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Insect Identification (even the family name would do)

Insect Identification (even the family name would do)


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I found this insect in Bhopal,Madhya Pradesh,India could you please help me identify it?? I think it is some kind of beetle. Approximately 2-3 cm in size.


You've found a specimen of Coridius janus or cucurbit stink bug or red pumpkin bug (don't mix up with the red pumpkin beetle). They betong to the suborder Heteroptera (True bugs).


(picturefrom Wikipedia)

Also see:
projectnoah.org: red pumpkin bug

nbair.res.in: Coridius janus

indiabiodiversity.org: Coridius janus


Hymenoptera

Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, [2] [3] in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. [4] Many of the species are parasitic.

Females typically have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible. The ovipositor is often modified into a stinger. The young develop through holometabolism (complete metamorphosis)—that is, they have a wormlike larval stage and an inactive pupal stage before they mature.


What is entomology

Entomology is the study of insects. More than one million different species of insect have been described to date. They are the most abundant group of animals in the world and live in almost every habitat. Insects have lived on earth for more than 350 million years. Entomology is crucial to our understanding of human disease, agriculture, evolution, ecology and biodiversity.

Entomologists are people who study insects, as a career, as amateurs or both.

The Royal Entomological Society supports entomology through its international scientific journals and other publications, scientific meetings and by providing a forum for disseminating research findings.The society also funds, organises and supports events and activities for anyone that wants to learn more about insects and entomology through its outreach and education programmes.

Why study Entomology?

1. Insects are vectors of many serious human, animal and plant diseases across the world. Understanding the biology of insects is key to understanding the diseases that they carry and spread.

2. Over half of the two million living species described in the world are insects. If you’re interested in global or loacl biodiversity then insects need to be studied.

3. Insects have been around for over 350 million years and have evolved solutions to many physical and chemical problems. Engineers are increasingly looking to insects for solutions in material science and chemistry. The more understanding we have of insects, the more we can put that understanding to use.

4. You can travel the world working on insects. Insect are found on all seven continents, even Antarctica.

5. Insects are hugely economically important in agriculture. They can be beneficial as pollinators and decomposers, or they can be detrimental as pests and vectors of plant diseases.

5. Insects are excellent models for physiological and population processes. For example, the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model species in genetic studies for years. Its short generation time, small size and the ease with which it can be reared in the laboratory makes it an ideal organism for such studies.

6. More species of insect have had their genome sequenced than any other group of multicellular organisms. Insects are an excellent model for studying the molecular basis of life.

7. Insect are everywhere. No matter where you live in the world or what language you speak, you will come into contact with insects.

Interested in studying Entomology?

We have compiled a list of UK institutions offering full and part time entomologically related courses, see here for details


Why study Entomology at WSU?

Since entomology is a specialized field of study, students at WSU have the unique advantage of small classes with ample opportunity to have one-on-one interactions with an Entomology faculty. Our students learn from entomologists who are actively involved with a wide variety of research projects. Our IPM program offers an internship program that often leads to very lucrative jobs for our graduates. Due to the close relationship our department has with various industry leaders, we are able to offer experience working in many locations and areas of interest.

Many of our students have received WSU, state, national recognition for their work, as well as those from professional organizations.


Whitefly


Photo by:
J. H. Robinson/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Whiteflies usually occur in groups on the underside of leaves. The adults of most species are similar in appearance and are shaped like tiny moths. Most are less than about 2 mm (0.08 in) long. The body is usually yellowish, but the insects look white because of a mealy wax that covers the wings and body.

Females lay tiny, oblong eggs, usually on the underside of leaves. Eggs hatch into barely visible, oblong yellowish nymphs known as crawlers. After hatching, crawlers soon pierce the host plant with their needlelike mouthparts and remain settled on the plant until adulthood. The semitransparent nymphs become flattened and oval after the first molt, or shedding of the skin. They are covered with a waxy secretion and look like tiny scale insects.

