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4.5: Reproduction at the Cellular Level (Exercises) - Biology

4.5: Reproduction at the Cellular Level (Exercises) - Biology


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6.1: The Genome

Prokaryotes have a single loop chromosome, whereas eukaryotes have multiple, linear chromosomes surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Genes are segments of DNA that code for a specific protein or RNA molecule.

Multiple Choice

A diploid cell has ________ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell.

A. one-fourth
B. one-half
C. twice
D. four times

C

An organism’s traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited ________.

A. cells
B. genes
C. proteins
D. chromatids

B

Free Response

Compare and contrast a human somatic cell to a human gamete.

Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes, including 22 homologous pairs and one pair of nonhomologous sex chromosomes. This is the 2n, or diploid, condition. Human gametes have 23 chromosomes, one each of 23 unique chromosomes. This is the n, or haploid, condition.

6.2: The Cell Cycle

The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events. Cells on the path to cell division proceed through a series of precisely timed and carefully regulated stages. In eukaryotes, the cell cycle consists of a long preparatory period, called interphase. Interphase is divided into G1, S, and G2 phases. Mitosis consists of five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis is usually accompanied by cytokinesis.

Art Connections

Figure 6.2.2 Which of the following is the correct order of events in mitosis?

  1. Sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate. The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. The nucleus re-forms and the cell divides. The sister chromatids separate.
  2. The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. The sister chromatids separate. Sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate. The nucleus re-forms and the cell divides.
  3. The kinetochore becomes attached to metaphase plate. The kinetochore breaks down and the sister chromatids separate. The nucleus re-forms and the cell divides.
  4. The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. The kinetochore breaks apart and the sister chromatids separate. The nucleus re-forms and the cell divides.

D. The nucleus reforms and the cell divides.

Multiple Choice

Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell cycle?

A. G1 phase
B. S phase
C. prophase
D. prometaphase

B

Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?

A. prometaphase
B. metaphase
C. anaphase
D. telophase

C

The individual chromosomes become visible with a light microscope during which stage of mitosis?

A. prophase
B. prometaphase
C. metaphase
D. anaphase

A

What is necessary for a cell to pass the G2 checkpoint?

A. cell has reached a sufficient size
B. an adequate stockpile of nucleotides
C. accurate and complete DNA replication
D. proper attachment of mitotic spindle fibers to kinetochores

C

Free Response

Describe the similarities and differences between the cytokinesis mechanisms found in animal cells versus those in plant cells.

There are very few similarities between animal cell and plant cell cytokinesis. In animal cells, a ring of actin fibers is formed around the periphery of the cell at the former metaphase plate. The actin ring contracts inward, pulling the plasma membrane toward the center of the cell until the cell is pinched in two. In plant cells, a new cell wall must be formed between the daughter cells. Because of the rigid cell walls of the parent cell, contraction of the middle of the cell is not possible. Instead, a cell plate is formed in the center of the cell at the former metaphase plate. The cell plate is formed from Golgi vesicles that contain enzymes, proteins, and glucose. The vesicles fuse and the enzymes build a new cell wall from the proteins and glucose. The cell plate grows toward, and eventually fuses with, the cell wall of the parent cell.

6.3: Cancer and the Cell Cycle

Cancer is the result of unchecked cell division caused by a breakdown of the mechanisms regulating the cell cycle. The loss of control begins with a change in the DNA sequence of a gene that codes for one of the regulatory molecules. Faulty instructions lead to a protein that does not function as it should. Any disruption of the monitoring system can allow other mistakes to be passed on to the daughter cells. Each successive cell division will give rise to daughter cells with even more damage.

Multiple Choice

________ are changes to the nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.

A. Proto-oncogenes
B. Tumor suppressor genes
C. Gene mutations
D. Negative regulators

C

A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a(n) ________.

A. kinase inhibitor
B. tumor suppressor gene
C. proto-oncogene
D. oncogene

C

Free Response

Outline the steps that lead to a cell becoming cancerous.

