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Addax in the Land of Israel

Addax in the Land of Israel


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The Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is critically endangered species of a desert anetelope with impressive long horns. Today there are small populations in the Sahara desert and the Arabian desert (Saudi Arabia). The addax is mentioned in the bible ("Dishon"), though the identification is not uninomous. Today in Israel there are breeding centers for the addax, one in Hai-Bar Yotvata (near Eilat, the rift valley, bay of the Red Sea) and the other in the Zoological Center at Ramat Gan ("The Safari"), but as far as I know, there are no plans to release addax in the wild in Israel (although I think it can survive and flourish there).

The question is: was the addax native to the Land of Israel (before it was eradicated from it by overhunting)? Do the conservation organizations support reintroduce it to the wild in Israel (in addition to the Sahara and the Arabian desert) addax herds from the breeding centers? The reintroduction of Oryx to the wild in Israel was pretty successful.


According to Yossef Braslevi, "HaYadata Et HaHaretz - Yam HaMelach Saviv Saviv" ("And you shall know the land - The Dead Sea and its Surroundings", 1956, Vol. C, page 199 -- the answer is positive. There were native addaxes in the Land of Israel.


Israeli Scientists Decode One of Last Encrypted Dead Sea Scrolls

A team of scientists from the Department of Bible Studies at the University of Haifa, Israel, has deciphered one of the last obscured parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, a collection of almost 1,000 ancient manuscripts in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek discovered in caves near Qumran in the Judean Desert in the 1940-50s.

Tiny fragments of the scroll 4Q324d — one of the last unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls — took a year to piece together. Image credit: Lux Moundi / Eshbal Ratzon & Jonathan Ben-Dov, doi: 10.15699/jbl.1364.2017.290288.

Members of the Qumran sect, who referred to themselves as the Yahad (‘Together’) community, were a fanatical group that lived a hermitic life in the Judean Desert. They wrote numerous scrolls, including a small number written in cryptic script.

The newly-deciphered Qumran scroll (dubbed 4Q324d) — reconstructed from 60 tiny fragments, some smaller than one cm 2 — contains information about the most important dates in the sect’s 364-day calendar.

“This calendar was involved in one of the fiercest debates between different groups during the late Second Temple period,” said University of Haifa researchers Dr. Eshbal Ratzon and Professor Jonathan Ben-Dov.

“The lunar calendar, which Judaism follows to this day, requires a large number of human decisions. People must look at the stars and the Moon and report on their observations, and someone must be empowered to decide on the new month and the application of leap years.”

“By contrast, the 364-day calendar was perfect. Because this number can be divided into four and seven, special occasions always fall on the same day. This avoids the need to decide, for example, what happens when a particular occasion falls on the Sabbath, as often happens in the lunar calendar.”

“The Qumran calendar is unchanging, and it appears to have embodied the beliefs of the members of this community regarding perfection and holiness,” they explained.

The Qumran sect’s calendar describes two special occasions not mentioned in the Bible, but which are already known from the Temple Scroll of Qumran: the festivals of New Wine and New Oil. These dates constituted an extension of the festival of Shavuot as we know it today, which celebrates the New Wheat.

According to this calendar, the festival of New Wheat falls 50 days after the first Sabbath following Passover the festival of New Wine comes 50 days later and after a further interval of 50 days, the festival of New Oil is celebrated.

The calendrical scroll 4Q324d also provides some surprises.

The researchers were aware from the previous scrolls that the members of the sect celebrated the transition between the seasons, adding a special day for each of the four changes of season. Until now, however, the name of these special days has remained unknown.

The present scroll reveals that these days were referred to by the word Tekufah. In today’s Hebrew, ‘Tekufah’ translates into the word ‘period.’

“This term is familiar from the later Rabbinical literature and from mosaics dating to the Talmudic period, and we could have assumed that it would also be used with this meaning in the scrolls, but this is the first time it has been revealed,” the scientists said.

“The scroll also provides additional information about the customs of the authors of the scrolls,” they added.

“It emerges that the person who wrote the scroll — probably one of the leaders of the sect familiar with the secret code — forgot to mention several special days marked by the community.”

“Accordingly, another scribe was forced to correct the errors, adding the missing dates in the margins between the columns of text.”

“The scroll is written in code, but its actual content is simple and well-known, and there was no reason to conceal it. This practice is also found in many places outside the Land of Israel, where leaders write in secret code even when discussing universally-known matters, as a reflection of their status.”

“The custom was intended to show that the author was familiar with the code, while others were not. However, this present scroll shows that the author made a number of mistakes.”

“This scroll includes numerous words and expressions that we find later in the Mishna. This shows once again that many of the subjects discussed by the Scribes several centuries later had origins that predated the Second Temple period,” Dr. Ratzon and Professor Ben-Dov said.

The team’s results are published in the Journal of Biblical Literature.

Eshbal Ratzon & Jonathan Ben-Dov. 2017. A Newly Reconstructed Calendrical Scroll from Qumran in Cryptic Script. Journal of Biblical Literature 136 (4): 905-936 doi: 10.15699/jbl.1364.2017.290288


Contents

The name Eilat was given to Umm al-Rashrāsh ( أم الرشراش ) in 1949 by the Committee for the Designation of Place-Names in the Negev. The name refers to Elath, a location mentioned in the Hebrew Bible that is thought to be located across the border in modern Jordan. The committee acknowledged that Biblical Eilat/Elath was across the border one committee member, Yeshayahu Press, justified the co-opting of the name by stating "when the real Eilat finally is in our hands, our settlement will expand and reach over to there." [3]

The geology and landscape are varied: igneous and metamorphic rocks, sandstone and limestone mountains up to 892 metres (2,927 ft) above sea level broad valleys such as the Arava, and seashore on the Gulf of Aqaba. With an annual average rainfall of 28 millimetres (1.1 in) and summer temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) and higher, water resources and vegetation are limited. "The main elements that influenced the region's history were the copper resources and other minerals, the ancient international roads that crossed the area, and its geopolitical and strategic position. These resulted in a settlement density that defies the environmental conditions." [4]

Early history

Archaeological excavations uncovered impressive prehistoric tombs dating to the 7th millennium BC at the western edge of Eilat, while nearby copper workings and mining operations at Timna Valley are the oldest on earth. [ citation needed ]

An Islamic copper smelting and trading community of 250–400 residents flourished in the area during the Umayyad Period (700–900 CE) its remains were found and excavated in 1989, at the northern edge of modern Eilat, between what is now the industrial zone and nearby Kibbutz Eilot. [5]

Modern city

During the British Mandate era, a British police post existed in the area, which was known as Umm Al-Rashrash. The area was designated as part of the Jewish state in the 1947 UN Partition Plan. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the abandoned police post, which consisted of five clay huts, was taken without a fight on March 10, 1949, as part of Operation Uvda. [6] [7] This marked the end of Israel's war for independence. It was formally granted to Israel in the 1949 Armistice Agreements.

