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This is a small plant from my backyard. I have found the flower closes in the evening.
This plant belong to Malvaceae, and the yellow flowers open towards morning to mid-day.
This plant is most-likely Sida rhombifolia or may be Malvastrum tricuspidatum .
From broad leaves it seems not Sida acuta
Check epicalyx ( made up of bracteoles)… is there is no epicalyx then Sida rhombifolia. If epicalyx is 3, it is Malvastrum tricuspidatum
look also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sida_rhombifolia,
Epicalyx of Malvastrum tricuspidatum :
C= Corolla (all petals), K= Calyx (all sepals), E= Epicalyx the bracteole
- Subtropical deserts are centered on the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
- Subtropical deserts can be hot or cold, but they are all very dry,having very low annual precipitation.
- Because precipitation is so low in subtropical deserts, most plants are annuals which utilize adaptations to conserve water.
- Chaparrals (scrub forests) are found in California, along the Mediterranean Sea, and along the southern coast of Australia.
- Chaparrals are very wet in the winter, but very dry in the summer months most chaparral plants stay dormant during the summer.
- Most chaparral plants are shrubs adapted to fires some seeds only germinate after a fire.
- chaparral: a region of shrubs, typically dry in the summer and rainy in the winter
- subtropical desert: dry region centered on the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn where evaporation exceeds precipitation
Genetically engineered eggplant improving lives in Bangladesh
The introduction of Bt eggplant reduced the need for harmful pesticides to be sprayed on commercial fields in Bangladesh. Mohammed Shajahan, left, works in a field with a day laborer at his farm in Bangladesh. Credit: Cornell University
Ansar Ali earned just 11,000 taka – about $130 U.S. dollars – from eggplant he grew last year in Bangladesh. This year, after planting Bt eggplant, he brought home more than double that amount, 27,000 taka. It's a life-changing improvement for a subsistence farmer like Ali.
Bt eggplant, or brinjal as it's known in Bangladesh, is the first genetically engineered food crop to be successfully introduced in South Asia. Bt brinjal is helping some of the world's poorest farmers to feed their families and communities, improve profits and dramatically reduce pesticide use. That's according to Tony Shelton, Cornell professor of entomology and director of the Bt brinjal project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Shelton and Jahangir Hossain, the country coordinator for the project in Bangladesh, lead the Cornell initiative to get these seeds into the hands of the small-scale, resource-poor farmers who grow a crop consumed daily by millions of Bangladeshis.
Bt brinjal was first developed by the Indian seed company Mahyco in the early 2000s. Scientists inserted a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (thus the name, Bt) into nine brinjal varieties. The plants were engineered to resist the fruit and shoot borer, a devastating insect whose larvae bore into the stem and fruit of an eggplant. The insects cause up to 80 percent crop loss.
The Bt protein produced by the engineered eggplant causes the fruit and shoot borer larva to stop feeding, but is safe for humans consuming the eggplant, as proven through years of biosafety trials. In fact, Bt is commonly used by organic farmers to control caterpillars but has to be sprayed frequently to be effective. The Bt eggplant produces essentially the same protein as in the spray. More than 80 percent of field corn and cotton grown in the U.S. contains a Bt gene for insect control.
"Farmers growing Bt brinjal in Bangladesh are seeing three times the production of other brinjal varieties, at half the production cost, and are getting better prices at the market," Hossain said.A farmer holds non-Bt eggplant infested with fruit and shoot borer. Credit: Cornell Alliance for Science/Provided
A recent survey found 50 percent of farmers in Bangladesh said that they experienced illness due to the intense spraying of insecticides. Most farmers work in bare feet and without eye protection, leading to pesticide exposure that causes skin and eye irritation, and vomiting.
"It's terrible for these farmers' health and the health of the environment to spray so much," said Shelton, who found that pesticide use on Bt eggplant was reduced as much as 92 percent in commercial Bt brinjal plantings. "Bt brinjal is a solution that's really making a difference in people's lives."
Alhaz Uddin, a farmer in the Tangail district, made 6,000 taka growing traditional brinjal, but had to spend 4,000 taka on pesticides to combat fruit and shoot borer.