Mature nymphs become temporarily inactive during the last growth stage. This stage is commonly called a pupa, even though whiteflies have incomplete metamorphosis and do not have a true pupal stage. The appearance of these "pupae" is used to distinguish among species of whiteflies. The pupal cover varies from transparent to whitish and may be either smooth or covered with curly wax scales.

Most species of whitefly have several generations each year, with all stages present year-round on the same host plant in areas with mild winters. The time required for whiteflies to complete a single generation can vary from several months during the winter to a few weeks during summer.

Whiteflies suck the flowing sap, or phloem, of plants. High populations of these insects may cause leaves to yellow, shrivel, and drop prematurely. The excess sap or sweet honeydew excreted by nymphs collects dust, leads to growth of sooty mold, and attracts ants. Like many other species in the aphid and cicada order, whiteflies can transmit viruses to plants.

Most whiteflies are uncommon because of natural controls, such as parasitic wasps and predaceous beetles, bugs, and lacewings. The few species that are pests occur primarily in greenhouses and outdoors in mild-winter areas. The greenhouse whitefly is a common pest of many ornamental plants, especially in greenhouse environments. It is sometimes controlled by release of parasitic wasps. The sweetpotato whitefly is a serious pest of many agricultural field crops. Recent outbreaks of this species in California and Texas have caused million of dollars' worth of damage. In extreme cases, the air around infested fields may be filled with choking, dustlike clouds of adult whiteflies.

Scientific classification: Whiteflies are in the family Aleyrodidae, order Homoptera. The greenhouse whitefly is classified as Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the sweetpotato whitefly as Bemisia tabaci.


National Science Foundation - Where Discoveries Begin

Researchers are identifying the important ecological and economic contributions of bats, gleaning lessons from incredible bat abilities that may advance technology, and helping to battle a new fatal bat epidemic



October 31, 2012

The sight of bats hanging upside down in creepy caves or fleeing in fluttery flocks from their subterranean haunts at dusk like "bats out of hell" may spook even the most rational, otherwise unflappable observer.

Nevertheless, on every day (and night) but Halloween, these much maligned creatures of the night should be loved, not feared. Why? Because, contrary to popular belief, bats do not attack people bats do not tangle in people's hair and even vampire bats are not true vampires. (Vampire bats lick blood but do not suck blood.)

What's more, unbeknownst to most people, bats make important contributions to ecology, the economy and even to the search for new technologies.

Important ecological roles of bats

Bats, which live on all continents except Antarctica, are essential members of many types of ecosystems, ranging from rain forests to deserts. By fulfilling their ecological roles, bats promote biodiversity and support the health of their ecosystems.

The ecological roles of bats include pollinating and dispersing the seeds of hundreds of species of plants. For example, bats serve as major pollinators of many types of cacti that open their flowers only at night, when bats are active. In addition, bats eat copious quantities of insects and other arthropods. On a typical night, a bat consumes the equivalent of its own body weight in these creatures.

Economic value of bats

As bats fulfill their ecological roles, they provide many economically important services. For example, bats serve as essential pollinators for various types of commercially valuable crops, including bananas, mangos and guavas. In addition, bats consume many crop-eating insects and thereby reduce farmers' need for pesticides.

All told, according to a 2011 study published in Science, insect consumption by bats reduces the pesticide bill of the agriculture industry in the United States by roughly $22.9 billion per year on average. Another study, partially funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), calculated the average annual value of Brazilian free-tailed bats as pest control for cotton production in eight counties of south-central Texas at about $741,000.

Inspiration for high-tech innovations

Bats offer much to the field of biomimetics, which is the science of modeling cutting-edge technologies based on natural forms. After all, the development of sonar for ships and ultrasound was partly inspired by bat echolocation. Echolocation is the navigation system used by most bats to find and follow their quick-moving insect prey at night, sometimes via daring aerial dogfights and speedy chases--all without crashing into trees, buildings or other obstructions.