The town developed over the following years. Eilat Airport was built in 1949 and individual ships began arriving in the 1950s, but as there were no dedicated port facilities they unloaded their goods at sea. In the early 1950s, Eilat was a small and remote town, populated largely by port workers, soldiers, and former prisoners. The town's development accelerated in 1955, when it had a population of about 500. The Timna Copper Mines [8] near the Timna Valley and the Port of Eilat were opened that year and concerted effort by the Israeli government to populate Eilat began, starting with Jewish immigrant families from Morocco being resettled there. Eilat began to develop rapidly after the Suez Crisis in 1956, with its tourism industry in particular starting to flourish. The Israeli Navy's Eilat naval base was founded that year. [9] The town's population grew to 5,300 in 1961. Yoseftal Medical Center and the Eilat-Ashkelon pipeline were completed in 1968, and the population increased further, reaching 13,100 in 1972 and 18,900 in 1983.

After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War Arab countries maintained a state of hostility with Israel, blocking all land routes Israel's access to and trade with the rest of the world was by air and sea alone. Further, Egypt denied passage through the Suez Canal to Israeli-registered ships or to any ship carrying cargo to or from Israeli ports. This made Eilat and its sea port crucial to Israel's communications, commerce and trade with Africa and Asia, and for oil imports. Without recourse to a port on the Red Sea Israel would have been unable to develop its diplomatic, cultural and trade ties beyond the Mediterranean basin and Europe. This happened in 1956 and again in 1967, when Egypt's closure of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping effectively blockaded the port of Eilat.

In 1956, this led to Israel's participation alongside Britain and France in the war against Egypt sparked by the Suez Crisis, while in 1967 90% of Israeli oil passed through the Straits of Tiran. [10] Oil tankers that were due to pass through the straits were delayed. [11] [12] The straits' closure was cited by Israel as an additional casus belli leading to the outbreak of the Six-Day War. Following peace treaties signed with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994, Eilat's borders with its neighbors were finally opened.

Israeli–Arab conflict

Eilat is especially defended by its own special forces unit Lotar Eilat. It is a reservist special forces unit of the IDF trained in counter-terrorism and hostage rescue in the Eilat area, which has taken part in many counter-terrorist missions in the region since its formation in 1974. The Lotar unit is composed solely of reservists, citizens who must be Eilat residents between the ages of 20 and 60, who are on call in case of a terrorist attack on the city. It is one of only three units in the IDF authorized to free hostages on its own command. [13] [14]

In 2007 the Eilat bakery bombing killed three civilian bakers. [15] [16] This was the first such attack in Eilat proper, [17] although other terror attacks had been carried out in the area. [18]

In 2011, terrorists infiltrated Israel across the Sinai border to execute multiple attacks on Highway 12, including a civilian bus and private car a few miles north of Eilat, in what became known as the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks. [19] [20]

In order to prevent terrorist infiltration of Israel from the Sinai, Israel has built the Israel-Egypt barrier, a steel barrier equipped with cameras, radar and motion sensors along the country's southern border. [21] The fence was completed in January 2013. [22]

Future development plans

In July 2012, Israel signed an agreement with China to cooperate in building the high-speed railway to Eilat, a railway line which will serve both passenger and freight trains. It will link Eilat with Beersheba and Tel Aviv, and will run through the Arava Valley and Nahal Zin. [23]

The former Eilat Airport was closed on 18 March 2019 after the opening of Ramon Airport. The land occupied by the former airport is to be redeveloped. The new Ramon Airport opened in January 2019, 18 kilometres (11 miles) north of Eilat and replaced both Eilat Airport and Ovda Airport. [24] Hotels and apartment buildings, containing a total of 2,080 hotel rooms and 1,000 apartments will be constructed on the site, as well as 275 dunams of public space and pedestrian paths. The plans also set aside space for the railway line and an underground railway station. The plan's goal is to create an urban continuum between the city center and North Beach, as well as tighten the links between the city's neighborhoods, which were separated by the airport. [25]

In addition, there are plans to move the Port of Eilat and the Eilat-Ashkelon pipeline terminal to the northern part of the city, as well as to turn it into a university town of science and research, and brand it an international sports city. All these projects are part of a plan to increase Eilat's population to 150,000 people and build 35,000 hotel rooms. [26]

Eilat has a hot desert climate (BWh [27] with hot, dry summers and warm and almost rainless winters in Köppen climate classification). Winters are usually between 11–23 °C (52–73 °F). Summers are usually between 26–40 °C (79–104 °F). There are relatively small coral reefs near Eilat however, 50 years ago they were much larger.