"I sprayed pesticides several times in a week," he said. "I got sick many times during the spray."
Mahyco initially wanted to introduce Bt brinjal in India and underwent years of successful safety testing. But in 2010, due to pressure from anti-biotechnology groups, the Indian minister of the environment placed a moratorium on the seeds. It is still in effect today, leaving brinjal farmers there without the effective and safe method of control available to their neighbors in Bangladesh.
Even before the Indian moratorium, Cornell scientists hosted delegations from Bangladesh that wanted to learn about Bt brinjal and the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II (ABSP II), a consortium of public and private institutions in Asia and Africa intended to help with the commercial development, regulatory approval and dissemination of bio-engineered crops, including Bt brinjal.
Cornell worked with USAID, Mahyco and the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute to secure regulatory approval, and in 2014 the Bangladeshi government distributed a small number of Bt brinjal plants to 20 farmers in four districts. The next year 108 farmers grew Bt brinjal, and the following year the number of farmers more than doubled to 250. In 2017 the number increased to 6,512 and in 2018 to 27,012. The numbers are likely even higher, according to Shelton, as there are no constraints against farmers saving seeds and replanting.
"Farmers who plant Bt brinjal are required to plant a small perimeter of traditional brinjal around the Bt variety research has shown that the insects will infest plants in the buffer area, and this will slow their evolutionary development of resistance to the Bt plants," Shelton said.
In a March 2017 workshop, Bangladeshi Agriculture Minister Begum Matia Chowdhury called Bt brinjal "a success story of local and foreign collaboration."
"We will be guided by the science-based information, not by the nonscientific whispering of a section of people," Chowdhury said. "As human beings, it is our moral obligation that all people in our country should get food and not go to bed on an empty stomach. Biotechnology can play an important role in this effect."
Plant at least three trees
Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina yesterday called upon the people, including the leaders and workers of Awami League and its associated bodies, to plant at least three saplings to make Bangladesh a much greener country.
She made the call while inaugurating the three-month long tree plantation campaign of Bangladesh Krishok League at the Gono Bhaban.
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Hasina said the government wants to ensure overall economic development of the country keeping its environment and surroundings protected.
She said the government was implementing various programmes to improve the environment of the country.
The PM said forestation in Bangladesh now has gone up to 22 percent from mere 7 percent due to massive afforestation efforts by her successive governments.
Social afforestation and programmes on gardening at every home are also underway to further advance the government's initiative, she added.
Hasina said such steps will help improve the country's environment, and this is how Bangladesh will be able to set an example in the world.
About the plantation campaign, the premier said Awami League had taken a decision in 1983 to observe countrywide tree plantation campaigns on the 1st day of Bangla month Asharh every year to take afforestation programmes forward.
She requested the leaders, workers and well-wishers of AL and its associated bodies and those who believe in Bangabandhu's ideology to plant at least one fruit, one wood, and one medicinal saplings.
The PM said these trees would ensure economic and nutritional security of the people alongside protecting the country's environment.
Earlier, Hasina inaugurated the tree plantation campaign of Krishok League by planting a Palash sapling at the Gono Bhaban.
Intruder: BSF seeks details from Bangladesh counterpart
The BSF has sought information from its counterpart — the Border Guards Bangladesh (BGB) — on an intruder who succumbed to his injuries at a hospital in north Tripura on Saturday.
The force claimed that he had sustained serious injuries after falling on a blunt object while running towards the border to escape from chasing Indians.
Reports said residents of Sonaichera, a border village in Kadamtala area of north Tripura, noticed movement of four people on the intervening night of June 13 and 14, and chased them. Three infiltrators managed to return to Bangladesh under the cover of darkness, but one fell down and was injured.
The BSF claimed the villagers found him seriously hurt and admitted him to a local hospital. He was subsequently shifted to the district government hospital at Dharmanagar after his condition deteriorated.
During investigation, the injured man identified himself as Suman Munda (27), resident of Kalamati village in Juri Sub-district of Moulvibazar district in northeast Bangladesh.
He passed away at 9 a.m. in the district hospital.