Here's how bat echolocation works: A bat emits a structured high-frequency sound, usually beyond the range of human hearing, which bounces off surrounding objects and then returns echoes to the bat. By comparing the delay and structure of the echoes to those of the original sound, a bat can calculate its own distance from the objects and determine the size and shape of those objects and thereby construct a 3-D map of its environment.

Even though a bat's brain is only peanut-sized, bat echolocation is so sensitive that a bat flying 25 miles per hour in complete darkness would recognize differences in echo delays of less than a microsecond, allowing the bat to distinguish even a junebug from an underlying leaf, according to "Universal Sense: How Hearing Shapes the Mind," which was authored by neuroscientist Seth S. Horowitz, whose earlier work was funded by NSF.

How do bats stay focused on sonar echoes from their target prey without being overwhelmed by the cacophony of echoes from other objects? That question is answered by an NSF video about recent research on bat echolocation.

Another bat trait that provides potential grist for future application is the flying ability of bats, which are the only mammals that can fly on their own power. The aerodynamic repertoire of bats, which includes changing flight direction by turning 180 degrees within just three wing beats while flying at full tilt, would be the envy of any fighter pilot, said Horowitz.

Bats are such nimble flyers because of the dexterity of their wings, which--unlike insect and bird wings--are structured to fold during flight, similar to the way that a human hand folds. Also, their wings are draped by stretchy skin and are powered by special muscles. Ongoing research about the structure of bat wings and the mechanics of bat flight may ultimately lead to the development of technologies that improve the maneuverability of airplanes.

See the wonders of bat flight in a Science Nation video that describes an NSF-funded project.

A new, fast-spreading bat epidemic

The multifaceted importance of bats only compounds the tragic dimensions of a new fatal epidemic in bats known as white-nose syndrome. The disease, which is named for a fungal growth around the muzzles, wings and other body parts of hibernating bats, was first discovered in the U.S. during the winter of 2006-2007 in a popular tourist cave in upstate New York.

Since then, the continually spreading disease, which has reached the central U.S. and Canada, has killed more than 5 million bats, including up to 95 percent of some bat species in some locations. Scientists believe that white-nose syndrome--which is currently incurable, untreatable and unstoppable--will inevitably drive some bat species to extinction. The disease is similar to a fungal epidemic that is ravaging frog populations in the U.S.

The white-nose fungus causes skin lesions on the wings of hibernating bats, which may damage the animals' hydration, electrolyte balance, circulation and temperature regulation, ultimately causing death by starvation and dehydration. Behavioral changes in infected bats include a failure to wake normally in response to disturbances and premature emergence from hibernation.

The white-nose fungus is known to have existed in bats in Europe before its arrival in the U.S.. But, as far as scientists know, the fungus does not kill European bats, possibly because European bats species are genetically protected from the disease. Because the presence of the disease-causing fungus in Europe predates its arrival in the U.S., and because the fungus was first found in the U.S. in a tourist cave, scientists suspect that the disease was imported to the U.S. from Europe, perhaps on the clothing or equipment of traveling cavers.

Differences in susceptibility

White-nose syndrome is currently known to affect six North American bat species--two of which are less susceptible to the disease than the four others. With NSF funding, Marm Kilpatrick of the University of California, Santa Cruz, Kate Langwig of the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Boston University and their colleagues are currently working to identify the reasons for these differences in susceptibility.

So far, a recent study led by Langwig showed that social behavior may influence mortality rates. Specifically, the study indicates that as the size of infected colonies shrinks because of deaths from white-nose fungus, death rates within colonies of species that hibernate singly tend to stabilize. By contrast, death rates within colonies of species that hibernate in tightly packed groups do not.

Amazingly, the research also has shown that the little brown bat, a species common in the northeast of North America and widely affected by white-nose syndrome, has been--for unknown reasons--becoming less gregarious, going from a species that tended to hibernate in dense clusters to one that now tends to hibernate singly. By changing their behavior, these bats may be reducing disease transmission within their colonies and thereby saving themselves from extinction. By contrast, the Indiana bat, a gregarious species that is listed as endangered, is continuing to hibernate in dense clusters and will therefore probably go extinct.

