7.7: Topics for Discussion - Biology

7.7: Topics for Discussion - Biology

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7.7: Topics for Discussion

Cyclone "YASH" storming towards us!

@Dipta2020, dont fight like Kiddos. Learn some manners and the come.

And @Qwertise_Classics, yes not me, but my Father experienced the similar Cyclone in Japan when he gone for his Shipping Trade. The storm was about 280 kmph and it was really scary and dangerous surviving in the Sea.

Wow, this forum exploded. How is it going for y'all near the cyclone? I hope you all are doing fine

@AnonymousChessKing hello! So what happened are you safe? is the cyclone was dangerous than previous one?

@Qwertise_Classics, we are all safe and it was much dangerous, not to us, but the Coastal Areas. The Coastal Areas got submerged in Water and now also they are Homeless :(

1 1

Yikes! Bangladesh again. And on top of all that's the most crowded place on Earth!

1 1
  1. How the normal cells of the human body get affected to transform into tumour cells?
  2. What are the main reasons behind the failure of organ transplantation in some cases?
  3. How Abortions and miscarriage affect the anatomy and internal structure of the female reproductive system?
  4. Why neuron cells of the human body do not have to capacity to recover from injuries and other sorts of tear?
  5. Effect of human psychology on the brain cells of the body.
  6. What should be done to broken tissue alignment in different organs of the human body?
  1. Role of biotechnology in giving affordable medicines to the people in the present scenario.
  2. How biotechnology is serving a vital role in the field of new verities’ of flowers and vegetables?
  3. Importance of tissue culture and cloning in biotechnology.
  4. Best utilization of the Biotechnology in the development of high yielding crops.
  5. What could be done to enhance the use of Biotechnology applications over traditional methods of farming?
  6. How we can see the future of biotechnology in the coming decade for agriculture and pharma industry?
  7. Effect of environmental change on the effect of Biotechnology applications.


b) How are the parasites adapted to their mode of feeding?

b) State the conventional system of enzymes nomenclature.

c) Give any three enzymes that conform to the above system and the substrates and products in each.

Enzyme Substrate (food acted up on) Products

3. a) state the properties of enzymes.

b) Describe an experiment to show how temperature affects enzyme activity

c) Apart from temperature what other factors affect enzyme activity.

4. a) state the basic units of proteins

b) What is the difference between essential

c) Describe two ways you can show that egg albumen contains proteins in the laboratory.

5. a) using diagrams describe the life cycle of a tapeworm

b) describe how a tapeworm is adapted to its mode of life.

c) What are the dangers of parasitic mode of life?

6. The optimum PH for enzyme X is 2.00 and for enzyme Y is 9.00.suggest the name of the enzymes X and Y

a). The optimum PH for enzyme X is 2.00 and for enzyme Y is 9.00.suggest the name of the enzymes X and Y, and name the parts of the alimentary canal where you would expect to find each enzyme.

Name of enzyme Part of alimentary canal the enzyme is found.

b) State three enzymes contained in the pancreatic juice, the food substance acted on by each enzyme and the product formed in each case

a) State the contents of bile secretion in the liver.

b) Explain the digestive functions of the bile contents.

7. describe an experiment that you would carry out in the laboratory to test for the presence of a non-reducing (complex) sugar in a solution of a food sample. In your description, state the use of each reagent used.

8. Write short notes about the following, giving an example in each case

9.a) Describe the nitrogen cycle and suggest the role played by.

b) Show how nitrogen is lost and gained from the soil.

c) What is the importance of the nitrogen cycle to the life of an animal

10. The table below shows the rate of an enzyme activity at different temperatures.

0 1.8
5 2.4
10 3.7
15 4.9
20 7.4
25 9.3
30 13.4
35 17.2
40 19.0
45 19.0
50 8.1
55 1.7
60 0

a) Draw a suitable graph for the above results.