The BSF officials of the Tripura Frontiers said they had not received any missing person report from the BGB. They lodged a protest note with it to verify the credentials of the intruder.
Tripura shares 856-km boundary with Bangladesh some portions of which are still not fenced resulting in intrusion of smugglers and criminals.
How It Works
Giulia Friso obtained her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Biology and her Ph.D in Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of Padua (Italy). She was a postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London (UK), and at the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at UCSF in San Francisco. Giulia was a research scientist at the discovery unit of the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca in Stockholm (Sweden). She joined the Plant Biology Department at Cornell University in 2001 and is currently senior research associate and senior lecturer.
“My goal as a teacher is to inspire my students in the learning process and engage them in the process of discovery facilitate mastery of plant biology and help them integrate concepts of biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, ethnobotany, indigenous knowledge, and bioprospecting. I also aim to transmit my enthusiasm as a researcher and a teacher, influencing my students to commit to my course and interest them in the field of medicinal plants and drug discovery. I am deeply interested to convey a knowledge and awareness of different cultural practices, values, and beliefs, and help my students gain an understanding of their own cultural perspective.”
What is the name of this plant, from Bangladesh? - Biology
Known as the ‘golden fibre’ jute is one of the longest and most used natural fibre for various textile applications.
Jute is extracted from the bark of the white jute plant (Corchorus capsularis) and to a lesser extent from tossa jute (C. olitorius). It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called the Golden Fibre. Jute is an annual crop taking about 120 days (April/May-July/August) to grow.
It thrives in tropical lowland areas with humidity of 60% to 90%. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. Yields are about 2 tonnes of dry jute fibre per hectare. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres and considered second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibres.
Jute is long, soft and shiny, with a length of 1 to 4 m and a diameter of from 17 to 20 microns. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components of wood fibre). The fibres can be extracted by either biological or chemical retting processes. Given the expense of using chemicals to strip the fibre from the stem biological processes are more widely practices. Biological retting can be done by either by stack, steep and ribbon processes which involve different techniques of bundling jute stems together and soaking in water to help separate the fibres from the stem before stripping. After the retting process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, leaving the fibres to be pulled out from within the stem.
Jute fibre is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. A hectare of jute plants consumes about 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide and releases 11 tonnes of oxygen. Cultivating jute in crop rotations enriches the fertility of the soil for the next crop. Jute also does not generate toxic gases when burnt.
Uses of Jute
Jute is a versatile fibre. During the Industrial Revolution, jute yarn largely replaced flax and hemp fibres in sackcloth. Today, sacking still makes up the bulk of manufactured jute products. A key feature of jute is its ability to be used either independently or blended with a range of other fibres and materials. While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses, some take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, geotextiles for soil and erosion control where application is designed to break down after sometime and no removal required.
Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and moderate moisture retention.
The major manufactured products from jute fibre are: Yarn and twine, sacking, hessian, carpet backing cloth and as well as for other textile blends. It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. The fibres are woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets and area rugs and are also often blended with other fibres, both synthetic and natural. The finest threads can be separated out and made into imitation silk. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool.
Jute is extensively used for sacking for agriculture goods as well as being used increasingly in rigid packaging and reinforced plastic and is replacing wood in pulp and paper.
Diversified by-products from jute include its use in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products. Jute sticks are used as fuelling and fencing materials in the rural areas of jute producing countries. These are good substitute for forest wood and bamboo for production of particle boards, pulp and paper.
Jute is a product of South Asia and specifically a product of India and Bangladesh. About 95% of world jute is grown in these two south Asian countries. Nepal and Myanmar also produce a small amount of jute. Pakistan, although it does not produce much, imports a substantial amount of raw jute, mainly from Bangladesh, for processing.
Production and trade
Jute production fluctuates, influenced by weather conditions and prices. Annual output in the last decade ranges from 2.5 to 3.2 million tonnes, on a par with wool. India and Bangladesh account for about 60% and 30%, respectively, of the world’s production., Bangladesh exports nearly 40% as raw fibre, and about 50% as manufactured items. India exports nearly 200 000 tonnes of jute products, the remainder being consumed domestically.