Climate data for Eilat (Temperature: 1987–2010, Precipitation: 1980–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.2
(90.0)
35.8
(96.4)
38.7
(101.7)
43.4
(110.1)
45.2
(113.4)
47.4
(117.3)
48.3
(118.9)
48.0
(118.4)
45.0
(113.0)
44.3
(111.7)
38.1
(100.6)
33.6
(92.5)
48.3
(118.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
29.3
(84.7)
32.8
(91.0)
38.2
(100.8)
42.1
(107.8)
43.6
(110.5)
44.1
(111.4)
43.2
(109.8)
41.9
(107.4)
39.7
(103.5)
33.4
(92.1)
28.0
(82.4)
44.1
(111.4)
Average high °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
23.0
(73.4)
26.1
(79.0)
31.0
(87.8)
35.7
(96.3)
38.9
(102.0)
40.4
(104.7)
40.0
(104.0)
37.3
(99.1)
33.1
(91.6)
27.7
(81.9)
23.0
(73.4)
31.5
(88.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
24.7
(76.5)
29.1
(84.4)
32.0
(89.6)
33.8
(92.8)
33.7
(92.7)
31.3
(88.3)
27.4
(81.3)
22.0
(71.6)
17.1
(62.8)
25.4
(77.7)
Average low °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
11.8
(53.2)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
22.5
(72.5)
25.2
(77.4)
27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
25.2
(77.4)
21.8
(71.2)
16.3
(61.3)
11.9
(53.4)
19.4
(66.9)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
7.4
(45.3)
10.1
(50.2)
13.4
(56.1)
17.7
(63.9)
21.5
(70.7)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
22.0
(71.6)
17.4
(63.3)
11.5
(52.7)
7.5
(45.5)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
0.9
(33.6)
3.0
(37.4)
8.4
(47.1)
12.1
(53.8)
18.5
(65.3)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.6
(65.5)
9.2
(48.6)
5.3
(41.5)
2.5
(36.5)
0.9
(33.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 4
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(0.2)
2
(0.1)
5
(0.2)
24
(1)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.1 1.8 1.6 0.9 0.7 0 0 0 0 0.7 0.8 1.9 10.5
Average relative humidity (%) 32 28 25 19 16 15 17 18 23 27 29 33 24
Mean monthly sunshine hours 229.4 237.3 251.1 273 319.3 324 347.2 347.2 291 282.1 246 217 3,364.6
Source: Israel Meteorological Service [28] [29] [30] [31]
Eilat mean sea temperature [32]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
22 °C (72 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 23 °C (73 °F)

The overwhelming majority of Eilat's population are Jews. Arabs constitute about 4% of the population. [34] Eilat's population includes a large number of foreign workers, estimated at over 10,000 working as caregivers, hotel workers and in the construction trades. Eilat also has a growing Israeli Arab population, as well as many affluent Jordanians and Egyptians who visit Eilat in the summer months.

In 2007, over 200 Sudanese refugees from Egypt who arrived in Israel illegally on foot were given work and allowed to stay in Eilat. [35] [36] [37]

The educational system of Eilat accommodates more than 9,000 youngsters in eight day-care centers, 67 pre-kindergartens and kindergartens, 10 elementary schools, and 3 six-year high schools. Also, there are some special-education schools and religious schools. [38] Ben Gurion University of the Negev maintains a campus in Eilat. The Eilat branch has 1,100 students, about 75 percent from outside the city. In 2010, a new student dormitory was funded and built by the Jewish Federation of Toronto, the Rashi Foundation, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the municipality of Eilat. [39] The SPNI's Eilat Field School on the outskirts of Eilat offers special hiking tours that focus on desert ecology, the Red Sea, bird migration and other aspects of Eilat's flora and fauna. [40] The Hesder Yeshiva Ayelet Hashachar, is based in Eilat, established in 1997. [41]

Yoseftal Medical Center, established in 1968, is Israel's southernmost hospital, and the only hospital covering the southern Negev. With 65 beds, the hospital is Israel's smallest. Special services geared to the Red Sea region are a hyperbaric chamber to treat victims of diving accidents and kidney dialysis facilities open to vacationing tourists. [42]


Imaging Israel’s Dead Sea Fault to Understand How Continents Stretch and Rift

An international team of scientists collaborated last April to image the deep structure of the Dead Sea fault in Israel. Their findings will help show how tectonic-plate motion deforms continental crust and will improve understanding of earthquake hazards and natural resources along the fault.

Generalized plate boundaries from This Dynamic Planet (USGS, 2006). Red lines are spreading boundaries, where new crust is generated as plates move away from one another black lines are transform faults where plates slide past one another. Black lines with sawteeth are convergent boundaries, where one plate dives beneath another in direction of sawteeth. Hatched red lines are broad belts of deformation. Red dots are hotspots, where material from the Earth’s mantle wells up into the crust.

Study area. Green dots (locations of receivers) delineate profiles along which the international team collected data about the Dead Sea fault’s subsurface structure. Red triangles are where explosive shots were detonated to provide seismic (sound) energy for the experiment. Red fault strands reflect the complexity of the Dead Sea fault in this area. P.A., Palestinian Authority.

Like California’s San Andreas fault, the Dead Sea fault is a transform plate boundary, along which two tectonic plates slide past one another. It separates the Arabia plate from the Africa plate (see map). The fault’s path through Israel is marked by a valley approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide, underlain in places by deep subsurface sedimentary basins, giving rise to the name “Dead Sea Rift.”

Many transform plate boundaries are on the seafloor, where they connect segments of mid-ocean spreading ridges. The San Andreas and Dead Sea faults, in contrast, are on continents and cut through the entire lithosphere (the top approximately 100 kilometers [60 miles] of the Earth). Thus, they provide a window into how the continental crust and upper mantle get deformed by the relentless movement of tectonic plates. The Dead Sea fault gives a somewhat clearer view than the San Andreas fault, which is located over an old subduction zone and cuts through rocks with a complex past.

“The geological history and crustal structure of the Dead Sea area are simpler than those in California,” says Zvi Ben-Avraham, professor at Israel’s University of Haifa and co-supervisor of the April experiment. “We can more readily resolve the configuration of the plate boundary in the Dead Sea Rift, and then project it to similar tectonic environments around the globe.”

USGS research geophysicist Nathan Miller, a participant in the experiment, adds: “Sedimentary basins [low areas where sediment accumulates] along the Dead Sea fault serve as compact laboratories where we can examine continental stretching and rifting.”

Guy Lang, a Ph.D. student at the University of Haifa, installs a seismic receiver along the east-west profile. Photo credit: Uri ten Brink, USGS.

Contractors pour explosive powder into one of the holes where shots were detonated to provide seismic (sound) energy for the experiment. See study area map for shot locations. Photo credit: Uri ten Brink, USGS.

Investigating this plate boundary has more than academic value: the Bible and historical and archeological records document numerous earthquakes along the Dead Sea fault. The largest to strike Israel in recent history was the magnitude 7.1 Safed earthquake, which occurred on January 1, 1837, killing more than 5,000 people and causing massive damage to cities and villages. Enhanced understanding of the fault will improve assessments of the hazards it poses. A more detailed picture of its structure can also help identify resources like oil and water, which are commonly stored in reservoirs of sedimentary rocks along such plate boundaries.

