Why do we urinate more often in winter compaired to summer?

Why do we urinate more often in winter compaired to summer?

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I have been thinking of this question for a long time, but I do not seem to find an answer yet. Is there a hormonal change in our body during winter due to which we have to run to toilet often?

There is no 100 % sure answer for this as, obviously, nobody is that much interested in studying about urination. But there are some theories, of which the most popular and accepted one is cold diuresis.

Cold-induced diuresis, or cold diuresis, is a phenomenon that occurs in humans after exposure to a hypothermic environment, usually during mild to moderate hypothermia.

According to this theory, what exactly happens is this (I'll explain in steps for better understanding):

  • When your body senses cold or low temperature of environment, it constricts the blood vessels near your skin and external organs and restricts your blood to the inner core of your body to maintain its temperature.

  • Thus, it causes the blood pressure to increase as there is same amount of blood in lesser volume.

  • This induces negative feedback on ADH (a vasoconstrictor) i.e. its secretion is reduced.

  • Now when blood vessels in kidney get proper amount of blood (as blood vessels aren't constricted now), they sense high blood pressure and try to reduce it as soon as possible.

  • So they transfer more amount of water from blood to bladder which fills the bladder more quickly and causes an urge to urinate.

  • Thus, we urinate more in colder climate.

There are some more theories related to it too, but they aren't as popular. According to another theory, when we are exposed to cold weather, aquaporins are inhibited around the body, making it impossible for water to be taken in by cells, leaving a lot more of it in the blood. Again, the body will try to balance that pressure, pulling water from the blood and storing it in the bladder. You can get a more frank and interactive explanation here.

I think that due to cold temperature the hormone ADH cannot function well. As in low temperature the enzymes becomes less active. So as the ADH hormone is not working well the suger concentration will increase in our blood due to which more amount of water will transfer from our cell to the blood stream. And this excess water will be removed by the kidney and result in polyurea.

Why you need to wee more often in cold weather

Picture the scene: you&aposve gone out for a pre-Christmas drink with friends or colleagues but there&aposs no room inside the bar.

You&aposre forced on to one of the outside tables - with a heat lamp that doesn&apost quite take the edge off the chill - but have to keep interrupting your conversation to run back inside to go to the loo.

You haven&apost had more drinks than usual, so why have you been for a wee four times in the last hour?

Don&apost worry, there&aposs nothing wrong with you - although if you are concerned about your health you should definitely speak to your GP - this happens to us all.

And experts believe it&aposs all down to a thing called &aposcold diuresis&apos.

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Our bodies are clever organisms and when we&aposre exposed to the cold they adapt accordingly.

In cold weather, our body tries to maintain its core temperature with vasoconstriction.

Usually as blood passes through veins near to our skin, the external temperature cools the blood which then moves through our body and lowers our core temperature.

To avoid this, the body constricts blood vessels and capillaries in our extremities like fingers, toes, ears and nose, allowing less blood to flow through these areas.

But now there&aposs less space, although we still have the same amount of blood, so our blood pressure increases.

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It&aposs thought that to avoid raised blood pressure but keep us warm, our bodies squeeze the small amount of water in the blood to re-balance this pressure, according to ScienceABC.

As our blood pressure rises, an anti-diuretic hormone decreases, signalling the kidneys to extract this water from the blood and store it in the bladder, making us feel the urge to urinate.

A full bladder also leads to heat loss, so our bodies will try to eliminate this extra heat-sucker as soon as possible.

So next time you go for a drink and are faced with only outdoor tables, maybe try another bar if you don&apost want to keep running to the toilets.

How many times a day should a person pee?

Many people wonder how often they should pee. While no set number is considered normal, people on average urinate six or seven times a day.

Several factors can influence how often an individual pees throughout the day. Medications, supplements, foods, and beverages can all play a role, as can certain medical conditions. Age and bladder size also matter.

The medical community uses the term urinary frequency to describe how often a person pees.

In this article, we discuss healthy and unhealthy frequencies, and how to manage associated symptoms.

Share on Pinterest Urinating 4 to 10 times a day is considered healthy if it does not affect day-to-day life.

Most people pee 6 or 7 times every 24 hours. Peeing between 4 and 10 times daily may be considered healthy if the frequency does not interfere with the person’s quality of life.