If one of the genes that produce regulator proteins becomes mutated, it produces a malformed, possibly non-functional, cell-cycle regulator. This increases the chance that more mutations will be left unrepaired in the cell. Each subsequent generation of cells sustains more damage. The cell cycle can speed up as a result of loss of functional checkpoint proteins. The cells can lose the ability to self-destruct.

Explain the difference between a proto-oncogene and a tumor suppressor gene.

A proto-oncogene is the segment of DNA that codes for one of the positive cell-cycle regulators. If that gene becomes mutated to a form that is overactive, it is considered an oncogene. A tumor suppressor gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one of the negative cell-cycle regulators. If that gene becomes mutated to a form that is underactive, the cell cycle will run unchecked.

6.4: Prokaryotic Cell Division

In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division, the genomic DNA is replicated and each copy is allocated into a daughter cell. The cytoplasmic contents are also divided evenly to the new cells. However, there are many differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division. Bacteria have a single, circular DNA chromosome and no nucleus. Therefore, mitosis is not necessary in bacterial cell division. Bacterial cytokinesis is directed by a ring composed of a protein called FtsZ.

Multiple Choice

Which eukaryotic cell-cycle event is missing in binary fission?

A. cell growth
B. DNA duplication
C. mitosis
D. cytokinesis

C

FtsZ proteins direct the formation of a ________ that will eventually form the new cell walls of the daughter cells.

A. contractile ring
B. cell plate
C. cytoskeleton
D. septum

D

Free Response

Name the common components of eukaryotic cell division and binary fission.

The common components of eukaryotic cell division and binary fission are DNA duplication, segregation of duplicated chromosomes, and the division of the cytoplasmic contents.


Critical Thinking Questions

Does physical exercise to increase muscle mass involve anabolic and/or catabolic processes? Give evidence for your answer.

Explain in your own terms the difference between a spontaneous reaction and one that occurs instantaneously, and what causes this difference.

With regard to enzymes, why are vitamins and minerals necessary for good health? Give examples.

Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms carry out some form of glycolysis. How does that fact support or not support the assertion that glycolysis is one of the oldest metabolic pathways?

We inhale oxygen when we breathe and exhale carbon dioxide. What is the oxygen used for and where does the carbon dioxide come from?

When muscle cells run out of oxygen, what happens to the potential for energy extraction from sugars and what pathways do the cell use?

Would you describe metabolic pathways as inherently wasteful or inherently economical, and why?

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    • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/1-introduction
    • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/4-critical-thinking-questions

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    Immunodeficiency

    Failures, insufficiencies, or delays at any level of the immune response can allow pathogens or tumor cells to gain a foothold and replicate or proliferate to high enough levels that the immune system becomes overwhelmed. Immunodeficiency is the failure, insufficiency, or delay in the response of the immune system, which may be acquired or inherited. Immunodeficiency can be acquired as a result of infection with certain pathogens (such as HIV), chemical exposure (including certain medical treatments), malnutrition, or possibly by extreme stress. For instance, radiation exposure can destroy populations of lymphocytes and elevate an individual’s susceptibility to infections and cancer. Dozens of genetic disorders result in immunodeficiencies, including Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Bare lymphocyte syndrome, and MHC II deficiencies. Rarely, primary immunodeficiencies that are present from birth may occur. Neutropenia is one form in which the immune system produces a below-average number of neutrophils, the body’s most abundant phagocytes. As a result, bacterial infections may go unrestricted in the blood, causing serious complications.


    S4 Analytical Questions

    (f) State the changes in the concentration of oxygen in savannah grass land over the period of 14 hours.