The recent experiment ran from April 8 to 12, 2018, and focused on the Sea of Galilee in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift, where the researchers expected the crust to be different from previously explored areas to the south. To image the fault structure here, they used seismic (sound) energy generated by 12 underground explosive shots, 300–400 kilograms (approx. 700–900 pounds) each, along an east-west and a north-south profile (see map above). The sound waves penetrated as deep as 30 kilometers (20 miles) beneath the surface, bending and reflecting as they hit rock layers with different properties. The return signals were recorded by 550 receivers arranged at 200-meter (650 foot) intervals along the two profiles.

One of 40 seismic receivers modified to work in water and anchored to the bottom of the Sea of Galilee. Photo credit: Uri ten Brink, USGS.

The scientists buried most of the receivers a few centimeters below the ground surface. They modified 40 of the receivers to record data in the Sea of Galilee by housing them in water-tight flotations anchored to the lake’s bottom and replacing the geophones with hydrophones (microphones designed to work in water). The April deployment was the first test of this novel modification of land receivers for underwater work. It appears to have succeeded and will likely be used in future seismic data collection in estuaries and lakes.

In addition to imaging the structure of the Dead Sea fault, the receivers recorded nearby mining explosions and local earthquakes during the 2 days of deployment these data will be included in the analysis. The controlled explosive shots detonated for the study were also used to calibrate local seismic networks and to study the ground’s response to shaking in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Territories.

The participants came from the University of Haifa (UH), Israel the USGS and the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). The experiment was funded by the Richard Lounsbery Foundation and by the Israel Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure. Equipment and technical support were provided by The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) Instrument Center in Socorro, New Mexico. The experiment was supervised by Uri ten Brink (USGS) and Zvi Ben-Avraham (UH), coordinated by Eldad Levi (GII), and conducted by Nathan Miller (USGS), Lloyd Carothers (IRIS-PASSCAL), Steve Harder (University of Texas at El Paso), students from the UH, and field crews from GII, and the Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Institute (IOLR).

The successful completion of this experiment on a tight schedule required a high degree of coordination among the field crews, drillers, and explosive experts, as well as coordination with police, military, and civil defense authorities. Data are currently being processed and analyzed at the USGS. A copy of the data has been archived with IRIS-DMC.

The Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Institute research boat Lillian on its way to deploy receivers in the Sea of Galilee to record data during an April, 2018 experiment to image the deep structure of the Dead Sea fault in Israel. Photo c redit: Uri ten Brink, USGS.

Working in a temporary lab in Kibbutz Moran, Lloyd Carothers (left, IRIS-PASSCAL) and Eldad Levi (Geophysical Institute of Israel) download data from seismic receivers (in blue and yellow boxes) retrieved after completion of the experiment. Photo credit: Uri ten Brink, USGS.

Preliminary examination of the data shows sound-wave returns from the top 10 kilometers (6 miles) of rock beneath the seafloor, and some reflections from deeper in the crust. In addition to images of rock deformed by faults and folds, some of the data will help the researchers determine the rock composition under the survey profiles. Stay tuned!


Israel

Official name: State of Israel

Capital city: Jerusalem

Internet country code: .il

Flag description: White with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

National anthem: &ldquoHatikva&rdquo

National emblem: Menorah

Geographical description: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon

Total area: 7,850 sq. mi. (20,330 sq. km.)

Climate: Temperate hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Nationality: noun: Israeli(s) adjective: Israeli

Population: 6,426,679 (includes about 187,000 Israeli set­tlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem July 2007 CIA est.)

Ethnic groups: Jewish 76.4% (Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 23.6%

Languages spoken: Hebrew (official), Arabic (official for Arab minority), English, Russian

Religions: Jewish 76.4%, Muslim 16%, Arab Christians 1.7%, other Christian 0.4%, Druze 1.6%, unspecified 3.9%


Jewish researcher attacks DNA evidence linking Jews to Israel

It’s one of the consequences of the ongoing conflict between Israel and its neighbors that the origins of the “Jewish people” periodically surfaces as an issue of great controversy. It’s particularly troublesome when a scientist—in this case, an Israeli molecular geneticist whose motivations appear more personal and ideological than scientific—stokes the contretemps.

The current brouhaha arises over a recent study by Eran Elhaik and is accompanied by his personal attacks on more mainstream scientists who have eviscerated his work. In the face of overwhelming evidence from dozens of studies over twenty years from geneticists and historians around the world, Elhaik is aggressively stumping on behalf of his belief that most Jews trace their seminal ancestry not to the Middle East but to the Caucusus and Eastern Europe.

Elhaik, who is now a post-doctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins, is recirculating the debunked “Khazarian hypothesis” promoted by journalist Arthur Koestler in his 1976 book, The Thirteenth Tribe, written before scientists had the tools to compare genomes and challenge his conclusion.

The Khazarian myth was more recently recycled (to great applause by anti-Israeli activists and some pro-Palestinian groups) in no less convincing form by Israeli French historian Shlomo Sand in The Invention of the Jewish People, published in 2008—a book panned by both historians and geneticists.

Elhaik reengaged the faux controversy late last year when the Oxford journal Genome Biology and Evolution published his study, “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses.” The young Jewish researcher challenged the so-called “Rhineland hypothesis”—the broadly accepted genetic and historic evidence that about 80 percent of Jewish Ashkenazi males trace their ancestry to a core population of approximately 20,000 Eastern European Jews who originated in the Middle East. Elhaik wrote that the Khazars converted to Judaism in the eighth century, although historians believe and genetic evidence confirms that only a fraction of the population converted, including almost certainly royalty and some members of the aristocracy.

A paper published in 2000 by geneticists Harry Ostrer, a professor of genetics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer showed that most Ashkenazis, Italians, North Africans, Iraqi, Iranian, Kurdish and Yemenite Jews share common Y-DNA haplotypes that are also found among many Arabs from Palestine, Lebanon and Syria. Only a small percentage of the Y-DNA of Jews originated outside of the Middle East—some in the Caucusus.

The competing Rhineland and Khazarian theories were most recently discussed by Ostrer in two studies published in 2012 and in his well received book, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. He found that geographically and culturally distant Jews still have more genes in common than they do with non-Jews around them, and that those genes can be traced back to the Levant, an area including modern-day Israel. “All European [Ashkenazi] Jews seem connected on the order of fourth or fifth cousins, Ostrer has said.

