empty out the waste bin. Garment cubicle is cleaned once a day. Open the garment cubicle, remove all the garments kept hanging and put them for washing. Clean the inner surface then outer surface with lint free cloth damped with IPA 70% v/v. Frequency once a day or as per required
5.6.2 Fogging of sterility testing area and air locks. Use the disinfectant as per the schedule in concentration recommends. Pour 3 liter of disinfectant solution in a reservoir of fogging instrument 2.7 liters of disinfectant solution is recommended for 1000 cubic meter of the area) or as per validate method. Plug the pin in Mains. Operate toggle switch for ON / OFF operation Run the instrument in all the area till the disinfectant solution exhaust. Frequency: Once a day or as & when required.

Sterilize/disinfect sugar for lab use - Biology

Summer Research Program for Science Teachers

Dean Saghafi-Ezaz

How clean are the laboratory tables?

Finish the summary questions at the end of this exercise.

Teacher's Questions

Motivation : Group students into 4 per group. Place Tide on each group's lab table. Explain to them that the Tide is a bacteria and must be cleaned from the table using the paper towels. The students are not to use water to clean the tables.

Procedure :
Once the students clean the desk (approximately 10-15 minutes), shut off the lights and walk around to each desk and show the students, using the black light, that there is still residual "bacteria" (Tide) on the tables. [ 5-8 Content Standard B - Properties of matter]

Summary Questions:

1. How could you have prevented bacterial contamination of the tables?

2. What types of cleaning agents could have been used to eliminate all of the bacteria? [ Teaching Standard B - Orchestrate scientific discourse]

3. Why is it essential to wipe down your tables before each class begins and after each class ends?

4. What types of safety clothing should be used at all times in the laboratory? Why?

5. Why should gloves and safety goggles be worn in the lab at all time? [ Teaching Standard D - Ensure a safe working environment]

6. Which scientist recommended that hand washing should be done before and after surgery was performed?

Washing Out Common Chemicals

  • Water Soluble Solutions (e.g., sodium chloride or sucrose solutions): Rinse three to four times with deionized water, then put the glassware away.
  • Water Insoluble Solutions (e.g., solutions in hexane or chloroform): Rinse two to three times with ethanol or acetone, rinse three to four times with deionized water, then put the glassware away. In some situations, other solvents need to be used for the initial rinse.
  • Strong Acids (e.g., concentrated HCl or H2SO4): Under the fume hood, carefully rinse the glassware with copious volumes of tap water. Rinse three to four times with deionized water, then put the glassware away.
  • Strong Bases (e.g., 6M NaOH or concentrated NH4OH): Under the fume hood, carefully rinse the glassware with copious volumes of tap water. Rinse three to four times with deionized water, then put the glassware away.
  • Weak Acids (e.g., acetic acid solutions or dilutions of strong acids such as 0.1M or 1M HCl or H2SO4): Rinse three to four times with deionized water before putting the glassware away.
  • Weak Bases (e.g., 0.1M and 1M NaOH and NH4OH): Rinse thoroughly with tap water to remove the base, then rinse three to four times with deionized water before putting the glassware away.

How to Do the Water Filtration Experiment

You will need a few supplies:

2 Glass Jars
3-4 Coffee Filters
Dirty Water
A Plastic Cup with a Hole Cut in the Bottom

Begin by getting a jar full of dirty water. We went to a little pond nearby to collect some water.

In the plastic cup, start by lining the bottom with the coffee filters. Then place a layer of clean sand followed by a layer of gravel.

Place the cup into an empty jar. Pour the dirty water into the cup so it can filter down through the gravel, sand and coffee filters.

Look at the difference in the water before and after! The filter collects all of the dirt and particles in it making the water much cleaner.

Now, I am not sure I would recommend drinking it still, but if you were in dire need, t his is a great way to get some clean water!

A few ways to extend or modify:

Clean the filter and send the water through again. Try dirtying the water with different things like oil, soda, food coloring, etc. Get water testing kits to see if you can get it ready for drinking!

I am joining with some of my favorite blogging buddies today with an Earth Day log hop! Visit their sites for some other fun ideas for Earth Day!

Use common sense measures

Don’t forget to use proper protective equipment, especially when you’re working in sterile conditions. It’s not just to protect yourself from your own samples and chemicals it’s also to protect your cells and samples from you! Wearing gloves, a lab coat, lab glasses (when appropriate), and hair ties will avoid particles, like keratin and bacteria from your skin, falling into your tubes, vials, and plates. Also, clean up when you’re done! Traces of cell lines left on the bench can cross-contaminate your samples, as can chemicals, such as formaldehyde, which once wrecked the quantitative PCR results of a certain lab that will not be named here. It’s also unbelievably aggravating—and potentially dangerous—when someone leaves unknown powder around the measuring scale, which can contaminate the lab’s air supply.

Keeping your lab clean can be difficult, especially in large labs performing multiple assays simultaneously. However, if you can organize your workflow and inventory, in addition to implementing the basic tenets of sterile technique, you stand a good chance of keeping your cells and reagents free of contaminants, reducing the effort, time, and money lost due to tainted supplies and failed experiments.

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Watch the video: Αποστείρωση εργαλείων, αυτόκαυστος κλίβανος Euronda E8 24 λίτρων, υγρής αποστείρωσης τύπου B. (May 2022).


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  3. Dakarai

    First: Setting up the RSS encoding of your site

  4. Pueblo

    This is a very valuable message

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