    2. The table below shows the changes in the dry weight of seedlings during the first 6 week of germination.

    Time(weeks) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
    Dry weight(g) 75 50 38 25 40 80 150

    a ) Plot this information as a graph in the space below.(8 marks)

    b) With reference to the graph describe the change in dry weight over the period of 6 weeks. (2 marks)

    c) Explain the change in dry weight. ( 2 marks)

    c)On the same graph draw another graph if fresh weight was considered.Label the two graphs to differentiate them.( 1 mark).

    d) Explain why the graph appears as it is shown.(1 mark)

    e) Why is it advantageous to measure growth of an organism using fresh weight instead of dry weight?(1 mark)

    c)Why is it disadvantageous to measure growth of an organism using fresh weight instead of dry weight?(1 mark)

    e) What other two methods apart from use of weight can be used to measure the growth of a plant?(1 mark)

    f) Suggest three factors that can affect the growth of a plant.(1 ½ Marks)

    g) For each of the factors mentioned, state one of its roles in the growth of a plant. .(1 ½ Marks)

    3.In an investigation, two persons A and B drank the same amount of a glucose solution. Their blood sugar levels were determined immediately and thereafter at intervals of one hour for the next six hours. The results were as shown in the following table.


    Menopause

    As women approach their mid-40s to mid-50s, their ovaries begin to lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH. Menstrual periods become less frequent and finally cease this is menopause. There are still eggs and potential follicles on the ovaries, but without the stimulation of FSH and LH, they will not produce a viable egg to be released. The outcome of this is the inability to have children.

    The side effects of menopause include hot flashes, heavy sweating (especially at night), headaches, some hair loss, muscle pain, vaginal dryness, insomnia, depression, weight gain, and mood swings. Estrogen is involved in calcium metabolism and, without it, blood levels of calcium decrease. To replenish the blood, calcium is lost from bone which may decrease the bone density and lead to osteoporosis. Supplementation of estrogen in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can prevent bone loss, but the therapy can have negative side effects. While HRT is thought to give some protection from colon cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease, macular degeneration, and possibly depression, its negative side effects include increased risk of: stroke or heart attack, blood clots, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gall bladder disease, and possibly dementia.

    Reproductive Endocrinologist

    A reproductive endocrinologist is a physician who treats a variety of hormonal disorders related to reproduction and infertility in both men and women. The disorders include menstrual problems, infertility, pregnancy loss, sexual dysfunction, and menopause. Doctors may use fertility drugs, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in their therapy. ART involves the use of procedures to manipulate the egg or sperm to facilitate reproduction, such as in vitro fertilization.

    Reproductive endocrinologists undergo extensive medical training, first in a four-year residency in obstetrics and gynecology, then in a three-year fellowship in reproductive endocrinology. To be board certified in this area, the physician must pass written and oral exams in both areas.


    Introduction

    No matter how complex or advanced a machine, such as the latest cellular phone, the device cannot function without energy. Living things, similar to machines, have many complex components they too cannot do anything without energy, which is why humans and all other organisms must “eat” in some form or another. That may be common knowledge, but how many people realize that every bite of every meal ingested depends on the process of photosynthesis?

    As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

    Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

      If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:

    • Use the information below to generate a citation. We recommend using a citation tool such as this one.
      • Authors: Samantha Fowler, Rebecca Roush, James Wise
      • Publisher/website: OpenStax
      • Book title: Concepts of Biology
      • Publication date: Apr 25, 2013
      • Location: Houston, Texas
      • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/1-introduction
      • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/5-introduction

      © Jan 12, 2021 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.


      Menopause

      As women approach their mid-40s to mid-50s, their ovaries begin to lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH. Menstrual periods become less frequent and finally cease this is menopause. There are still eggs and potential follicles on the ovaries, but without the stimulation of FSH and LH, they will not produce a viable egg to be released. The outcome of this is the inability to have children.

      The side effects of menopause include hot flashes, heavy sweating (especially at night), headaches, some hair loss, muscle pain, vaginal dryness, insomnia, depression, weight gain, and mood swings. Estrogen is involved in calcium metabolism and, without it, blood levels of calcium decrease. To replenish the blood, calcium is lost from bone which may decrease the bone density and lead to osteoporosis. Supplementation of estrogen in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can prevent bone loss, but the therapy can have negative side effects. While HRT is thought to give some protection from colon cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease, macular degeneration, and possibly depression, its negative side effects include increased risk of: stroke or heart attack, blood clots, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gall bladder disease, and possibly dementia.