Insects discussion questions

2. Which one of the following functions of the skeleton applies only to insects?

D. Determining body shape exactly.

3. Insects in the dry areas conserve water by passing waste form of

4. Which one of the following groups of animals possesses an open circulatory system?

5. Which of the following groups of insects all have similar feeding habits?

A. Bee, mosquito, caterpillar.

B. Housefly, cockroach, praying mantis.

C. Tsetsefly, housefly, caterpillar.

6. Which one of these insects does not lay eggs in its lifecycle?

7. Which of these are characteristic of al insects?

A. Complete metamorphosis and possession of three pairs of jointed legs.

B. Possession of three pairs of jointed legs and body divided into three main parts.

C. Possession of one or two pairs of wings and having three pairs of jointed legs.

D. Complete metamorphosis and body divided into three main parts.

8. The following are characteristics of insects:

(i) They undergo complete metamorphosis.

(ii) They have 1 or 2 pairs of wings.

(iii) They have 3 pairs of jointed legs.

(iv) Their bodies are divided into 3 main parts.

(v) They posses exoskeletons.

Which of them are common to all insects?

9. The structure in insects that serve as respiratory surfaced for gaseous exchange are

10. Which one of the following is a characteristic of insects only?

11. Which one of the following may not be used for classifying insects?

12. A male cockroach is different from the female cockroach by having

13. The female mosquito sucks blood because

A. it requires iron to make hemoglobin.

B. it needs to feed on liquid food at around 370C.

C. it obtains materials essential for egg production.

D. Its mouth parts are designed to pierce the skin of mammals.

14. A mosquito larva breathes by means of

15. Table 3 below gives feeding habits of aedis mosquito on human blood meal from 6pm to 12 midnight.

Time of feeding 6pm 7pm 8 pm 9 pm 10pm 11pm 12 midnight
Number of mosquito biting 0 1 1 3 25 24 16
Volume of blood in the gut of mosquito (ml) 0 0.001 0.002 0.05 0.5 0.4 0.08

The best conclusion on aedis feeding habit from table 3 is that

A. aedis is active at 10pm to midnight, when people are sleeping.

B. aedis is active only after midnight.

C. mosquito feeds only when blood is hot.

D. mosquito feeds on blood of sick people.

16. Which one of the following would help in reducing the number of mosquito larvae?

A. Increase in the number of microscopic algae.

B. Increase in the number of larger fish.

C. Increase in the number of crocodiles.

D. Decrease in the number of small fish.

17. Biological control as a method of prevention of malaria would include

A. spraying oil on the surface of stagnant water.

B. Spraying of insecticides on the mosquitoes.

C. Introducing fish in water bodies.

D. Drainage of stagnant water.

18. Which one of the following parasites is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito?

19. Which one of the following cannot be used in classifying insects

C. number of body division

1. (a) Give six features which are common to adult insects.

(b) (i) What is understood by the term metamorphosis?

(ii) State and explain the types of metamorphosis

(ii) With the aid of a labeled diagram, give an account of the life cycle

2. (a) Describe the life cycle of a housefly.

(b) What is the economic importance of a housefly?

(c) How would you minimize the spread of houseflies in a home

3. State the economic importance of insects giving an example in each case

AP Biology Sample Questions

Now that you have a basic content outline, here are some examples of the types of questions you'll see on the AP Biology test so that you can get an even better idea of what to expect.

Multiple-Choice Sample Question

Here is an example of a multiple-choice AP Biology exam question:

This question looks kind of complicated, but let’s break it down. The first sentence is background information that isn’t really necessary for answering the question , besides the fact that it tells us we’re talking about sickle cell anemia. This is helpful if you can remember basic facts about the disease that you can use to contextualize the question.

The main part of the question asks what will be affected when you replace a hydrophilic amino acid with a hydrophobic one on a hemoglobin protein. Based on your knowledge of sickle cell anemia and molecular properties, you should be able to eliminate choices B and C , which don’t have much to do with the abnormality described in the question.