Urinary frequency depends on the following factors:

  • age
  • bladder size
  • fluid intake
  • the presence of medical conditions, such as diabetes and UTIs.
  • the types of fluids consumed, as alcohol and caffeine can increase the production of urine
  • the use of medications, such as those for blood pressure, and supplements

On average, a person who drinks 64 ounces of fluid in 24 hours will pee approximately seven times during that period.

Urination during pregnancy

The hormonal changes and pressure on the bladder involved in pregnancy can also increase urinary output. This high urinary frequency may continue for up to 8 weeks after giving birth.

Peeing too rarely or frequently may indicate an underlying condition, especially when accompanied by the following symptoms:

Treatment can resolve symptoms and prevent complications, so it is important to see a doctor.

Anyone who notices a dramatic change in urinary frequency or output, even if it still falls within the normal range, should seek medical advice.

If a person consumes high amounts of fluids, especially drinks containing caffeine, they may notice fluctuations in how much or how often they pee.

However, dramatic changes in urinary frequency can indicate a serious underlying condition.

The Cleveland Clinic has reported that 80 percent of bladder problems are caused by factors beyond the bladder.

Underlying medical conditions

The following conditions may be responsible for changes in urinary frequency:

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI): This can cause frequent urination, urinary urgency, a burning sensation or pain while peeing, and back pain. UTIs are very common, especially among women. Antibiotic treatment is usually necessary.
  • Overactive bladder: This describes frequent urination and is linked to several issues, including infections, obesity, hormonal imbalances, and nerve damage. Most cases are easily treatable.
  • Interstitial cystitis: This long-term condition is also known as painful bladder syndrome. Though no infection is involved, it causes symptoms similar to a UTI. The exact cause is unknown, but it is often linked to bladder inflammation.
  • Diabetes: Undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes may lead to high blood sugar levels, which can cause frequent urination.
  • Hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia: High calcium levels (hypercalcemia) or low calcium levels (hypocalcemia) affect kidney function and may impact urinary output.
  • Sickle cell anemia: This inherited form of anemia, or low red blood cell count, can affect the kidneys and the concentration of urine. This causes some people to pee more often.
  • Prostate problems: An enlarged prostate causes a person to urinate less. They may also experience difficulty as the prostate gets larger and blocks the flow of urine.
  • Pelvic floor weakness: As the pelvic muscles lose strength, a person may pee more frequently. This is often the result of giving birth.


Drugs called diuretics will cause most people to pee more often. Diuretics take fluid out of the bloodstream and send it to the kidneys.

These medications are often prescribed for people with high blood pressure, kidney problems, or heart conditions.

Examples of diuretics include:

  • bumetanide (Bumex)
  • chlorothiazide (Diuril)
  • furosemide (Lasix)
  • metolazone (Zytanix)
  • spironolactone (Aldactone)


Consuming a lot of fluid can increase urinary output, while not consuming enough can cause dehydration and diminished output.

Alcohol and caffeine have diuretic effects and increase urinary frequency. A person with no underlying condition may pee more frequently during or shortly after drinking alcoholic or caffeinated beverages.

Advancing age

Many people urinate more frequently, especially at night, as they get older.

Most people over the age of 60 do not urinate more than twice nightly, however. If a person wakes up to pee more than twice, they should consult a doctor.

Frequent urination does not require treatment if there is no underlying condition and the frequency is not affecting happiness or quality of life.

Pregnant women also do not require treatment, as the symptom should disappear a few weeks after giving birth.

Any treatment required will depend on the cause. If a condition such as diabetes or a UTI is responsible for frequent urination, treatment will resolve this symptom. It can also increase urinary flow and reduce the size of the prostate.

If treatment is causing a person to pee too often, a doctor can adjust the dosage or prescribe a different medication.

It may be helpful to record fluid intake, urinary frequency, urgency, and other symptoms for 3 or more days before an appointment. This can help a doctor when they are diagnosing and determining the best treatment.

Why am I urinating so often?

Frequent urination means having an urge to pass urine more often than usual. It can disrupt one’s normal routine, interrupt the sleep cycle, and it can be a sign of an underlying medical condition.

Many people live with frequent urination, known medically as frequency. When one urinates more than 3 liters a day of urine, this is known as polyuria. Often, there is often a simple cause that can be put right through treatment.

Frequency is not the same as urinary incontinence, where there is leakage of urine.