      Reproductive Endocrinologist

      A reproductive endocrinologist is a physician who treats a variety of hormonal disorders related to reproduction and infertility in both men and women. The disorders include menstrual problems, infertility, pregnancy loss, sexual dysfunction, and menopause. Doctors may use fertility drugs, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in their therapy. ART involves the use of procedures to manipulate the egg or sperm to facilitate reproduction, such as in vitro fertilization.

      Reproductive endocrinologists undergo extensive medical training, first in a four-year residency in obstetrics and gynecology, then in a three-year fellowship in reproductive endocrinology. To be board certified in this area, the physician must pass written and oral exams in both areas.


      Department of Biological Sciences

      BIO 101 Biological Foundations (meets Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum)
      An introduction to the areas of current biological interest: molecular and cellular biology, genetics and development, and evolution and population biology. Intended primarily for students selecting a laboratory science to satisfy the Core curriculum or for those students not intending to take other courses in the biological sciences. This course cannot be used as a prerequisite for other biology courses. Cr 3.

      BIO 102 Biological Experiences (meets Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum)
      Laboratory studies to complement and illustrate the concepts presented in BIO 101. Prerequisite: prior or concurrent registration in BIO 101. Cr 1.

      BIO 103 Introduction to Marine Biology (meets Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum)
      Selected groups of marine plants and animals are used to develop an understanding of biological processes and principles that are basic to all forms of life in the sea. Integrated in the course are aspects of taxonomy, evolution, ecology, behavior, and physiology. Intended primarily for students selecting a laboratory science to satisfy the Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum or for those students not intending to take other courses in the biological sciences. Cr 3.

      BIO 104 Marine Biology Laboratory (meets Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum)
      An examination of prototype organisms will be used to illustrate their varied roles in the ocean. Prerequisite: prior or concurrent registration in BIO 103. Cr 1.

      BIO 105 Biological Principles I: Cellular Biology
      This is an introduction to the scientific principles of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics. Prerequisite: grade of C or higher in MAT 101, or appropriate placement test score. Cr 3.

      BIO 106 Laboratory Biology
      Laboratory experiences illustrating concepts and principles introduced in BIO 105. Concurrent enrollment in BIO 105 is highly recommended. Prerequisites: grade of C- or higher or concurrent enrollment in BIO 105, and grade of C or higher in MAT 101 or appropriate placement test score. Cr 1.5.

      BIO 107 Biological Principles II: Evolution, Biodiversity, and Ecology (meets Science Exploration requirement in the Core Curriculum)
      This is an integrated lecture-laboratory course introducing students to the scientific principles of evolution, biodiversity, and ecology. The lecture and laboratory each meet three hours weekly. Prerequisites: grades of C- or higher in BIO 105 and BIO 106. Cr 4.5.

      BIO 109 Biological Principles III: Functional Biology
      This is an introduction to the scientific principles of structure and function in plants and animals. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 3.

      BIO 111 Human Anatomy and Physiology I (not intended for Biology majors)
      The course is the first semester of a two-semester sequence concerning the structure and function of the human body. The course focuses on the study of cell chemistry, cell physiology, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscle system, and nervous system. It is appropriate for nursing and allied health majors and does not fulfill requirements of the biology major. Prerequisite: grade of C or higher in MAT 101 or appropriate placement test score. Cr 3.

      BIO 112 Practical Human Anatomy and Physiology I
      Laboratory experiences illustrating concepts and principles introduced in BIO 111. The course will cover the following topics: metrics, language of anatomy, cell physiology, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, and nervous system. Prerequisite: BIO 111 or BIO 221 or concurrently. Cr 1.5.

      BIO 113 Human Anatomy and Physiology II (not intended for Biology majors)
      This course is a continuation of BIO 111. The structure and function of the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems will be discussed. It is appropriate for nursing and allied health majors and does not fulfill requirements of the biology or biochemistry majors. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 111. Cr 3.

      BIO 114 Practical Human Anatomy and Physiology II
      Laboratory studies of the structure and function of the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, digestive, and urinary systems. Prerequisites: grade of C- or higher in BIO 112 BIO 113 or BIO 223 or concurrently. Cr 1.5.