"Our research gives us an indication of which species face the highest likelihood of extinction, so we can focus management efforts and resources on protecting those species," said Langwig. For example, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is incorporating Langwig's study results about little brown bats into ongoing deliberations about whether to classify the species as endangered.

Kilpatrick and Langwig are currently researching other factors, in addition to social behavior, that may influence disease susceptibility. One possibility, Kilpatrick says, is that some bat species are less susceptible to white-nose syndrome because their skin hosts bacterial communities that have anti-fungal properties and so protect them from the white-nose fungus.

In addition, Kilpatrick is currently investigating whether and how particular microclimates in caves and mines used by hibernating bats may be affecting the spread of white-nose syndrome. "Some bat species or some individual bats may prefer to hibernate in caves or mines that are relatively hot or cold, or wet or dry," Kilpatrick said. "We want to know whether such environmental conditions impact susceptibility to white-nose syndrome."

Impacts of bat losses

Other topics that are ripe for research involve the responses of ecosystems to plummeting bat populations. "Insect populations are very variable," said Langwig. "So in order to identify the impacts of bat declines on insect populations, we would need many years of data on insect populations before the arrival of white-nose syndrome, as well as many years of data after its arrival for comparison." But because white-nose syndrome is so new and has spread so fast, scientists do not yet have enough data to determine how the absence of bats will impact their ecosystems, she said.

Other threats to bat survival besides white-nose syndrome

Other threats to bat survival include the use of pesticides and insecticides, habitat loss and the hunting of bats for bushmeat in some regions. In addition, for reasons that are not fully understood, migrating bats are apparently attracted to wind turbines large numbers of bats have been killed on wind farms in recent years.

More bat facts

Learn more about bats from a Halloween chat with Horowitz sponsored by The Washington Post.

-- Lily Whiteman, National Science Foundation (703) 292-8310 [email protected]


Top gun: With their unique wing structure and echolocation abilities, bats are aerodynamic acrobats.
Credit and Larger Version

A vampire bat is not a true vampire.
Credit and Larger Version

The night comes alive: This flowering plant opens explosively at night to be pollinated by bats.
Credit and Larger Version

A bat in the hand is worth. A little brown bat and a University of California graduate student.
Credit and Larger Version

Hanging out: Hibernating bats that have white-nose syndrome.
Credit and Larger Version

Adaptations in action: A nectar-feeding bat with a long tongue.
Credit and Larger Version

What bats teach us about ourselves
Credit and Larger Version

Investigators
Thomas Kunz
Kate Langwig
James Simmons
Seth Horowitz
Gary McCracken
Jeffrey Foster
Winifred Frick
A. Marm Kilpatrick

Related Institutions/Organizations
Brown University
Trustees of Boston University

Total Grants
$895,322

Related Websites
Science Nation Video Butterflies and Bats Reveal Clues About Spread of Infectious Disease: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/science_nation/butterfliesbats.jsp


Top gun: With their unique wing structure and echolocation abilities, bats are aerodynamic acrobats.
Credit and Larger Version

A vampire bat is not a true vampire.
Credit and Larger Version

The night comes alive: This flowering plant opens explosively at night to be pollinated by bats.
Credit and Larger Version

A bat in the hand is worth. A little brown bat and a University of California graduate student.
Credit and Larger Version

Hanging out: Hibernating bats that have white-nose syndrome.
Credit and Larger Version

Adaptations in action: A nectar-feeding bat with a long tongue.
Credit and Larger Version


Insect Identification (even the family name would do) - Biology

How to Make an Awesome Insect Collection

A Beginner's Guide to Finding, Collecting, Mounting,
Identifying, and Displaying Insects

Authors: Timothy J. Gibb and Christian Y. Oseto


In spite of their small size, insects are among the most interesting and adaptable creatures on planet Earth. Each is distinct in appearance and has a behavior that, when studied, is truly fascinating. Insects are as plentiful as they are diverse. An enthusiastic insect collector will find no end to the number of treasures hidden in fields and woods, along the shores of lakes and streams, in soils or leaf litter, and in a myriad of other places. In fact, insects are so universally present that they can be found nearly everywhere, any time of the day or night, and even during the winter months, if one knows how and where to search for them.