As the demand for natural fibre blends increases, the demand for jute and other natural fibres that can be blended with cotton is expected to increase. Jute’s profile in the textile industry has expanded beyond traditional applications and is being used in various higher value textiles for furnishings as well as in composites particularly as a wood fibre. Although currently diversified jute products account for a small percentage of total consumption this segment could expand rapidly with further investment in resources and expertise. In terms of conservation agriculture, jute also has a set role and is now accepted as an environmental, cost effective material for various soil applications.
Several projects are being carried out in Bangladesh by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) to improve the capacity of jute producers and support industry diversification.
Jute Reinforced Polyolefines for Industrial Applications, Phase II: Material Optimization and Process Up-Scaling for Commercialization
The project aims at developing and industrially testing jute fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites for various uses to replace glass fibre and other products. Materials optimization and process up-scaling is expected to promote investment and greater use of jute fibre in various industries thereby opening up new market niches for jute fibre.
Entrepreneurship Development in Diversified Jute Products
The project involves poor women and other rural and urban unemployed and underemployed: hence significant alleviation of poverty is expected from the project. The project pilots the application of new physico-chemical treatments for jute dyeing, bleaching and proofing, and the integrated production of value-added jute blended products through small-scale spinning and weaving employing small-scale hand looms and power looms and the manufacturing of home textiles. Model chemical treatment plants in India and Bangladesh are used to demonstrate the treatment of chemical effluent to minimize the polluting effects of dyes and other chemical applications.
Other projects have been commissioned to examine the markets for geo-textile applications and projects to improve efficiency of production for various jute uses. Together these projects build capacity in jute processing and help position the fibre more strongly on international markets and increase awareness of the fibres potential.
Five dead in protest at Chinese-financed plant in Bangladesh
Police confirmed a fifth victim and 19 injured, including three police, were taken to a hospital in Chittagong.
At least five people were shot dead and dozens injured when Bangladesh police opened fire Saturday on demonstrating workers at the construction site of a Chinese-financed power plant, officials said.
Police started shooting after workers became violent, said Saiduzzman Chowdhury, government administrator in the southern coastal town of Banshkhali.
They were protesting over unpaid wages, working hours and alleged discrimination.
Azizul Islam, Banshkhali police chief, said about 2,000 protesters threw rocks and bricks at police, who responded with gunfire.
The 2.5 billion-dollar, 1,200-megawatt coal power plant, 30 percent owned by Chinese engineering giant SEPCOIII, has been at the centre of other deadly protests in recent years.
Police opened fire on a protest by villagers in 2016, when four people were killed.
One man was killed in 2017 when police fired shots at a rally.
Four bodies with bullet wounds were taken from the latest protests to Banshkhali's main hospital, a doctor there said, adding that 12 others were being treated for wounds.
Police confirmed a fifth victim and 19 injured, including three police, were taken to a hospital in Chittagong.
Rights activists say the SS Power One plant, 70 percent owned by the S. Alam Group, does not meet environmental impact standards and was built without public consultation.
It is one of the biggest investments made by Chinese companies in Bangladesh. The deal was one of many announced when President Xi Jinping visited in 2016.
S. Alam executive director Subrata Kumar Bhowmick said the plant was 40 percent finished and about 3,000 construction workers were employed there.
Two company officials, speaking on condition of anonymity, said a Chinese contractor employed the workers.
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Career in Biotechnology
A number of factors determine the demand of professionals from this interdisciplinary field. India primarily being an agrarian economy, requires professionals who can improve agrarian practices and optimise agricultural output. The growing population of the country requires improved life sciences related products and medicines. This in turn fuels the demand for an increased research and development of vaccines, medicines, tissue culture methods and so on.
There is a steady demand for these professionals in numerous organisations engaged in different types of industrial research and development. On the supply side, technical colleges are trying their best to meet the growing demand for qualified professionals.
One major problem faced on the demand side is that a vast majority of students who are engaged in cutting edge research often tend to leave India to complete their research projects. Moreover, once these students complete their research work they tend to stay and work abroad.
Biotechnology has been making steady progress in last decade and a half. More than half of the earnings from this industry currently come from exports and the trend is expected to remain the same in the coming years.