      BIO 201 Genetics
      A study of the organization, transmission and expression of genes and genomes. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 105 or BIO 111 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 203 Ecology
      A scientific study of interactions determining the distribution and abundance of organisms. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 3.

      BIO 217 Evolution
      A study of the fossil record, adaptive changes in genes and traits by natural selection, and the evolution of diversity and complexity. Prerequisite: grades of C- or higher in BIO 107 and BIO 201, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 221 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Biology Majors I
      This course is the first of a two-semester sequence that introduces how the human body functions from the subcellular to the whole-individual level. It is designed for biology majors and students wanting to enter graduate programs in medicine or physiology. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 3.

      BIO 223 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Biology Majors II
      This course is a continuation of BIO 221. It is designed for biology majors and students wanting to enter graduate programs in medicine or physiology. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 221 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 231 Botany
      A study of structure, function, development, reproduction, and environmental adaptations of representative non-vascular and vascular plants. Lecture three hours/week one three-hour laboratory/week. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or permission of instructor. Cr 4.5.

      BIO 281 Microbiology for Health Sciences (not intended for Biology majors)
      This course is a basic introduction to the structure and function of prokaryotes, with some consideration of viruses and parasites. It is appropriate for nursing and allied health majors and does not fulfill requirements of the biology or biochemistry majors. Prerequisites: grade of C- or higher in CHY 107 or CHY 113, and grade of C- or higher in BIO 105 or BIO 111. Cr 3.

      BIO 282 Microbiology Laboratory
      The laboratory explores basic techniques of isolation and cultivation of microorganisms, primarily bacteria and fungi. In addition, biochemical, molecular, and genetic analyses of microorganisms are introduced. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher or concurrent enrollment in BIO 281 or BIO 311, or permission of instructor. Cr 2.

      BIO 291 Ornithology
      This course studies the basic biology of birds: their life histories, migration, ecology, and economic importance, with emphasis on species found in Eastern North America. Numerous field trips to a variety of habitats will be taken for purposes of field identification. Students are responsible for their own appropriate outdoor clothing and footwear and for binoculars. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or permission of instructor. Cr 4.5.

      BIO 305 Developmental Biology
      An analysis of the cellular and molecular interactions leading to normal development. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 3.

      BIO 306 Developmental Biology Laboratory
      This laboratory course is designed to illustrate principles of animal development introduced in BIO 305 using genetic, histochemical, and molecular analyses. Prerequisite: prior or concurrent registration in BIO 305. Cr 2.

      BIO 309 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (formerly BIO 205)
      The comparative study of vertebrate organ systems from an adaptational and evolutionary point of view. Lecture three hours/week one four-hour laboratory/week. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 109 or BIO 223. Cr 4.5.

      BIO 311 Microbiology
      This course is a comprehensive introduction to cellular, biochemical, and genetic aspects of prokaryotes. Viruses and some eukaryotic microorganisms are also considered. This course is designed for biology majors but open to all who have successfully completed the prerequisites. The companion lab course is BIO 282. Prerequisites: CHY 115 and grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or BIO 113 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 321 Neurobiology
      This course presents an overview of nervous system function, structure, and development. Content focuses on the cellular and molecular properties that underlie normal function. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 109, BIO 111, or BIO 221, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 322 Neurobiology Laboratory
      This laboratory course is designed to enable students to gain experience with a range of experimental techniques used in neurobiology research. These include cell culture, electrophysiology, histochemistry, microscopy, and behavioral analyses. Prerequisite: prior or concurrent registration in BIO 321. Cr 2.

      BIO 335 Entomology
      Integrated lecture-laboratory course on the biology of insects and their impact on humanity. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 3.

      BIO 337 Marine Ecology
      A comparative ecological study of coastal and oceanic environments. Lecture, three hours/week weekly four-hour field trip. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 203 or ESP 125. Cr 5.