Choice D can also be eliminated because the internal secondary structure of the protein is not altered by the existence of the hydrophobic group.

This would only affect how the molecule interacts externally with other hemoglobin molecules, as in choice A (the correct answer) .

Free Response: Long Sample Question

Here’s an example of a long free-response question you might see on the AP Biology exam:

That's one long question! Now, this AP Bio question is worth a total of 8-10 points (the AP Biology Exam Description doesn't specify exactly how much this particular sample question is worth).

As you can see, there are four distinct parts: A, B, C, and D . Each part asks you to do something different and is worth a certain number of points:

  • Part A is worth 1-2 points. To earn these points, you must describe and explain the specific biological process or concept at play (here, that would be the amino acid substitution and its effect on the mosquitoes).
  • Part B is worth 3-4 points. You must identify experimental design procedures (in this case, that would be the dependent variable and the positive control).
  • Part C is worth 1-3 points. To get these points, you must analyze specific data given to you. In this example, that would be the data in Figure 2 (the second image in the problem) and in Table 1.
  • Part D is worth 2-4 points. You have to make and justify your predictions to earn full points here this means you must provide clear evidence for your claim. In this sample problem, for example, you would have to write about how susceptible you think the mosquitoes will be to the insecticides while also backing up your claim with evidence from Table 1 and other data.

Ugh, gross! This leaf is full of trichomes.

Free Response: Short-Answer Sample Question

Here’s an example of a short-answer question you might see on the AP Biology test free-response section:

This short-answer free-response AP Bio question is an example of an Analysis of Model or Visual Representation problem (always #5 out of your six free-response questions). It is worth a total of 4 points (as are all short-answer questions).

Like the long-form question above, each short-answer question consists of four parts: A, B, C, and D . You must answer all of these to get full points.

  • Part A is worth 1 point. To get this first point, you'll need to describe the characteristics of the biological process, concept, or visual model in the problem. With this particular question, you must understand the process of fertilization and how chromosomes do not double.
  • Part B is worth 1 point. For this point, you'll have to explain the relationships between two biological concepts or processes in the problem. In the sample above, this means you must explain the genetic relationship between individual 16 and individuals 1 and 2.
  • Part C is worth 1 point. To earn this point, you must represent biological relationships in a model. For this problem, you would need to simply fill in the blanks in the template.
  • Part D is worth 1 point. To get this final point, you would need to draw a clear connection between the biological concept/process in the problem and a larger biological principle or theory. For the question above, you would have to understand the intricacies of inheritance patterns and what role chromosomes play in them.

There must be jobs out there for which you just have to collect plant samples. Start building your experience now by never showering.

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life

You’ll learn about water’s role as the basis of life and the functions of macromolecules like lipids and proteins.

  • The structure and chemical properties of water
  • The makeup and properties of macromolecules
  • The structure of DNA and RNA

On The Exam

Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function

You’ll study the makeup of cells and the fundamentals of evolution.

  • Cellular components and functions of those components
  • Cell interaction with its environment
  • The cell membrane structure and function
  • Cell regulatory mechanisms like osmosis and selective permeability
  • Cellular compartmentalization

On The Exam

Unit 3: Cellular Energetics

You’ll explore how cells interact with their environment and how fundamental biological processes work at the cellular level.

  • The structure and function of enzymes
  • The role of energy in living systems
  • The processes of photosynthesis
  • The processes of cellular respiration
  • Molecular diversity and cellular response to environmental changes

On The Exam

Unit 4: Cell Communication and Cell Cycle

You’ll learn how cells grow and reproduce, as well as how cells communicate.

  • The mechanisms of cell communication
  • Signal transduction
  • Cellular responses and feedback mechanisms
  • The events in a cell cycle

On The Exam

Unit 5: Heredity

You’ll learn how traits are passed down from one generation to the next.