Sometimes, frequent urination can indicate a more serious condition. Early identification of the problem can lead to a timely and effective treatment and prevent complications.

Urinary frequency is when a person needs to use the bathroom more often than usual.

Urination is the way the body gets rid of waste fluids. Urine contains water, uric acid, urea, and toxins and waste filtered from within the body. The kidneys play a key role in this process.

Urine stays in the urinary bladder until it reaches a point of fullness and an urge to urinate. At this point, the urine is expelled from the body.

Urinary frequency is not the same as urinary incontinence, which refers to having little control over the bladder. Urinary frequency just means needing to visit the bathroom to urinate more often. It can occur alongside urinary incontinence, but it is not the same.

Most people urinate between 6 and 7 times over a 24-hour period.

Urinary frequency can be defined as needing to urinate more than 7 times in a period of 24 hours while drinking about 2 liters of fluid.

However, individuals differ, and most people only see a doctor when urination becomes so frequent that they feel uncomfortable. Children, too, have smaller urinary bladders, so it is normal for them to urinate more frequently.

Urination is a complex process, involving various body systems. A range of changes can make the urinary system more active.

Lifestyle-based causes include drinking a lot of fluids, especially if they contain caffeine or alcohol. At night, this can interrupt the sleep cycle with urges to urinate. Frequent urination can also develop as a habit.

However, it can be a sign of kidney or ureter problems, urinary bladder problems, or another medical condition, such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, pregnancy, or prostate gland problems.

4 Things You Can Do to Cope With Nocturia

1. Avoid drinking too much liquid before bedtime, especially coffee, tea, and beer, as these beverages have diuretic effect.

2. Focus on lower leg exercise like walking or squatting 3-4 hours before you go to bed. This will help relieve swelling of the legs.

3. Lie or sit down and put your feet up 3-4 hours before bedtime so that some of the fluid in lower extremities will pass as urine before you sleep. Do this for at least 30 minutes. Stretch and bend your ankles at the same time for about 20 times while at this position.

4. Wear compression stockings during the day. This will prevent swelling of legs and feet. Just make sure it is the correct size and remove the stockings once you go to bed.

Caffeine During Summers: Yay or Nay?

We contacted consulting nutritionist Dr. Rupali Datta to clear this common doubt about whether or not it is safe to consume caffeine during summers, and if so, then what are the safe consumption limits for caffeinated drinks. We asked her about three most commonly consumed caffeinated drinks- tea, coffee and energy drink:

1. Is it okay to consume caffeine during summers?

Coffee is said to be a diuretic drink, which means that it is feared to cause fluid loss, by making you urinate more often. However, a number of studies have dispelled the notion that coffee is incredibly dehydrating, if consumed in moderation, as part of a healthy lifestyle. Dr. Datta echoes these sentiments, saying that it is perfectly okay to consume coffee during summers.

2. What is the healthiest source of caffeine during summers- tea, coffee or sports drinks?

Dr. Datta says, "All but sports drinks can be consumed under proper guidance." Sports and energy drinks have been blamed for a number of health problems by multiple research studies. Although coffee has more caffeine than sports drinks, the latter is considered more harmful as it contains more sugar than your average sweetened cup of coffee.

Summer Diet: You can drink coffee given that you exercise moderation

3. What is the recommended daily intake of caffeine for summers?

According to Dr. Datta, "250 milligrams or roughly two and a half cups of caffeinated drinks are acceptable in a day. Anything that exceeds this may have side-effects." However, she warns that excessive caffeine may result in heart palpitations and headaches.

4. What are the healthy ways to consume caffeine during summers?

Dr. Datta suggests, "Pair your cup of coffee or tea with some cheese or nuts. Other snack options that you can consume with caffeinated drinks include popcorn, a slice of multigrain bread etc."

So now you know! When it comes to health and nutrition, it is always advisable to know the complete truth about particular foods and drinks, as well as their impacts on your body. Knowledge is power, after all. Happy Summers!

(This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.)

Why Are We More Hungry In The Winter?

Our drive to eat more in the winter may be a product of less sunlight — or more temptation around us.

If you feel hungrier as winter draws near, you're not alone. Even though most of us spend our days in climate-controlled offices and homes, our appetites seem to change when the days grow shorter. Some researchers say it's our primitive impulses promting us to stockpile calories for the winter ahead.