      BIO 345 Pathophysiology
      A study of the physiological, genetic, biochemical and environmental basis of noninfectious diseases. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 109, BIO 113, or BIO 223, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 351 Invertebrate Zoology
      The morphology, physiology and evolution of invertebrate animals. Three hours of lecture and two, two-hour laboratories per week. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 5.

      BIO 353 Vertebrate Zoology
      This course is a survey of the vertebrate animals, focusing on classification, morphology, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of each group. Lecture three hours a week one four-hour laboratory a week. Prerequisites: grade of C- or higher in BIO 109. Cr 5.

      BIO 361 Parasitology
      The life histories and host-parasite relationships of animal parasites, with emphasis on those of humans. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107. Cr 2.

      BIO 362 Parasitology Laboratory
      The morphology and life cycles of parasitic protozoa, helminths, and arthropods. Prerequisite: BIO 361 or concurrently. Cr 2.

      BIO 383 Plant Ecology
      This course is a study of plant distribution and abundance across local, regional, and global scales. How plants are impacted by and in turn impact environmental and biotic factors will be discussed at the individual, community, and ecosystem levels. The influences of environmental stress and anthropogenic disruptions will also be examined. Students design and implement a field based research project and weekly field trips are required. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 203 or ESP 125. Cr 5.

      BIO 401 Animal Physiology
      A study of physiological processes and their regulation in animals. Prerequisites: CHY 115, PHY 111 or PHY 121, and grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or BIO 113, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 402 Animal Physiology Laboratory
      Laboratory examination of physiological mechanisms in animals. Prerequisite: BIO 401 or concurrently MAT 220. Cr 2.

      BIO 405 Animal Behavior
      This course is a study of the principles of behavioral organization in vertebrate and invertebrate animals, with emphasis on behavior under natural conditions. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or BIO 113, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 406 Animal Behavior Laboratory
      This course is a laboratory and field examination of behavioral principles in animals. Prerequisite: BIO 405 or concurrently. Cr 2.

      BIO 407 Environmental Modulation of Developmental Mechanisms (fulfills Capstone requirement for Biology majors)
      This is a molecular genetic analysis of development focusing on an integrative approach toward understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Prerequisites: grades of C- or higher in BIO 201 and BIO 305, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 409 Cell and Molecular Biology
      A study of the eukaryotic cell at the level of organelles and molecules. The biochemical aspects of cell growth and reproduction are emphasized. Prerequisites: CHY 115 and grade of C- or higher in BIO 201 (or concurrent). Cr 3.

      BIO 410 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
      A course in which the techniques of cell fractionation and biochemical analyses are applied to the eukaryotic cell. Prerequisite: BIO 409 or concurrent. Cr 2.

      BIO 413 Applied Biostatistics
      This course is an introduction to the application of classical and modern statistics to biological problems. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in MAT 220 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 415 Microbial Ecology
      This course is a continuation of BIO 311. The course begins with an examination of microbial evolution and biodiversity. It then explores the interactions of microorganisms in populations and within communities, and their interactions with other organisms and the environment, including an examination of physiological adaptations and biogeochemical cycles. Prerequisites: grades of C- or higher in BIO 203 or ESP 125, and BIO 311 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 416 Microbial Ecology Lab
      This is the companion lab course to BIO 415, designed as a hands-on project lab to introduce students to a variety of methods used in microbial ecology. There will be a field component, lab component, and written component to the projects that will be completed during the semester. Microscopic, cell culture, and molecular methods will be employed. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 415 (or equivalent) or concurrent enrollment, or permission of instructor. Cr 2.

      BIO 417 Issues in Evolution
      This course surveys major issues that motivate current research in evolutionary biology, providing an historical analysis of areas of controversy and alternative points of view within the field. The course is based on selected readings in the theoretical and experimental literature of the field, from primary and classical sources. Prerequisites: grades of C- or higher in BIO 201 and BIO 217, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 419 Human Evolution (fulfills Capstone requirement for Biology majors)
      This course explores the fossil, genetic, and paleoanthropological evidence for current reconstructions of the history and evolution of all primates and of one primate in particular, Homo sapiens. We will retrace the emergence of hominins and Homo sapiens in Africa, out of Africa, and across the world. Prerequisites: grades of C- or higher in BIO 201 and BIO 217, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 421 Biology Seminar (fulfills Capstone requirement for Biology majors)
      Weekly oral reports and discussions by students and staff on biological topics of current interest. Prerequisite: 16 hours of biology or permission of instructor. May be repeated. Cr 1-3.