Although, students doing research work in this field have a tendency to work in foreign countries, yet there is huge potential for students who wish to stay and work in India. According to a recent survey, India is stated to become an international focal point for development of biotechnology.
The areas where biotechnology has grown in India includes Agricultural Biotechnology, Animal Husbandry, Bioinformatics, Bio fertilizers and Dairy development. Growth has also been seen in the area of Bio-resource Development, Plant Biology, Marine Biotechnology, Microbiology, Genetic research.
The changes in the patent regime along with the initiatives taken by the government are expected to bear fruit. All this will lead to a rapid growth and expansion of biotechnological industries in the country.
&bull This is an upcoming and constantly growing science and has worldwide scope especially in terms of research.
&bull The scope for research is very wide and efficient work gets fast acclamation within multinationals.
&bull If you succeed in clearing the tests and interviews, it is assumed you are the right fit for the profession.
&bull The number of seats for biotechnology courses is very limited across colleges in comparison with subjects such as physics, chemistry or biology.
&bull The testing and interviewing processes usually are difficult and one has to be technically expert.
&bull The number of companies employing biotechnology students is less when compared with number of companies hiring IT professionals or finance professionals.
&bull You will have to put in a lot of hard work which can be frustrating at times.
&bull This is not a profession for people who want to make fast buck but for people who are looking for a long and a well charted career.
The applications of this branch of science are vast and simply mind-boggling. On one hand, it caters to the industrial sector such as food and beverages industry, textiles industry, biological products, medicines and pharmaceuticals while on the other hand this branch of science caters to the requirements of agriculture, animal husbandry, nutrition and environmental conservation. The list is a long and an envious one.
What&rsquos more, the branch of science we are talking about is in itself not confined or bound as a single discipline. Rather it is an interdisciplinary branch of science that is rapidly gaining significance and opportunities for youngsters who want to explore the new frontiers of science are immense. The name of the discipline is Biotechnology.
Although, the name may suggest that this branch of science is steeped in biology but this is not the case. Apart from biology, this branch of science also assimilates diverse subjects like physics, chemistry and mathematics. Furthermore, engineering applications are also an integral constituent of biotechnology.
The concepts derived from this dissimilar mix of sciences are applied to biological matter, generally living cells, for developing new and improved biological and industrial products. Most of the work done by professionals engaged in biotechnology is concerned with research and development work in various laboratories.
Students are showing tremendous interest in biotechnology. The primary reason behind this interest emerges from the fact that the technical and procedural application of biotechnology touches a vast array of disciplines. This in turn opens a lot many job portals for students who are seeking a stable career in their life. Biotechnology, along with its many sub-fields, finds use in so many applications that many new fields have and are being derived from within it.
In opting for a specialised profession such as biotechnology, you must plan your career right from your school days. In this context, the combination of subjects of study at the 10+2 level must primarily include Biology, Chemistry, Physics and even Mathematics. Once you have finished schooling you can opt for a suitable undergraduate program (BSc, BE, BTech) in Biotechnology from various academic institutions spread across the country. The duration of a BSc program in biotechnology is three years whereas it is four years for BE and BTech courses.
The eligibility criterion for getting into an undergraduate program varies from one institution to another. In some colleges the eligibility criteria includes a 10+2 with 50% marks in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. In some other institutions, the 10+2 pass percentage required is 55%. Whereas some colleges consider physics, chemistry and biology combination of subjects as a basic entry level qualification and others take into account the physics, chemistry and mathematics combination. Once this eligibility criterion is met, you can get admission in to BSc programs.
However, for many undergraduate courses in biotechnology you need to sit for common engineering entrance exams such as:
&bull The Joint Entrance Examination for IITs (IITJEE): for admission to various IITs
&bull All-India Engineering Entrance Exam (AIEEE): for admission to various National Institutes of Technology or regional engineering colleges
Other than these common entrance examinations, engineering institutions offering undergraduate programs conduct their own entrance examinations. The result of these entrances will allow you get admission to an undergraduate course in biotechnology in reputed engineering colleges.