  • The process and function of meiosis
  • The concepts genetic diversity
  • Mendel’s laws and probability
  • Non-mendelian Inheritance
  • Factors affecting inheritance and gene expression

On The Exam

Unit 6: Gene Expression and Regulation

You’ll study how hereditary information passes from parent to offspring and how those traits are expressed.

  • The roles and functions of DNA and RNA
  • The mechanisms of gene expression
  • How genotype affects phenotype
  • Mutations, genetic diversity, and natural selection
  • Genetic engineering and biotechnology

On The Exam

Unit 7: Natural Selection

You’ll learn about Darwin’s theory, the concept of natural selection, and evolution.

  • Evidential support for evolution and common ancestry
  • The mechanisms of natural selection and speciation
  • Environmental and human-caused factors in evolution
  • Charting species ancestry through phylogenetic trees and cladograms
  • Extinction
  • Models of the origin of life on Earth

On The Exam

Unit 8: Ecology

You’ll explore biological concepts at a broader organism level and analyze how populations interact within ecosystems.

  • Communication and responses to environmental changes
  • Energy flow within and across ecosystems
  • Factors in the growth, density, and success of populations
  • Factors in community and ecosystem dynamics
  • Invasive species, human interaction, and environmental changes

On The Exam

UBB.threads PHP Forum Software Community Forums UBB.threads News and Discussion Announcements Changelog Discussions 7.7.2 Changelog Discussion

UBB.threads 7.7.2 Changelog
Version 7.7.2 includes several critical fixes when used with PHP 7.1 and newer, and fixes for MySQL 5.7 and newer. It is highly recommended that you upgrade to version 7.7.2.

UBB.threads 7.7.2 has been released and is now available to download in the Member Area.

  • Attached images can now be embedded directly in to posts.
  • Social Profiles have been added.
  • Portal News Body Image (News Block).
  • Portal and Active Topics pages now have an Expander toggle.
  • Identicons for members without avatars or anonymous users.
  • SHA1 calculations for Attached files.
  • Toggle to require HTTPS for hotlinked inlined images and avatars.
  • Lookup Services are now customizable.
  • Saved SQL Commands can now be edited.
  • New Content Transition tool for HTTP => HTTPS.
  • Improved Follow/UnFollow toggle icons.
  • Post List now shows more post details on mobiles.
  • Many updates to post_side and post_top pages.
  • Text editor will now grow to the entire size of a post
  • Banned accounts no longer display profile details to regular users.
  • URL Host for links to external URLs can now be displayed.
  • Breadcrumb not wrapping issue has been fixed.
  • New UBBT77-Dark style is now included.
  • Improved IPv4/IPv6 validation and port handling.
  • Multiple PHP 7 and MySQL 5.7+ code fixes.
  • Cleanup of several scripts, templates, CSS files, and UBB JavaScript files.