      BIO 423 Topics in Genetics
      This course covers selected topics in genetics, including chromosomes, transposons, genetic regulation, genomics, genomic and karyotypic evolution, break repair, meiotic recombination, gene conversion, and some quantitative genetics. Prerequisite: grade of C- or higher in BIO 201 or concurrent, or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 431 Principles of Immunology
      An introduction to the fundamentals of immunology, especially as they relate to human diseases. Topics include history of immunology, basic elements of immune systems, principles of natural and acquired immunity, cellular and molecular basis of B cell and T cell development and diversity, and clinical aspects of immunology. Prerequisites: CHY 105 or CHY 115, junior standing, and grade of C- or higher in BIO 107 or BIO 113 or permission of instructor. Cr 3.

      BIO 432 Immunology Laboratory
      This laboratory course is designed to enable students to gain experience with immunological techniques. Course emphasis will be on experimental design and the clinical and research applications of the procedures used. Prerequisite: Grade of C- or higher or concurrent enrollment in BIO 431, or permission of the instructor. Cr 2.

      BIO 441 Problems in Biology
      Independent library or laboratory studies on a special topic as mutually arranged by instructor and student. Prerequisite: by arrangement. Credit arranged.

      BIO 442 Honors Thesis in Biology
      This class is a continuation of the independent studies on a special topic started in BIO 441. This final semester includes a mid-semester thesis draft, a substantive revised thesis based on feedback, and a concluding public, oral defense. Fulfills University Core Curriculum Capstone requirement. Prerequisites: BIO 441, Ethical Inquiry, Social Responsibility, and Citizenship, and approval by Biology Department Chair. Cr 3.

      BIO 443 Internship
      In this course, students apply their learning to a practical context under supervision of a faculty member. Prerequisite: by arrangement. Cr 1-3.

      Graduate Biology Courses

      BIO 501 Animal Physiology
      A study of physiological processes and their regulation in animals. Cr 3.

      BIO 502 Animal Physiology Laboratory
      Laboratory examination of physiological mechanisms in animals. Cr 2.

      BIO 505 Animal Behavior
      This course is a study of the principles of behavioral organization in vertebrate and invertebrate animals, with emphasis on behavior under natural conditions. Cr 3.

      BIO 506 Animal Behavior Laboratory
      This course is a laboratory and field examination of behavioral principles in animals. Cr 2.

      BIO 507 Environmental Modulation of Developmental Mechanisms
      A molecular genetic analysis of development focusing on an integrative approach toward understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Cr 3.

      BIO 509 Cell and Molecular Biology
      A study of the eukaryotic cell at the level of organelles and molecules. The biochemical aspects of cell growth and reproduction are emphasized. Cr 3.

      BIO 510 Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory
      A course in which the techniques of cell fractionation and biochemical analyses are applied to the eukaryotic cell. Cr 2.

      BIO 513 Applied Biostatistics
      This course is an introduction to the application of classical and modern statistics to biological problems. Cr 3.

      BIO 515 Microbial Ecology
      This course is a continuation of the basic microbiology course (BIO 311). The course begins with an examination of microbial evolution and biodiversity and explores the interactions of microorganisms in populations and communities, with other organisms and with the environment, including an examination of physiological adaptations and biogeochemical cycles. Cr 3.

      BIO 516 Microbial Ecology Laboratory
      This companion lab course to BIO 515 Microbial Ecology is designed as a hands-on project lab to introduce students to a variety of methods used in microbial ecology. There are field, lab, and written components to the projects that will be carried out over the semester. Microscopic, cell culture, and molecular methods will be employed. Cr 2.