The concept of the “Jewish people” remains controversial. The Law of Return, the Israeli law that established the right of Jews around the world to settle in Israel and which remains in force today, was a central tenet of Zionism. The DNA that links Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi, three prominent culturally and geographically distinct Jewish groups, could conceivably be used to support Zionist territorial claims —except, as Ostrer has pointed out, some of the same markers can be found in Palestinians, distant genetic cousins of the Jews, as well. Palestinians, understandably, want their own ‘right of return’.

That disagreement over the interpretations of Middle Eastern DNA also pits Jewish traditionalists against a particular strain of secular Jewish ultra-liberals who have joined with anti-Israeli Arabs and many non-Jews to argue for an end to Israel as a Jewish nation. Their hero is the Austrian-born Shlomo Sand—and now Elhaik. His study gained buzz in neo-Nazi websites and radical anti-Israeli and more radical pro-Palestinian blogs. For example, the notorious former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke actually attacked Elhaik in his latest anti-Jewish rant—Duke’s anti-Semitic beliefs hang on the fact that Jews are genetically cohesive and conspiratorial. “The disruptive and conflict-ridden behavior which has marked out Jewish Supremacist activities through the millennia strongly suggests that Jews have remained more or less genetically uniform and have … developed a group evolutionary survival strategy based on a common biological unity — something which strongly militates against the Khazar theory,” Duke wrote in his blog in February.

While Elhaik’s work has provided ideological support for those seeking the destruction of Israel, it’s fallen flat among established scientists, who peer reviewed his work and found it sloppy at best and political at worst.

“He’s just wrong,” said Marcus Feldman of Stanford University, a leading researcher in Jewish genetics. “If you take all of the careful genetic population analysis that has been done over the last 15 years… there’s no doubt about the common Middle Eastern origin,” he said. He added that Elhaik’s paper “is sort of a one-off.”

“It’s an unrealistic premise,” said University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer, one of the world’s top Y-chromosomal researchers.

Discover’s Razib Khan did a textured critique in his Gene Expression blog, noting the study’s historical fuzziness and its selective use of data to come up with what seems like a pre-cooked conclusion. As Razib writes, it’s hardly surprising that we would find a small but sizable Khazarian contribution to the “Jewish gene pool”. In fact the male line of my own family traces to the Caucusus, suggesting I’m one of the 20 percent or so of Jews whose lineage traces to converted royal Khazarians. But that view is widely acknowledged by Ostrer, Hammer, Feldman, Michael Thomas and every major researcher in this area—as summarized in my book, Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of the Chosen People.

The rebuke of Elhaik’s study apparently has irked the beleaguered and brash researcher. He’s launched a new offensive—the double entendre is intentional—as chronicled in the Jewish Forward. Elhaik is now calling the world’s top geneticists “liars” and “frauds.” When I weighed in on the magazine’s discussion board, Elhaik responded with academic restraint, claiming my reporting was no better than the geneticists he trashed, saying it shared “common ground with the Nazism (sic) ideology.”

Judaism’s tribal roots

Unlike Christianity and Islam, Judaism is not solely a faith-based religion. Its origins, as is the case with the other prominent surviving ancient religion, Zoroastrianism, are tribal. The blood connections mentioned endlessly in the Hebrew Bible are not just symbolic the Jews of ancient Israel were a clan of connected tribes who coalesced over hundreds of years. While Jesus and later Mohammad transformed the notion of “blood” into “faith”—one could become a Christian or Muslim through faith alone—Judaism has always retained an ancestral component.

In the Torah, that blood link is patrilineal, passed on from father to son. That tradition is preserved today in the Jewish priesthood, known as the Aaronite line. According to the Bible (and we have no way to know if this is historical or apocryphal), Aaron was anointed as the first Jewish priest and his sons and their descendants became the seed population of the Jewish priesthood. Jewish Cohanim—the word means ‘priests’ in Hebrew—supervised the inner sanctum until the destruction of the Second Temple in the first century, after which the Aaronite line was preserved by tradition, with Cohanim having special privileges and responsibilities to this day.

Are present day Cohanim descended from Aaron? That question is unanswerable we do not even know for certain that Aaron or Moses even existed. However, DNA studies of the Y chromosome have determined that a majority of self-proclaimed Cohanim (it’s an oral tradition) has a set of genetic markers that trace back approximately three thousand years to a single common ancestor. In other words, if there was no Aaron, there was certainly a High Priest early in the Jewish tradition whose ancestors have retained evidence of that tradition in their DNA.

As discussed in Abraham’s Children, Judaism has always retained its tribal roots even as faith-based religions flourished. In the centuries after the destruction of the Second Temple in the first century, Jewish lineage became defined through the mother rather than the father. Jewishness is now based on a triple helix: belief in God (although many Jews are agnostic or atheist) recognition of ancient Israel as a Biblical homeland and literal blood connection with other Jews, passed on from generation to generation.

To many people—including and especially Jews sensitive to the Nazi branding of Jews as a race, which led to the near extinction of the religion—acknowledging the genetic cohesiveness of Judaism is uncomfortable. Anything that marks Jews as essentially different runs the risk of stirring either anti- or philo-Semitism. But that doesn’t mean we can ignore the factual reality of what Ostrer calls the “biological basis of Jewishness” and “Jewish genetics.” Acknowledging the genetic distinctiveness of Jews is “fraught with peril,” but we must grapple with the hard evidence of “human differences” if we seek to understand their implications of the age of genetics.

Jon Entine, executive director of theGenetic Literacy Project, is a senior fellow at theCenter for Health & Risk Communication andSTATS (Statistical Assessment Service) at George Mason University.


Israeli occupation of Palestine is devastating the natural environment

Prior to the 1948 war and even the Zionist Congress of 1897, Palestine had some thirteen hundred villages and towns, each with a small and manageable population living sustainably with nature. The land was owned or worked by the Palestinian people, who were 85 percent Muslim, 9.2 percent Christian, and 5.3 percent Jewish. 1

This structure changed radically when mostly European Jews mobilized for a massive migration to Palestine and began to assume colonial control over the land. In its long recorded history, Palestine has indeed undergone significant environmental and demographic changes, but it is really only in the past century that these changes took on a colonial dimension.

The best-known of these changes is the forcible removal of the indigenous population, which reached its peak between 1948 and 1950. During those years, five hundred villages and towns were destroyed by Zionist militias, resulting in the largest wave of refugees after the Second World War. 2

But the environmental dimensions of the catastrophe, or Nakba, is little talked about. 3 In 1967 Israel occupied the remaining 22 percent of historic Palestine, namely Gaza and the West Bank, and built settlements throughout these occupied territories in contravention of international law (the Fourth Geneva Convention). 4

These dramatic transformations were detrimental to the people and nature of Palestine. Here, we focus on the environment and sustainability in Palestine, an often overlooked casualty of the colonial occupation.