"We are driven by things implanted in our brain a long, long time ago," says Ira Ockene, a cardiologist at the University of Massachusetts Medical School who has long been interested in how seasonal variations influence our health.

Ockene's own research has documented that caloric intake tends to increase as the weather turns colder. He also points to a study done at the University of Georgia back in 1991.

Researchers closely tracked how much people ate from season to season and how quickly they ate it. Turns out, the study subjects consumed about 200 more calories a day beginning in the fall when the days grow darker.

Ockene says we seem to be very sensitive to light. Less of it, he says, prompts us to seek food and eat it faster.

"If you look out your window and have grassy, treed area, that sounds like chipmunk behavior, " says Ockene.

Not all scientists agree about our winter food-seeking habits.

"I'm not disputing the possibility that people eat more in the winter," says Marcia Pelchat of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. But she says doesn't think it's a vestigial "chipmunk" instinct.

Pelchat says another explanation: Our winter eating habits are likely born of opportunity. There is more holiday feasting, better leftovers, more grazing in the kitchen, and fewer opportunities for playing and exercising outside.

At every turn, it seems, our environment cues us to eat.

And holidays sometimes bring strong associations with particular foods. Whether it's cake or your favorite holiday cookies or pies, these treats are often tied to good memories. And the associations we have — the memories linked to the foods — can make us want them even more.

"The stronger the link becomes " says Pelchat, between the food and the memory of loving the food, "the more likely you are to indulge in the food." She says cravings are sometimes just memories repeated.

It doesn't take a scientist to see that this pattern of eating is a recipe for weight gain.

So, whether it's biology, opportunity, or good memories prompting us to eat more, there must be way to minimize the extra padding come winter, right?

Well, part of it may depend on what you crave. "Chili, lots of chili" is Hal Brewster's seasonal indulgence. The 28-year-old law student tells us he's not a big carb guy. He goes for protein, which tend to satisfy our appetites

"There definitely seems to be more fullness associated with protein," says Janet Polivy, who studies the psychology of eating at the University of Toronto at Mississauga.

Her studies suggest that you don't want an all-or-nothing diet: Depriving yourself of a food entirely can backfire and lead to overeating.

So you've heard the answer before: moderation. If you crave carbs, try adding in some protein.

"I instead of having a big bowl of pasta, have a small one and have a chicken breast with it," says Polivy

Whether it's pasta, coconut cake or those holiday cookies, Polivy says it's probably best not to deprive yourself completely of the foods you love.


We put this to Des Tobin, Associate Dean for Research at the School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford:

For most animals, like rodents you have a clear-cut wave of hair growth where all the follicles are synchronised. Moulting requires synchronicity in the follicles because the hair grows in a cycle of growth that we call anagen and a resorbative phase called catagen. In the human there is quite a bit of synchronicity in the very early stages: before birth and in the neonatal phase but it breaks up very quickly so that you get what we call a mosaic form of hair growth. Each follicle is an autonomous mini organ. Whilst, to some extent that can be re-synchronised, for example, when women are pregnant because they change their hormonal stimulus. Some studies have been done way back on hair on the thigh. I don't know why they chose thigh hair to check the seasonality of hair but it was shown that in certain times of the year perhaps a little bit related to weather (although with humans you have to be very careful because of the fact that we're wearing clothes for a very long time and we don't need it for the same thermo-regulation that mammals would have) but there is some kind of very minor peaks. If we were to do hair counts we tend to see more shedding as we go into the summer period than going into the winter period.

Why people sweat in the winter: 4 explanations

Sweating is usually the body’s way of stopping you from overheating.

If you’re hot and sticky even before your daily commute, you might ask why you sweat so much.

Sweating is usually the body’s way of stopping you from overheating. But for some people, sweating becomes a problem. Either they sweat for no obvious reason or (as Prince Andrew admitted last year) not at all.

So why do some people sweat more than others? And what can you do about excess sweating?

Remind me again, why do we sweat?

Humans need to regulate their internal body temperature to keep it constant, even when the environmental temperature rises, perhaps on a hot day, sitting in a hot-tub or running for the bus.

That’s because a rise in internal body temperature can lead to our organs overheating, fatigue, heat exhaustion and heatstroke.