Once you have earned a graduate degree in this field you can go for the master&rsquos level (MSc, ME, MTech). For a Masters in Biotechnology, you should either have a graduate degree in biotechnology or in any subject that is related to biological sciences. A graduate degree in subjects such as biochemistry, biology, botany, chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy, veterinary sciences or zoology is acceptable for an entry into a post-graduate program in biotechnology.
Apart from undergraduate programs, many colleges and universities offer five and five-and-a-half year integrate programs (BTech/MTech) for students. It should be kept in mind that a post-graduate qualification in biotechnology is a must to enter the profitable and ever-expanding field of biotechnical applications.
As it is a blend of numerous disciplines, you have to do a specialisation in a number of fields. Some of the common areas of research include fields like: Agriculture and Agricultural Development, Animal Husbandry, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Botany, Dairy Technology, Environmental Protection, Fishery Development, Genetics, Horticulture, Medicine, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nutrition, Pharmacology, Tissue Culture and Zoology.
After post-graduation, you can apply for a doctoral program and from then on if need be, immerse yourself in post-doctoral research. Here, it is important to point out that a majority of students prefer to do their PhD and post-doctoral research from foreign universities.
Like any other job profile, the pay packet largely depends on your academic qualification, your area of specialisation and the institution from where you have earned your degree. Fresh graduates in this field can generally bag a monthly salary in the range of Rs 8,000 to Rs 20,000.
It has been observed that candidates with a Masters degree in Biotechnology get a better starting salary as compared with students who just have a graduate degree in this field. With an increase in the level of experience, there is abundant scope for getting fatter pay cheques in this exciting and inspiring profession.
To follow biotechnology as a preferred profession, you must have a sound grounding in science from the early school days. You must have keen interest in various branches of science not just for study sake or for obtaining good grades. Rather, you must have a keen perception to understand scientific applications and even keep pace with the latest news from the scientific world.
Once you are through with 10+2, you must either opt for an undergraduate course in biotechnology or any subject that is directly or indirectly related to biological sciences. Remember a masters degree is a must to make a successful career in the domain of biotechnology.
Is it the Right Career for Me?
Important traits for getting into this domain are a high degree of intelligence and a general aptitude for science and scientific applications.
Since biotechnology is redefining the boundaries of science, to become a part of such an innovative field you must posses an inherent attitude of originality and imagination. Other skills that will sail you through a successful and a fulfilling career in this path-breaking area are perseverance, immense patience, analytical proficiency, ability to work for long hours, team spirit and communication skills.
What would it Cost Me?
A typical course in biotechnology can annually cost you anywhere between Rs 20,000 to Rs 2,00,000 or above depending on the college you study.
Usually, government and regional colleges that select students through tough entrance exams charge less as compared to programs offered by private owned colleges.
Various academic institutions and universities offer scholarships to deserving students who perform extraordinarily in the entrance test and post-entrance interviews. However, easy loans are available from banks for students to pursue their academics. The money borrowed may be returned after a student gets a job.
For instance, State Bank of India, Allahabad Bank, State Bank of Mysore and Bank of Baroda are some popular banks that offer attractive loans to students. These loans include library fees, book purchases, travel expenses and often allow students to purchase computers, accessories and scientific instruments required to complete their work.
Some companies to work with:
2. Serum Institute of India
3. Panacea Biotech
4. Mahyco Monsanto Biotech
5. Rasi Seeds
6. Novo Nordisk
8. Indian Immunologicals
9. Venkateshwara Hatcheries
11. Dr. Reddy&rsquos Labs
12. Piramal Healthcare.
Overall, these are some of the major names in Indian biotechnological industry which extensively use biotechnological processes and techniques to develop and innovate products and processes.
At the international level, India has started making its presence felt in the domain of biotechnology. However, there is tremendous scope for graduate and post-graduate students from this field especially in the United States and in European countries.
A large number of post-graduate students and research scholars tend to move out of India to complete their higher studies. Furthermore, these students prefer to seek employment in the country where they complete their studies or research projects.