Colonial Impact on the Environment

Uprooted trees

Once Israel was declared a Jewish state in May 1948, native trees (such as oaks, carobs, and hawthorns) and agricultural crops (olives, figs, and almonds) were systematically uprooted and replaced by European pine trees. These planted pines reduced biodiversity and harmed the local environment. 5

Pines shed leaves that are acidic and prevent the growth of underbrush plants. These trees are also very susceptible to fire because of their resins. Indeed, fires are now a common occurrence in the areas in which they were planted. Trees, however, were not the only targets of Israel’s colonial practices.

Confiscated aquifers

Natural resources, primarily water aquifers, have also been confiscated from the Palestinians. This often happened by deliberately building Israeli colonies on hilltops to ensure effective access to these resources and to maintain surveillance over the Palestinians. 6

Environmental sustainability was never a priority for Israel, whose practices detrimentally affected the landscape, resulting in the destruction of diverse habitats and water runoff. 7

The occupation of the West Bank and Gaza in 1967 opened opportunities for Israeli industries.

Many of the highest polluting companies moved to the West Bank and were provided with tax incentives to do so. 8

There the companies only faced the opposition of the Palestinians who had no way to stop them. For example, pesticide and fertilizer manufacturer Geshuri, which faced significant court setbacks in its original plant in Kfar Saba, was moved to an area adjacent to Tulkarm inside the West Bank in 1987.

Significant pollution caused by Geshuri and other companies in this area has damaged citrus trees and vineyards. 9

Moreover, research on genotoxicity in the Occupied Territories shows the significant impact of the Barkan industrial settlement on the Palestinians of Burqeen village. 10 As DNA and chromosomes are damaged, there are increasing cases of miscarriage, cancer, and congenital birth defects.

Air and water pollution has also caused diseases ranging from respiratory illness to gastrointestinal failures. Other health-related problems have resulted from the Israeli practice of sending trash, including electronic debris, across the Green Line. 11 This debris is often recycled by destitute Palestinians in environmentally harmful ways, such as using fire to remove plastic from useful metals. This practice releases substances that cause serious ailments, including cancer and lung diseases.

Health-related problems have resulted from the Israeli practice of sending trash, including electronic debris, into the West Bank. (Visual: Heidi Levine/Sipa Press)

Israel has also built an extensive network of roads and other infrastructure serving settlers. Trees and any buildings within seventy-five meters of these roads are bulldozed and declared closed military zones to the Palestinians. The total area used in the West Bank for settler roads was 51.2 km2 in 2000 and has doubled since.

Added to the 150.5 km2 of built settlement-colonies, this is a huge area that was previously used by Palestinians for agriculture, pasture, or leisure. 12

The disparity between settlers and natives in land control and standard of living is compounded by the disparity in access to other natural resources, especially water. 13 Israeli officials have deliberately ignored facts and selectively presented falsified or inaccurate data to serve their political interests in the Jordan River while catastrophically impacting Palestinian access to water. For example, 91 percent of the total water of the West Bank is expropriated for Israeli settler use. 14

Loss of biodiversity

The Israeli occupation has resulted in considerable loss of biodiversity in the Palestinian territories. This began many years ago when Israel diverted the waters of the Jordan Valley, and when trees surrounding destroyed Palestinian villages were replaced by monoculture crops.

More recently the apartheid wall in the West Bank obstructs human activities and animal movement, causing a loss of both human and animal biodiversity. 15 Humans and nature have been intertwined in Palestine for thousands of years, and the continuing loss of biodiversity irreversibly damages Palestine’s cultural and natural heritage, threatens endangered species, and harms agriculture and environmental sustainability. 16

There are many other practices through which the occupation has undermined sustainable development and protection of the environment. These include refusal to issue building permits in most of the West Bank and destruction of any “unauthorized” structures, even including cisterns and solar panels. 17 Another example is the policy of Israel to absorb the Palestinian tourism sector, including ecotourism. 18

One of the major threats to the Palestinian landscape is the confiscation of land for settlements, sometimes with temporary false excuses for preventing damage to nature. 19 For example, the Palestinian village of Ras Imweis and six adjacent areas were initially confiscated under such an excuse then turned into the settlement of Nahal Shilo.

Prevent sustainable development

In many other instances, the Israeli occupation authorities prevented Palestinian sustainable development by claiming certain stretches of land as “green areas,” then turning them into Jewish settlements within the span of two to three years. Such exploitation was also obvious in the Bethlehem district, where Abu Ghuneim Mountain, one of the largest forests in the Bethlehem district, was turned into the Har Homa settlement in 1997. This is how Israel is “green-washing” the occupation. 20

Abu Guneim Forest, in the Bethlehem District of the West Bank (also spelled Abu Ghuneim). (ARIJ)

International Failure

Israel’s colonial settlements have had a devastating impact on the Palestinian environment and on indigenous Palestinian lives. This raises significant questions about the possibility of sustainable development under occupation. 21

Indeed, there are ample grounds, backed by solid scientific and legal research, to bring claims of environmental injustice to local, national, and international forums.

Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (which Israel ratified) states that “the Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies,” adding that life in military occupied areas must be allowed to proceed as normally as possible.

UN Security Council Resolution 465 of 1980 reads in part that “all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure or status of the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, or any part thereof have no legal validity and that Israel’s policy and practices of settling parts of its population and new immigrants in those territories constitute a flagrant violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention.”

Israel has largely ignored international law. This impunity is enabled by the international community.