Preventing severe heat gain requires a careful balance between the heat our body produces (from everyday metabolism), heat from the environment and the heat our body loses.

Our bodies are well-designed for this. We have special temperature sensors in our skin and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) that send signals to the body’s thermostat in the brain to alert it to increases in body temperature.

The body’s largest organ, the skin, is also designed to remove heat from the body. The most noticeable way is losing heat via evaporating sweat.

How does sweating cool us down?

When our skin or core body temperature rises sufficiently, the thermostat in the brain sends impulses via our central nervous system to increase blood flow to the skin. The thermostat also activates the sweat glands.

Our sweat glands release droplets onto our skin that become vapor when the blood flowing through the skin passes underneath.

As the sweat vaporizes, energy (in the form of heat) passes into the environment, cooling the blood. This cooled blood gets circulated back to the heart and brain so it cools our core body temperature.

This is why a day in the sun can feel so draining. Your body is working much harder and using much more energy to keep you cool.

By preventing our organs from overheating, sweat not only keeps us healthy, it also allows us to enjoy (or tolerate) the hot Australian summer.

So it’s important to stay hydrated on a hot day so your body can produce and replace the volume of sweat necessary to keep you cool.

OK, but why do I sweat so much?

You might find yourself sweating more or less than usual for a number of reasons, other than it being a hot day.

4. Exercise

Exercise improves our ability to produce sweat and keep cool. People who exercise regularly (particularly in the heat) can produce more sweat during exercise. This helps our bodies perform longer, with less physiological strain.

So many of the Australian Olympic athletes will undergo a period of heat acclimatization in the lead up to Tokyo 2020.

3. Stress

Ever notice you become sweaty when you are stressed? A different type of sweat gland, the apocrine sweat glands, are associated with hair follicles and often respond to emotional stress.

This type of sweat combines with bacteria on your skin and causes body odor.

2. Menopause

Up to 75% of women experience acute bouts of excessive sweating during menopause, called a hot flush.

The amount of sweat produced during a two to three-minute hot flush can be similar to the amount produced during exercise.

Most people think hot flushes are caused by increases in core body temperature. But our research suggests this might not be the case.

1. Drinking alcohol

Having a couple of drinks with friends may also increase the sweat response. Alcohol raises your heart rate and causes the blood vessels in your skin to relax and widen. This increases skin redness and your sweat rate, which can actually lead to decreases in body temperature.

So, what can I do about it?

Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) can happen in unusual situations such as in a cooler climate or with seemingly no cause.

Although it can be embarrassing and uncomfortable, there are ways to treat it, which you can discuss with your doctor.

One option is to use an antiperspirant with aluminum or topical aluminum salts, which blocks the sweat glands from releasing sweat onto the skin.

A longer-term option may be injecting Botulinum toxin (commonly known as Botox) into the skin. This paralyzes the injected area (such as the armpits, hands and feet) and prevents the activation of sweat glands.

Other options include using low-frequency electrical stimulation (iontophoresis), prescription drugs and although controversial, surgery.

For menopausal women, we have shown closely supervised exercise training can improve temperature regulation, leading to fewer and less severe hot flushes.

This training involved 16 weeks of supervised, progressive moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as treadmill and cycling exercise, for up to one hour for three to five days a week.

In a nutshell

In the end, sweating is usually our body’s natural way to protect us from overheating. But if excess sweating is a problem, see your doctor who will outline which treatment options are best for you.

This article was originally published on The Conversation by Tom Bailey and Faith Pizzey. Read the original article here.

Cause of nocturia: high blood pressure

According to a 2019 study presented at the annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society, people who woke up at least once per night to use the bathroom were 40 percent more likely to have high blood pressure. And those who woke up multiple times each night had an even greater likelihood of it.

Of course, this doesn't mean that your nightly bathroom visits are a sure-fire sign that you have high blood pressure. But if you have no idea whether your blood pressure is normal or not, you should get it checked. Especially if you're at risk of hypertension. Many factors can put you at risk a short list includes having diabetes, eating too much sodium and too little potassium, not being physically active, having extra weight, smoking, having a family history of hypertension, and overdrinking alcohol.

If you're at risk of hypertension and you're waking up several times a night to urinate, it's worth discussing with a doctor.

Watch the video: Πόσο συχνά θα πρέπει κάποιος να ουρεί; (May 2022).