Different roles, different names
Biotechnology, as the name suggests is the technology of biology and the scope of both put together. On the one hand, it has concepts from biology explored in depth. On the other hand, this subject explores the impact and the influence of technology on the subject matter. The subject is quite similar to Bioinformatics, which explores biological information in depth using analytical and scientific tools.
Tips for Getting Hired
1. Apply to at least five to ten top companies to have options for selecting the best job offer out of the ones received.
2. Carry proof of your technical expertise and assure as much as possible that you will be an asset to the company that hires you.
3. Demand a reasonable salary as in the beginning, your focus must be to learn how the industry works, overall.
4. Explore all the possible learning and development opportunities that the companies you have applied to, will provide you. This will help you in choosing the best out of all the offers received.
Biotechnology assimilates in itself a number of disciplines. Further, there is a great demand for biotechnical experts in countless industries and sectors. The following are applications where biotechnological techniques are used extensively:
&bull Animal Husbandry
&bull Environment Conservation
&bull Genetic Engineering
&bull Health Care
&bull Industrial Research and Development
Career opportunities for students in biotechnology abound. Those specialising in different sub-disciplines of this field can easily find jobs in both private and government sector undertakings. If you have acquired a post-graduate degree in biotechnology then you can easily find a suitable position in a number of industries.
Major recruiters include industries engaged in processing and developing agricultural and biological products, bio-processing industries, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There are ample opportunities in industries producing healthcare products, textile industry, cosmetics and organisations engaged in different types of industrial research and development.
These days a growing number of qualified biotechnical professionals are engaged by different industries for environment protection activities and for the safe disposal of hazardous materials.
“Made in Bangladesh” cars: how far are we?
Rahbar Al Haq Rahbar Al Haq
The personal ownership of a car in Bangladesh has always been an expensive prospect. High import taxes, combined with the lack of an indigenous auto industry in Bangladesh, mean prospective buyers have to pay to double over a car's original price, sometimes even more.
However, with the massive 1,106% increase in car ownership (from 303,215 units to 4,471,625 units) in the past 15 years, combined with rapid industrialisation, local production of cars has become very close to reality. Some companies have already begun locally assembling cars for foreign brands, while others are planning for future joint production. With this in mind, we have put together a summary of all these companies and their achievements to date.
For all latest news, follow The Daily Star's Google News channel.
For this article, we are excluding the development of commercial and motorcycle assembly in Bangladesh, as those topics are best covered with their own separate dedicated reports.
Pragati Industries Limited | Multiple brands
Pragati's history of local car assembly goes back before our country's independence, when —Back then it was known as Ghandhara Industries— in the 60's it entered into an agreement with General Motor's European division to put together the Vauxhall Viva sedan. In more recent times, the Japanese automotive giant Mitsubishi has entered a five-year agreement with Pragati around 2010 to locally assemble the second generation Pajero Sport SUV. Both companies maintain this agreement to this day, with assembly switching to the new third-generation QX model. In recent years, the State-run enterprise reportedly also began working closely with Mitsubishi to make their brand of motor vehicles. In a report published on The Daily Star last year, Industries Minister Nurul Majid Mahmud Humayun said that Japanese Ambassador Ito Naoki had told him "He [Ito Naoki] also said that Japan would provide technical assistance for the production of Bangladesh's own brand of motor vehicles. He further offered to assist Bangladesh in developing the vendor industry related to automobile and light engineering industries and setting up an Automobile Testing & Research Institute in Bangladesh."
Other than Mitsubishi, Pragati also assembled 36 Mahindra Scorpio SUVs in 2017. The enterprise also offers the Foton SUV and various other commercial vehicles.
Rangs Limited | Mitsubishi Motors
Although Pragati has been putting together cars with the three-diamond badge for a while, most of their output ended up in the government fleet. The cars that do end up on the consumer market, are sold by Rangs Limited, a concern of Rangs Group. The local industrial giant has been putting together the cars on their own as well, assembling the Mitsubishi Outlander SUV at their Kashimpur, Gazipur plant for well over three years, with more than 200 units being successfully completed. Currently, the plant can assemble 4 units per day with Shoeb Ahmed, divisional director of Rangs Limited, informed daily star in February that for 2021 they hope to assemble 200 SUVs in a single year.