[UPDATE] Follow/UnFollow toggle icons for users, topics, forums have been updated and are now consistent across the software.
[UPDATE] Post List has been updated to show more post details on mobile layout.
[UPDATE] Active Topics has been updated to clean up its presentation and be consistent with the portal's post layout.
[UPDATE] Lots of updates to the post_side and post_top pages to reduce any code duplication and improve post presentation.
[UPDATE] Member Homepage entries now require full protocol to be entered. No more assuming the URL will be HTTP. Though, previously entered homepages without protocols will be assumed to be HTTP, and upon their first edit they will automatically be updated to such.
[UPDATE] Account Profile editor now checks if a valid formatted email address, password, and if matching confirmations of each are entered, before letting the member save changes.
[UPDATE] New User Sign-up now checks if a login name, display name, valid formatted email address, password, and if matching confirmations of each are entered, before letting the member continue to the next page.
[UPDATE] Profile Editor "Avatar (Profile Picture)" section has been updated with 1/ Radio buttons for NONE and STOCK will now automatically highlight when they are being used. 2/ If not using a system assigned avatar, you'll get the warning about removing your preferred avatar if you select it. 3/ A broken avatar image no longer displays when there is no avatar. That code bug is now squashed. 4/ Cleaned up the "browse for file" button presentation. 5/ If the forum requires https and allows remote avatars, you'll get a warning of this requirement.
[UPDATE] Post/Message Text Editor is no longer limited to a height of 730px. It will now display to the entire length of the user's post content.
[UPDATE] ShoutChat box received some minor language updates to be more user friendly.
[UPDATE] Post poll results received minor display updates.
[UPDATE] Failed login/bad password message time has been updated from 5 seconds to 8 seconds.
[UPDATE] Attachment Manager has been given a slight face-lift.
[UPDATE] Attachment Manager can now be closed by clicking outside of its window.
[UPDATE] SECURITY UPDATE: Fetch IP library has been updated to clean up any ports, comma separated lists, and perform additional IPv4/IPv6 validation & handling. In the uncommon case where a valid IP address cannot be determined, the connection will be refused with an "Invalid IP address received" notice.
[UPDATE] CP: Member Editor now displays if the account has been banned (and how long) across all tabs.
[UPDATE] CP: Member Editor now displays the bottom action tabs across all tabs.
[UPDATE] CP: All forum path settings have been moved in to a single settings pages. Master Settings > Database & Paths: Paths & URLs.
[UPDATE] CP: Allowed attachment file extensions settings have been moved to the Master Settings > Attachments page.
[UPDATE] CP: Style Editor previews have been updated to be consistent with the template updates as of 7.7.2.
[UPDATE] CP: Exporting just styles will now use just their style name. Exporting styles with their wrapper will continue to include "_with_wrapper" in their file name.
[UPDATE] CP: Many common field entries have been given an acceptable number range for content entered to them. An error message will be displayed if the entry is beyond that range, and you will be prevented from submitting your changes until it is corrected.
[UPDATE] CP: Database Tools > SQL Command page now displays saved queries exactly as they were entered, complete with new lines and multiple space/tab indentations.
[UPDATE] CP: Database Tools > Information page now displays the Database Engine and Collation used for each table.
[UPDATE] CP: When debugging is enabled, the database commands will be displayed for some pages which execute database actions.
[UPDATE] Query optimization to make use of proper indexing for large forums with over three-million posts (Big thanks to SD for tracking this and providing simple code resolutions!)
[UPDATE] Query rewrite for forums which have members who have over ninety-thousand posts. "Not having this change can bring a board to it's knees." (Another big thanks to SD for tracking this and providing simple code resolutions!)
[UPDATE] SQL Error output display is now easier to read. If the error was generated by a manual SQL Query Command within the Control Panel, the original query will be displayed exactly as you wrote it, along with the easier to read error message.
[UPDATE] Updated FontAwesome library from 5.6.3 to version 5.9.0.
[UPDATE] Updated jQuery library from 3.3.1 to version 3.4.1.
[UPDATE] Updated Lightbox from 2.10.0 to version 2.11.0.
[UPDATE] Updated TinyMCE from 4.9.2 to version 5.0.7.
[UPDATE] SQL query updates to remove excessive (unused) column requests.
[UPDATE] Cleanup of several scripts, templates, CSS files, and UBB JavaScript files.

UBB.threads PHP Forum Software Community Forums UBB.threads News and Discussion Announcements Changelog Discussions 7.7.4 Changelog Discussion

UBB.threads 7.7.4 has been released and is now available to download in the Member Area.

UBB.threads 7.7.4 Changelog
Version 7.7.4 includes several minor php 7.1+ and mysql 5.7+ code fixes, and It has been tested to be compatible with php 5.4 - php 7.4.