Making an insect collection is the best way to get to know the insects. This book teaches all that a beginning student needs to know about how to find, collect, identify, preserve and display insects. Dispatching, pinning, spreading, and mounting specimens are all part of this process.

To order this book from The Education Store click here.

To order the Mobile Flash Insect Quiz Cards: Interactive PDF click here.

Purdue Extension Entomology, 901 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA, (765) 494-4554


Differences between sawfly larvae and butterfly and moth caterpillars

Sawfly larvae are more commonly seen than adult sawflies. They look similar to butterfly and moth caterpillars. They differ from each other in the number of prolegs—the fleshy, leg-like projections on the abdomen.

  • Caterpillars have two to five pairs of prolegs on the abdomen.
  • Sawflies have six pairs of prolegs or more.
  • The prolegs on slug sawflies are small and may be overlooked.
  • Sawfly larvae are smooth with little or no hair and are no more than one inch long when fully grown.
  • Moth and butterfly caterpillars can be smooth, hairy or spiny, and vary in size when mature. They may often be larger than one inch long.

Management

Control is not necessary on established mature trees.

Insecticides are ineffective for significantly reducing cicada abundance and damage. Insecticides also pose a risk to people, pets, beneficial insects, and birds.

If you intend to plant trees or shrubs in a year when periodical cicadas emerge, consider delaying planting until fall when the cicadas are gone.

Small ornamental trees, shrubs, and fruit trees may be protected by covering them with insect netting sold in garden centers, nurseries, and online. It was observed in 2004 that insect netting with openings ranging from 1/4-in. to 3/8-in. (0.6-cm. to 1.0 cm.) prevented injury to small trees. Bird netting openings are too large to exclude cicadas. Tulle and other breathable fabrics are available that can be draped over small or newly planted trees and shrubs and held to the ground with rocks, bricks, or landscape pins or secured to the base of the trunk to prevent cicadas and wildlife from becoming trapped. The plants should be protected from the time cicadas emerge until they are gone 6-8 weeks later. If left on too long, barriers may physically impede new foliage/stem growth, reduce air circulation (which can promote fungal infection), and shade leaves which will later become sunburned when their full-sun exposure is resumed. Barriers may also prevent pollination, depending on plant flowering times.

Shrubs are rarely harmed. Any visible injury can be easily trimmed away later.

Cicadas do not target herbaceous plants (annuals and perennials, including vegetables and herbs) for feeding or egg-laying. They may climb onto them for support, but won't harm them.

Organic mulches spread around garden and landscape plants, up to a 3-in. depth, will not interfere with the cicada lifecycle. Prop up or remove any items in your yard that cicadas might fall on.

Ornamental ponds should be covered with screening or plastic mesh to prevent cicadas from accumulating. Large numbers of decomposing cicadas could cause problems with oxygen depletion in the water.

Clean pool skimmers/filters frequently during cicada emergence to keep them from getting clogged.


X. Encouraging Beneficial Insects

Take advantage of biological management in a garden by encouraging natural predators such as praying mantids, lady beetles, lacewings, and ground beetles. Increase their populations by providing shelter, food, moisture, and overwintering sites. Some beneficial insect suppliers offer a formulation for feeding and attracting the beneficials to keep them in the garden longer.