A brief look at the auto industry in Bangladesh
Gracefully matured: 2020 Honda City RS
PHP Motors | Proton Holdings Berhad
PHP Motors, a sister concern of the PHP Family based in Chattogram, has been putting together Malaysia's Proton car as early as 2017. Their facility at Sagarika in Chattogram is capable of the annual production of 1,200 units a year and currently employs about 265 workers to assemble 10-12 vehicles per shift. PHP started with the assembly of the Proton Preve, a decently equipped family sedan, but also began assembling the 2021 Proton Saga, according to PHP Automobile chairman Sufi Mohammed Mizanur Rahman.
Akhtar Parvez, managing director of the company, told The Daily Star last February that PHP currently locally produces 25 of the 800 parts required to build a car. He hopes they will be able to manufacture most of the important parts in their factory by next year.
Fair Technology Limited | Hyundai Motor Company
Fair Technology Limited's entry into the Bangladesh auto industry has been recent, but it has already made significant headway toward setting up local production. Being the new sole distributor of Hyundai cars in Bangladesh, the company signed a contract in January with Bangladesh Hi-Tech Park Authority (BHTPA) to establish an assembly plant at Kaliakair, Gazipur. Mohammed Mesbah Uddin, Chief Marketing Officer of the Fair group, told the Daily star last February that they plan to invest $125 million in the next three to five years to set up a plant capable of producing 5,000 vehicles a year. Fair Technology, which has also been manufacturing Samsung smartphones since 2019, hopes to begin production as soon as 2022 and claims the locally assembled cars are likely to be 25 per cent lower than prevailing market rates.
Uttara Motors Limited | Maruti Suzuki
Another dealership that has switched its focus on local car assembly is Uttara Motors Ltd. They are investing $33.63 million to build a local assembly and manufacturing plant for Maruti Suzuki cars in Bangladesh. The company signed a lease for a 50-acre plot at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Shilpa Nagar in Chattogram, last march.
Matiur Rahman, Uttara Motors Chairman and Managing Director, said the high-quality plant will generate employment for 800 people.
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Although the companies mentioned above are already producing or soon to start production, many other local automotive ventures had their venture abruptly halted because of the ongoing pandemic.
Bangladesh Auto Industries Ltd. (BAIL), was planning to establish an electric vehicle factory on Bangabandhu Industrial Park. With an initial investment of $200 million that would total to $1 billion within the next five years, the company planned to manufacture from two-wheelers to sedans, SUVs, pick-ups, mini-trucks, and multipurpose vehicles. Unfortunately, the pandemic slowed down BAIL's plans considerably, with all plans being moved back a year. In an interview with The Daily Star Mir Masud Kabir, managing director of BAIL, said "We missed the target as the suppliers could not ship the required equipment on time even though we opened letters of credit earlier on," said Mir Masud Kabir, managing director of BAIL. "We were on track before the Covid-19 crisis hit but the prevailing situation has not been favourable for us. Regardless, we are maintaining correspondence with our foreign partners via digital platforms to keep the project alive," he added.
Nitol Motor's Suvare electric cars project also suffered similar delays because of the Coivd-19. The company has finished the construction of the assembly plant building on 10 acres of land in Pabna, but are unable to import the machinery required to build the car themselves.
"As per new target, we will bring the EV within next two and a half years," informed Abdul Matlub Ahmad, chairman of Nitol-Niloy Group.
Asked about the car, he said the locally designed 25-Kwh battery-electric car would have the size and feel of regular sedans and will cost about Tk 10 lakh to Tk 12 lakh.
In more recent times Bangla cars, a sister concern of the Hossain group, entered talks with Chinese carmaker Dongfeng Motors to start local vehicle production under their own marque. Because of covid complication, however, the plans have been put on hold and the company is assembling DFSK car in their assembly plant at Narayanganj as an interim solution.
Md Abdus Sattar, Chief Technical Officer (CTO) of Bangla cars, informed The Daily Star that the plant is now fully operational, having successfully assembled 6 new DFSK "Glory" crossovers. The company plans to officially inaugurate the assembly plant after Eid, or whenever the lockdown eases.