For example, a 2003 United Nations Environment Program report identified key effects of the occupation on the environment and made over one hundred recommendations but failed to prioritize them or set target dates. This failure of the international legal system to hold Israel accountable is not just related to environmental issues but extends across many other areas including Israel’s abuse of prisoners and destruction of civilian life. 22

Israel’s aggressive political lobby has also influenced many governments and shapes decisions at the UN, where the United States has veto power.[Mazin B. Qumsiyeh, Sharing the Land of Canaan: Human Rights and the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle (London: Pluto Press, 2004).[/note] The international failure to hold Israel accountable has left the issue—like in South Africa under apartheid—up to organizers and activists on the ground. 23

June 1, 2020 – a convoy approaching Khirbet ‘Alan in the Jordan Valley. The same day, the Civil Administration confiscated a water pump and other farming equipment from the community. Photo: ‘Aref Daraghmeh, B’Tselem. (B'Tselem)

Grassroots Organizing for Environmental Justice

In situations where international law fails, civil society often intervenes, as we have seen in the movements for boycott, divestment, and sanctions (BDS) in South Africa and in Palestine against the respective apartheid regimes. The BDS movement and other forms of civil or popular resistance do make a difference. 24

That we have not yet reached the post-apartheid era like South Africa is due to the fact that the settler-colonial occupation of Palestine has been strengthened by international complicity and by agreements, such as the Balfour Declaration and resolutions by the League of Nations and the UN, that exclude the Palestinians.

The international community has long abrogated its responsibilities and has thus given Israel a green light to engage in significant violations of human rights (including environmental rights).

Civil society must increase pressure on international leaders to assume their responsibility to return dignity and sovereignty to the Palestinian people. International bodies must enforce the law and implement sanctions against Israel to rectify the rampant environmental injustices that disproportionately harm the indigenous Palestinian population. Palestinians have no recourse to domestic laws since what laws are available are those of an apartheid settler-colonial state. 25

There is recent scholarly and activist interest in using international law to buttress environmental justice claims, especially in developing countries, but as Noura Erekat pointed out, this is undermined by the imbalance of power and influence of the Zionist movement around the world. 26 Although we are witnessing the growth of the BDS movement, we need much more pressure and mobilization to enforce recognition of Palestinian rights. 27

Nevertheless, a significant movement for environmental justice and sustainability is growing even under the very difficult conditions of occupation and colonization.

People are working at the grassroots level to build popular institutions that enhance and promote sustainable natural and human communities in the context of a larger anti-colonial struggle. 28 Educating new generations of Palestinians in their culture and history can also help address some of the challenges Palestinians are facing. 29

Because colonizers work to separate the colonized from their land and destroy their culture and history, strengthening the connection between the indigenous people and their land will help new generations understand the value of nature beyond the exploitative framework imposed by colonialism. 30 Environmental struggles are an integral part of the struggle for freedom and justice in Palestine as elsewhere.

Shujaiya in eastern Gaza, 2014, the scene of heavy Israeli bombing. Debris and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure have created environmental hazards in the wake of operations in Gaza. Credit: Iyad al Baba/Oxfam

Mazin B. Qumsiyeh is a professor and researcher at Bethlehem and Birzeit Universities. He previously served on the faculties of the University of Tennessee, Duke University, and Yale University. He and his wife returned to Palestine in 2008 to start a number of institutions and projects, including the Palestine Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability (PIBS) at Bethlehem University. He, his wife, and volunteers and staff at PIBS have “joyful participation in the sorrows of this world” and make a difference for the sustainability of nature and human communities.

Mohammed A. Abusarhan is a master’s student in biotechnology at Bethlehem University and Palestine Polytechnic University. He earned a degree in Biology from Bethlehem University. Since 2017, he has worked at the Palestine Museum of Natural History as a Museum Biologist conducting animal collecting, taxidermy, and identification. His research interests are focused on conservation, museum digitization, biodiversity databases, and bat echolocation. He has published several research articles and spent the summer of 2019 in Germany in a prestigious laboratory as an exchange researcher.

Acknowledgment: We thank the Darwin Initiative (UKaid) and the European Union for their support of some of our work at PMNH/PIBS/Bethlehem University.

RELATED READING:

  • Baseline of a Desecrated Place
  • Israeli settlers, with IDF complicity, have destroyed 800,000 olive trees since 1967
  • Palestine: Jewish Settlers Torch 100 of World’s Oldest Olive Trees
  • Breaking the Silence about Israel’s occupation of Hebron

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Archaeologists Unearth Canaanite Fortress in Central Israel

An aerial photo of the Canaanite fortress near Gal On in central Israel. Image credit: Emil Aladjem, Israel Antiquities Authority.

“The fortress we found provides a glimpse into the geopolitical reality described in the Bible’s Book of Judges, in which the Canaanites, Israelites and Philistines are fighting each other,” said IAA archaeologists Dr. Saar Ganor and Dr. Itamar Weissbein.

“In this period, the land of Canaan was ruled by the Egyptians and its inhabitants were under their custody.”

“Then, during the 12th century BCE, two new players entered the game: the Israelites and the Philistines. This led to a series of violent territorial disputes.”

“The Israelites settled in non-fortified settlements at the Benjamin and Judean Mountains.”

“Meanwhile, the Philistines accumulated power in the southern coastal plain and established big cities such as Ashkelon, Ashdod and Gat.”

“In an attempt to conquer more areas, the Philistines confronted the Egyptians and the Canaanites on the border line, which probably passed at the Guvrin river, between the Philistine kingdom of Gat and the Canaanite kingdom of Lachish.”

“It seems that the Gal On fortress was built as a Canaanite/Egyptian attempt to cope with the new geopolitical situation.”

“However, in the middle of the 12 century BCE, the Egyptians left the land of Canaan and returned to Egypt. Their departure led to the destruction of the now unprotected Canaanite cities — a destruction that was probably led by the Philistines.”

3,200-year-old bowls found in the rooms of the Canaanite fortress. Image credit: Dafna Gazit, Israel Antiquities Authority.

The Gal On fortress measures 18 by 18 m (59 by 59 feet) and has watchtowers on its four corners.

A massive threshold, carved from a single rock weighing around 3 tons, was preserved at the entrance of the building.

The fortress has a courtyard paved with stone slabs and columns in the middle. Rooms were constructed from both sides of the courtyard.

The archaeologists found hundreds of pottery vessels, some stil intact, in the rooms, including special vessels such as bowl and cup that were probably used for religious ritual.

They also found a large number of bowls, some of which were made in a style copying Egyptian bowls.

“The stories of the Judges in the Bible demonstrate clearly the complicated geopolitical reality and the struggle for the control of territories during the establishment of new political powers in the land of Israel,” they said.

“The fortress structure, called Egyptian ‘governor houses,’ is known from other sites excavated in Israel.”

“The fortress was built in a strategic location, from which it is possible to watch the main road that went along the Guvrin river — a road connecting the coastal plain to the Judea plains.”