Learn to recognize the eggs and larvae of the beneficial insects, and avoid harming them. Praying mantid egg cases are often found in weedy lots. Carry the twig with the cluster attached into the garden and set it in a place where it will not be disturbed. Learn to recognize parasites and their egg cases. For example, the tomato hornworm often has a number of white cocoons, a little larger than grains of rice, on its back. These are from a parasitic wasp. The hornworm will die, and more wasps will emerge. Obviously, it is to a gardener&rsquos advantage to leave that caterpillar in the garden.

Another possibility is to increase the type and number of plants in a landscape that will attract beneficial insects. Search for beneficial insects in the NC State Plant Database. Most composite and umbel plants attract beneficial insects by providing nectar and pollen that prolong the insect's life. Cosmos and marigolds attract a few beneficial insects, and tansy attracts large numbers. Best results come from planting the attractant plants on the edges of the area instead of interplanting them in the garden.

Insecticides often kill beneficial insects. A selective insecticide has less adverse effect than a broad­spectrum insecticide. Stomach poison insecticides are less likely to harm beneficial insects. Apply insecticides at dusk, as this is the time when most beneficial insects are done foraging for nectar or pollen.

Table 4&ndash5. Plants that attract beneficial insects.

Plant Insects
Black locust Lady beetles
Caraway Lacewings, hover flies, insidious flower bugs, spiders, parasitic wasps
Common knotweed Big-eyed bugs, hover flies, parasitic wasps, soft-winged flower beetles
Cowpea Parasitic wasps
Crimson clover Minute pirate bugs, big-eyed bugs, lady beetles
Flowering buckwheat Hover flies, minute pirate bugs, predatory wasps, tachinid flies, lacewings, lady beetles
Hairy vetch Lady beetles, minute pirate bugs, predatory wasps
Queen Anne's lace Lacewings, predatory wasps, minute pirate bugs, tachinid flies
Spearmint Predatory wasps
Sweet alyssum Tachinid flies, hover flies, chalcids, wasps
Subterranean clover Big-eyed bugs
Sweet fennel Parasitic wasps, predatory wasps
Tansy Parasitic wasps, lady beetles, insidious flower bugs, lacewings
White sweet clover Tachinid flies, bees, predatory flies
Wild buckwheat Hover flies, minute pirate bugs, tachinid flies
Yarrow Lady beetles, parasitic wasps, bees
a Other plants that attract a variety of beneficial insects include sage, wallflower, salvia, nasturtium, poppy, zinnia, dill, anise, fennel, coriander, parsley, marigold, aster, daisy, coneflower, bee balm, basil, oregano, mint, cosmos, lovage, wild mustard, and canola.


Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants Entomology Insect Notes

Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. Although many scale species from many families can be pests of ornamental plants the primary families are armored scales (Diaspididae), soft scales (Coccidae), and felt scales (Eriococcidae). The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of each group can be different. Armored and soft scales live beneath waxy covers that protect them from predators, parasitoids, and pesticides. Armored scales live beneath a waxy cover that is not attached to the adult body. Thus the cover can be removed to reveal the scale insect hidden below. Armored scales typically do not move once they begin to feed and do not produce honeydew. In contrast, soft scales secrete a waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from their body. Soft scales also excrete sugary honeydew and may move from branches to leaves during their life cycle. Black sooty mold fungus often grows on this honeydew. Felt scales have waxy filaments and resemble mealybugs.

Armored scales are typically small and inconspicuous. The protective covers often blend well with plant bark so populations may become very large before being detected or a plant shows noticeable damage. Therefore, scouting to detect populations early is especially important on plant species that are frequently infested by armored scale. Armored scale damages plants by extracting plant fluids. This can reduce plant growth and vigor. Common symptoms of infestation include premature leaf drop and branch dieback (Figure 1). Infestations are common on trees stressed by physical damage, drought, temperature, or improper planting. Heavy infestations might kill a tree or shrub.

The goal of this page is to present information common to many scale species and help identify common scales. For more information on these species use links to their individual pages. For information on other armored scales search the Extension Resource Catalogue.

Figure 1. Euonymus bush infested with euonymus scale showing, yellowing, leaf drop, and branch dieback.