  • Likes system with Likes summary pages for threads and users.
  • Major updates to the UBBT77 and UBBT77-Dark forum styles.
  • Post sharing menu for Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Email.
  • Quick Search within the navigation-bar.
  • Threaded Mode topic tree updates.
  • Fixed new private message indicator.
  • Updated Member Profile page.
  • Posts can now be unapproved.
  • New user registration issues fixed.
  • RSS feed time and formatting issues fixed.
  • New sticky Control Panel breadcrumbs bar.
  • Control Panel data column sorting and zebra striping.
  • Additional information in the Member Editor.
  • Style Editor updates and fixes.
  • Improved Cache Manager.
  • Improved Database Backup.
  • Content Rebuilder is now faster.
  • Transition tool for unicode support (Asian characters and Emojis).
  • Added more friendly url formatting (SEO) to the urls.
  • Updated several libraries and assets.
  • Cleanup of templates, CSS files, and UBB JavaScript files.
  • More bug squashing and layout updates.

Summary of Changes
[NEW] UBB.threads has been tested to be compatible with php 5.4 - php 7.4.
[NEW] Posts can now be Liked. Settings are available to set how many per 24hr period, if they can like their own posts, display who else has liked the post.
[NEW] Complete Like summary page is available per thread, posts, and for each user.
[NEW] Post Likes are removed when a member account is deleted.
[NEW] Post Share drop-down menu has been added to each post. This menu includes: Copy post link to clipboard, Email Post, Report Post, Facebook, Twitter, and Reddit. It is configurable through the Control Panel > General > Social/Sharing Settings.
[NEW] Posts from Ignored Users will now be completely hidden and replaced with a link to toggle its display, for if the blocking member chooses to view it.
[NEW] The Print Thread output has been completely rewritten.
[NEW] Users can toggle password visibility for login form input.
[NEW] New Member Registration emails now display additional information of stored Member IP addresses. Using the GEO-IP lookup API, the member's country and continent are displayed in addition to the their ISP and its general location, and if their connection type was mobile or broadband.
[NEW] Quick Search within the navigation-bar will now present a drop-down entry box for easier searching.
[NEW] Topic Tree for Threaded Mode display now marks the current post, and highlights any unapproved posted within the thread.
[NEW] Follow List Editor (Forums, Threads, Users) now have "Select All" and "Unselect All" buttons for easier management.
[NEW] Posts can now be Unapproved. This is useful for when moderators want to put a post "on hold" without pausing the entire thread for everyone.
[NEW] Unapproved posts are now preceded with a notice of the post status and a link to the "CP:Approve Posts" list page. A moderator may optionally choose to edit the individual post to approve it from that page also.
[NEW] Custom Islands are now each wrapped in their own custom div ID which is based on their island number in the CP (ex: div would target Custom Island #2. They can now easily be targeted through CSS as desired.
[NEW] Upgrader will now recommend that if you are using styles from an older UBB.threads install, you should replace them with their current version. An additional step can automatically add the new style versions to your forum for you. They will be installed but they will not be active until you activate them within the forum Control Panel. You may skip and continue to the next upgrade step, but it is recommended that you update your styles, fixing any display errors which were since corrected.
[NEW] CP: Top/Breadcrumb bar is now sticky to the top.
[NEW] CP: Breadcrumbs presentation has been updated to include a link to your forum and link to your main site.
[NEW] CP: Member Editor now displays additional information of stored Member IP addresses. Using the GEO-IP lookup API, the member's country and continent are displayed in addition to the their ISP and its general location, and if their connection type was mobile or broadband.
[NEW] CP: Approving and Unapproving posts are logged to the Admin Log.
[NEW] CP: Post Likes Settings have been added (Control Panel > General), ie Enable/Disable, Display Total and Member Names, How Many Names To Display, Allow Self-Likes, Display Only Active Members on Summary, Max Likes Per 24hrs. The defaults for each configuration item are also shown.
[NEW] CP: New Portal Islands are available, "Top Likes" and "Top Likes (30 Days)."
[NEW] CP: New Portal setting, "Total Members To Show In Top Likes."
[NEW] CP: Content Rebuilder now also rebuilds Post Like Counts for when you want all user like counts to reflect their current number of likes, and not how many they have ever liked. This is relevant for when liked posts are deleted/purged.
[NEW] CP: Content Rebuilder can now help transition your forum tables for full unicode support (utf8mb4) which will allow for Asian characters and Emojis to be used. 4-Byte UTF-8 Unicode requires MySQL 5.5.3 or above. It is highly recommend to create a database backup as the process cannot be undone.
[NEW] Added Clipboard library version 2.0.6.