The Khazar Connection

The descendants of the Khazars, who are descendents of Japheth, who call themselves Jews, cleverly used the Bible to mislead the World and its governments into believing that they have a Biblical ancestral right to take Palestine for themselves.

The Khazars were a Turko Mongol nation living between the Caspian Sea and the Black sea. A map of Khazaria can be found here. They were actually descendants of Japheth, the son of Noah, and Khazaria is in the immediate region where Noah’s ark landed.

Gen 10:2 Japheth’s descendants had their own languages, tribes, and land. They were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. Gomer was the ancestor of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Javan was the ancestor of Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim, who settled along the coast.

1Chron 1:5 Japheth was the father of Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras, and they were the ancestors of the kingdoms named after them.

According to Dr. Eran Elhaik, a population geneticist at the School of Public Health of Johns Hopkins University, the “genome of European Jews is a mosaic of ancient peoples and its origin is largely Khazar.” [E. Elhaik. The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses. Genome Biology and Evolution, 2012 5 (1): 61 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evs119] The foregoing paragraph is very important. It has been genetically proven that the Ashkenazi Jews that occupy the Palestinian territory called Israel are not descendants of Shem ► Abraham ►Isaac ►Jacob (Israel).

According to Jewish historian Arthur Koestler the vast majority of East European Jews are descendants of Japheth. Another important Jew that supported this view was the late Dr Benjamin Freedman.

In the year 740AD, the Khazar king “Bulan” commanded his subjects to adopt Judaism. He was afraid his kingdom would be overrun by either the Byzantine empire or the Islam empire. He thus decided that his country should also have a religion.(note1)

His decision to accept Judaism as his country’s religion was more or less similar to flipping a coin. An interesting, probably true, story was that a clever Rabbi convinced him to accept Judaism rather than Islam or Christ.

The reader might, legitimately, want to ask why it is important to even mention the Khazars.

The single most important reason is the fact that modern day “Zionist” Jews claim that Palestine is their rightful inheritance because they are descendants of Abraham.

The true Torah Jews who are proponents of conservative Judaism, believe that the Zionists are violating God’s will and that the state Israel is, therefore, illegitimate.

Seeing that per Genesis 12:7 God promised the territory of Canaan to the descendants (Seed) of Abraham, present day Palestinians have a greater right to the land than the Talmudist believers from Khazaria.

Not only are the Palestinians true descendants of Abraham (Ishmael), but genetic studies have found that a large percentage of Palestinians are true Israelites (descendants of Jacob). Therefore, Christians who support the state Israel are actually against God’s will.

The Law Given To Moses (The religion)

The religion according to the law given to Moses (as contained in the Torah) is not respected by the Jews who practice the religion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Therefore people who are not genetic Israelites, who claim to be Jews on the grounds of following the Talmudic religion can hardly claim to be Israelites and to have a GREATER right to the land than the actual SEED of Abraham.

It is because of the degenerate principles of the religion of “Tradition” that Jesus Christ had criticized the Pharisees and called them children of Satan:
Math 23: “Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?” Jesus Christ denounced the Pharisees. He said they nullified all the Commandments of God by their Tradition, “teaching for doctrines the commandments of men” (Mark 7:13 Matt. 15:6-9, etc.)

Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because the truth is not in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh his own, for he is a liar and the father of it (John 8:44).

The Wandering Jew

According to information available to us 96% of all people who refer to themselves as Jews are of Khazar and other genes, only about 4% are proven to be of Israelite descent. We can safely assume that the Jews in Iran are of Israel (Jacob’s) descent.

According to jewishvirtuallibrary.org and the most recently available figures of the United Nations, the following is the present state of people who call themselves Jews:
Iran Israel USA France Canada UK

25,000 5,901,100 5,425,000 480,000 375,000 291,000

Russia Argentina Germany Australia Brazil Ukraine
194,000 181,800 119,000 112,000 95,300 70,200

South Africa Hungary Mexico Belgium

So, after all is said and done, what happened to the rest of the children of Israel?

note 1. In those times Islam was expanding by warfare and in order to have protection from the Byzantine he would have to subject himself to the Byzantine empire and he preferred independence. It appears his advisers told him the Islamites will not harm him if he is a Jew. Indeed, Muhammad had ruled that the Jews must not be persecuted as they were “people of the book”


My New Book: DNA Science and the Jewish Bloodline

In my new book, DNA Science and the Jewish Bloodline, I fully examine the Khazars, including the story of how they converted to Judaism, and I provide all the evidence on the DNA studies. In this first ever book, I quote not only Dr. Elhaik and Dr. Oppenheim, but also other famous genetics researchers.

I also introduce the writings and research of top Israeli and Jewish (Khazar) historian, Arthur Koestler, whose book, The Thirteenth Tribe, is a classic, and Shlomo Sand, history professor at Tel Aviv University, whose recent scholarly book, The Invention of the Jewish People, was a New York Times bestseller.

You will even read what Dr. Benjamin Freedman wrote about the Khazars and the Jews back in the 1950s, in his well-known treatise, Facts are Facts.

Best of all, DNA Science and the Jewish Bloodline, explores the utter truth of God&rsquos Word. What did Jesus and the Apostles have to say about this vital issue?

Paul, for instance, who told us to pay no attention whatsoever to &ldquofoolish genealogies&rdquo but only to the cross of Jesus. Paul cautioned: &ldquoFor he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh&rdquo (Romans 2:29).

Through inspiration of God, Paul wrote an epistle telling us that all, Jew and Gentile, who have faith in Jesus are &ldquoAbraham&rsquos seed and heirs according to the Promise&rdquo (Galatians 3:26-29).

That dear friends, is an indisputable fact that the world&rsquos greatest mathematicians and scientists cannot deny. It is the answer to every Christian who, reading the pages of DNA Science and the Jewish Bloodline, asks, &ldquoIf the Khazars are the Jews, are there really any Jews in the world today?&rdquo

The Bible says if you belong to Jesus, your race or ethnic origin is of no consequence whatsoever. You are born again. You are a new person in Christ.

We now know the Bible means what it says. Now everything changes.

Click to view excerpts from Texe's latest blockbuster documentary Die, America, Die!, then order your copy today!


Watch the video: ארץ ישראל בשירה ובפיוט-Land of Israel in song and poetry-Benyamin Yakovianבנימין יעקוביאן (May 2022).


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