      BIO 517 Issues in Evolution
      This course surveys major issues that motivate current research in evolutionary biology, providing a historical analysis of active areas of controversy and alternative points of view. The course is based on selected readings in the theoretical and experimental literature of the field, from primary and classical sources. Cr 3.

      BIO 519 Human Evolution
      This course explores the fossil, genetic, and paleoanthropological evidence for current reconstructions of the history and evolution of all primates and of one primate in particular, Homo sapiens. We will retrace the emergence of hominins and Homo sapiens in Africa, out of Africa, and across the world. Cr 3.

      BIO 523 Topics in Genetics
      This course covers selected topics in genetics, including chromosomes, transposons, genetic regulation, genomics, genomic and karyotypic evolution, break repair, meiotic recombination, gene conversion, and some quantitative genetics. Cr 3.

      BIO 531 Principles of Immunology
      An introduction to the fundamentals of immunology, especially as they relate to human diseases. Topics include history of immunology, basic elements of immune systems, principles of natural and acquired immunity, cellular and molecular basis of B cell and T cell development and diversity, and clinical aspects of immunology. Cr 3.

      BIO 545 Advanced Pathophysiology
      This course is a study of physiological, genetic, biochemical, and environmental basis of diseases. Systems to be covered include reproductive, gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous,
      and skeletomuscular. Cr 3.

      BIO 601 Research Methods in Biology
      This course introduces students to faculty members’ research. Students will study the philosophy of science, experimental design, data analysis and interpretation, and writing and assessment of scientific papers. Cr 3.

      BIO 602 Ethical Issues in Biology
      This course examines a variety of ethical issues arising in biology today, including those related to general scientific research, biotechnology, medicine, and the environment. Cr 2.

      BIO 621 Graduate Seminar
      This course reviews the literature pertinent to topics of biology. It may be repeated for credit as topics vary. Graduate students must complete at least two different seminars. Cr 1-3.

      BIO 650 Internship
      In this course, students apply their learning to a practical context under supervision of a faculty member. Cr 1-3.

      BIO 660 Graduate Independent Study
      Independent work on a special topic as arranged by the student, advisor, and committee. Cr 1-6.

      BIO 697 Literature Review
      This course involves preparation of a review paper based on current biological literature. Prerequisite: permission of the graduate advisor. Cr 1-6.

      BIO 698 Thesis Research
      This course involves thesis research and preparation. It may be repeated for credit, but no more than 6 credits will apply to the degree. Enrollment is required each term in which the thesis is in progress. Cr 1-6.


      Growth Factors in Stem Cell Biology

      Stem cell biology researchers use suitable growth factors to trigger proliferation, differentiation and/or migration of stem cells. Embryonic pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm) and unlimited capacity for self-renewal 3 . The ethical issues around the use of embryonic stem cells led to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs. In the presence of growth factors, iPSCs differentiate into majority of the progenitor cells required for development (Table 1). Therefore, the role of growth factors in differentiation of iPSCs provides an avenue for creating an unlimited supply of embryonic-like stem cells (Figure 1).

      Figure 1. iPSCs differentiate into majority of the progenitor cells required for development in the presence of Growth Factors

      The fate of pluripotent stem cell is Stem cell research is controlled by physical and biochemical cues that direct them to become the specialized cells that make up the tissues in the body. Stem cell research is enhancing our understanding of how growth factors (biochemical cues) affect stem cell expansion and differentiation. This will enable subsequent use of stem cells in cell-based therapies, drug development, and disease modeling.


      Author contributions

      Conceptualization: S.F. Methodology: X.L., Y.Z., S.F. Software: S.F. Investigation: X.L. Data curation: X.L., S.F. Writing - original draft: X.L., Y.Z. Writing - review & editing: S.F. Funding acquisition: X.L., Y.Z., S.F.

      This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China-Yunnan Joint Fund [NSFC 31172096], the Higher Education Discipline Innovation Project [B14037], and the Basic and Frontier Research Project of CQ [cstc2014yykfC80001 and cstc2017jcyjAX0347].


      Watch the video: Meiosis, Gametes, and the Human Life Cycle (May 2022).