[UPDATE] Member Profile page has been updated to clean up and improve its data presentation.
[UPDATE] Show/Hide Column(s) toggle has been moved to the Navigation Bar.
[UPDATE] Forum Help (FAQ) has been moved to the Footer bar.
[UPDATE] Forum search has been moved to the navigation-bar top-right.
[UPDATE] Show/Hide Columns has been moved to the navigation-bar top-right.
[UPDATE] Post Buttons for "Email Post" and "Report Post" have been moved to the Post Share drop-down menu. This creates addition space for the "Like" button and improves display on thin displays, such as smaller smart phones in portrait layout.
[UPDATE] "Search Engine Agents" is now "Robots (Crawlers)." The updated terminology also helps to cover web robots used for marketing, webpage screenshots, site monitors, feed generators, link checkers, web scrapers, misc tools, page speed tests, and vulnerability/virus checkers, in addition to the expected search engines.
[UPDATE] Mailer has had several language strings updated and corrected.
[UPDATE] RSS feeds for single forums and multi-forum bundles have been updated.
[UPDATE] Gallery Islands now display the gallery title and gallery author with the image thumbnail.
[UPDATE] Moved the left/body/right columns out of HTML tables and in to DIV containers.
[UPDATE] Add more browser window information to debug info in footer.
[UPDATE] Multiple updates to common.css to further correct (reset) and define common display ground rules across the major browsers.
[UPDATE] CP: Columns within the Style List, Member Searches, Subscription Transaction List, Portal Island Column Layout, Referer Log, Admin Log are now zebra-striped, have hover-over row highlighting, and columns are now sortable.
[UPDATE] CP: "Enable Spider-friendly URLs" is now "Enable Friendly URLs" because this function generates URLs that are easy to read and include words that describe the content of the webpage, which is useful to readers beyond web spiders.
[UPDATE] CP: General Settings now displays relevant general forum information together. Items were moved from the Primary Settings page to here.
[UPDATE] CP: Cache Manager will now also: update post view counters, purge pointers to moved topics that have expired, purge inactive users from who's online table, and purge expired bans.
[UPDATE] CP: Database Backup has been updated to utilize MySQL's escape function to pre-epend backslashes where needed. Using the data provider's escape function instead of addslashes() takes into account the character set used by the current connection to the database rather than PHP's.
[UPDATE] CP: Database Backup can now analyze and optimize tables as part of the backup task.
[UPDATE] CP: Database Information and Backup will now only work with tables which use the forum's configured database prefix (ex ubbt_)
[UPDATE] CP: Content Rebuilder data blob limits have been increased to account for modern web server specifications running PHP 5.4+. This should further reduce the time needed for processing any of the rebuild actions.
[UPDATE] CP: Textarea entries, including Style Editor entries, will now have whitespace, tabs, new lines trimmed from their beginning and ends.
[UPDATE] CP: Member Manager saved queries will now have a default name if none was given to them during their creation.
[UPDATE] CP: The layout of Add New Forum & Edit Forum have been updated and now match each other.
[UPDATE] CP: Adding a new forum will now have default values populated for it.
[UPDATE] CP: Removed "Features > Max Width For Images Used In Posts" because the setting is obsolete. Since version 7.6.0, UBB.threads uses responsive layout based on the user's browser display width.
[UPDATE] CP: The display of more SQL queries (when debugging in enabled) has been added to more pages.
[UPDATE] Updated FontAwesome library from 5.10.0-11 to version 5.12.1.
[UPDATE] Updated Smarty library from 3.1.33 to version 3.1.34
[UPDATE] Updated TinyMCE from 5.0.12 to version 5.2.0.
[UPDATE] Many SQL queries within the PHP script files have been reformatted to be consistent with a modern standard. During this process, several queries were optimized and updated to support new stricter SQL versions and engine settings.
[UPDATE] Cleanup of several language strings, templates, CSS files, and all cache builder scripts.

[FIX] Long user names will now be wrapped if a space is not found within the name to wrap at.
[FIX] Category Titles now display within the breadcrumbs. This is in addition to the Forum Titles which are already displayed.
[FIX] Topic Tree for Threaded Mode display on mobile devices is fixed
[FIX] Creating a moved/merged pointer message when moving/merging threads no longer creates a bad URL pointer to its new location. (Thanks to Baldeagle for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] Custom Island Inserts appearing twice in Gallery Forums is fixed. (Thanks to ECNet for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] New User Registration "ICQ issue" where Twitter was configured as a required field would fail to add the new registration.
[FIX] Time formats used in RSS feeds now use proper ISO-8601 format rather than a timezone abbreviation.
[FIX] User posts/messages and subjects now have whitespaces (spaces, tabs, extra lines) stripped from their beginning and end.
[FIX] Additional (undesirable) trailing line breaks are now removed from post quotes, spoilers, lists, etc. Optionally rebuild your Posts, Signatures, and Private Messages with the Content Rebuilder, to update your older posts.
[FIX] Many forum generated URLs have been updated to correctly use Friendly URLs, when enabled.
[FIX] CP: Style Editor preview now updates with the CSS from within the Extra Properties section.
[FIX] CP: Style Wrapper Editor is now fixed. You can now add, delete, and edit wrappers. The wrapper preview will also remember the current style being used within the wrapper preview. Creating a new wrapper will pre-populate the editor with default opening/closing HTML.
[FIX] CP: General Display > Maximum Table Width For All Screens issues fixed.
[FIX] CP: Member Manager saved queries which include Member Groups are now fixed. (Thanks to Ruben for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] CP: Subscription Transaction status will now display "NONE" if the item does not have a default status. (Thanks to Ruben for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] CP: Dashboard fixes to correct the display of long server information items.
[FIX] CP: Adding New Forums. New forums will now correctly save selected style you've chosen for them.
[FIX] CP: Approve Posts. Clicking on the post title now takes you directly to the post requiring approval.
[FIX] CP: Fix language string substitutions from within the language files which would get lost when using the language editor. (Thanks to Ruben for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] CP: Fixed the long standing bug of the Whos Online list being empty when an additional new line (blank line) was added to the end of the Robots/Crawlers (Search Engines) list.
[FIX] CP: (PHP 7.1+) Sending an exported result list of member email addresses has been fixed. (Thanks to Ruben for reporting this bug.)
[FIX] Fixed the installer/upgrader to create a proper "extra_css" section.
[FIX] Fixed New Private Message indicator flashing when there were no new private messages to read.
[FIX] Several minor HTML fixes throughout the templates.
[FIX] Several minor php 7.1+ and mysql 5.7+ code fixes.


The introduction should contain your thesis statement or the topic of your research as well as the purpose of your study. You may include here the reason why you chose that particular topic or simply the significance of your research paper's topic. You may also state what type of approach it is that you'll be using in your paper for the entire discussion of your topic. Generally, your Introduction should orient your readers to the major points the rest of the paper will be covering, and how.

The body of your paper is where you will be presenting all your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the “Rule of 3" which states that you should find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Start with a strong argument, followed by a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument as your final point.

Watch the video: How To Change The Topic Of Conversation (May 2022).


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