How can an infection of lower respiratory tract lead to a skin infection?

How can an infection of lower respiratory tract lead to a skin infection?

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I am interested in the multifactorial process about infectious diseases of the lower respiratory system and their progression to a skin infection. Possible agens are zwitterions, viruses, fungi, amoebas, bacteria and/or parasites.


Small protein segments, much unknown but their importance is much greater than known.


Parvovirus B19

  • Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a few days and then disappears. Then maculopapular rash appears on the trunk, buttocks and extremities. It soon fades from the trunk but persists on the thights and forearms. Two children have also had a slight fever and a sore throat, but all were not terribly sick. What is the genetic material of the most likely causative agent?
  • It is a skin infection. Not so severe. Little upper respiratory infection but not necessary caused by the agent. Infects many so spread probably by respiratory droplets. **But how a respiratory infection can lead to a skin infection?*





One might argue that since replication takes place in erythroblasts (Brown, Anderson, & Young, 1993), that it's not actually a respiratory infection either. Fluids are simply more hospitable to the virus and more transmissible.

As for the rash, perhaps it is because the P antigen receptor that erythrovirus uses to infect erythroblasts is also expressed on endothelial cells, like those in skin (and alveolar) capillaries .

What to Know About Lung Infections

Sanja Jelic, MD, is board-certified in sleep medicine, critical care medicine, pulmonary disease, and internal medicine.

Many people are familiar with the symptoms of lung infections, such as an annoying cough and fever, but there are many different types of these infections. Lung infections can be caused by different microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or fungi) and affect different regions of the lungs and airways.

Learn about the risk factors for lung infections, the different types that occur, and how they are treated.

Jackyenjoyphotography / Getty Images

The Blood

The body also defends against infection by increasing the number of certain types of white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes), which engulf and destroy invading microorganisms. The increase can occur within several hours, largely because white blood cells are released from the bone marrow, where they are made. The number of neutrophils increases first. If an infection persists, the number of monocytes increases. The blood carries white blood cells to sites of infection.

The number of eosinophils, another type of white blood cell, increases in allergic reactions and many parasitic infections, but usually not in bacterial infections.

However, certain infections, such as typhoid fever, viral infections, and bacterial infections that overwhelm the immune system, can lead to a decrease in the white blood cell count.

Risk Factors for Infection in Patients with Tracheostomy

There is a high susceptibility for infection in patients with tracheostomy due to the loss of function of the upper airway. With an inflated cuff, there is a loss of airflow through the upper airway. Some of the functions of the upper airway include condition of inspired air to body temperature and 100% relative humidity. Tracheostomy can lead to pathological changes of the lower airways, including damage to the ciliated tracheal mucosa, thickening of airway secretions, and the loss of mucociliary transport. Repeated cleaning and suctioning of the lower airway/the trachea is necessary, which results in significant patient discomfort and increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infection and airway obstruction. Other complications of the tracheostomy that may increase the risk of infection is that the patient may have poor secretion management and an increased risk of aspiration.

Fagon et al. suggested that the incidence of VAP increases by 1% per day of invasive mechanical ventilation. Risk factors associated with bacterial colonization include residing in a medical care home and the presence of a cuff (Lepainteur, M, 2019). The presence of a cuff has also been associated with increased respiratory infections (Hernandez, 2012). Respiratory secretions pool around the cuff of the tracheostomy tube and will gradually leak past the cuff down into the lungs. Gastric contents, heavily colonised with Gram-negative organisms may also be aspirated into the lungs. The cuff also reduces the ability for the patient to effectively clear secretions above the cuff.

Other general risks include poor overall health and oral hygiene.

  • Patients in healthcare who have underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, cancer, and organ transplantation are at increased risk for infection because often these illnesses decrease the immune system’s ability to fight infection.
  • Certain medications used to treat medical conditions, such as antibiotics, steroids, and certain cancer fighting medications increase the risk of some types of infections.
  • Lifesaving medical treatments and procedures used in healthcare such as urinary catheters, tubes, and surgery increase the risk of infection by providing additional ways that germs can enter the body. The tracheostomy tube may be a conduit for germs through the open tracheostomy tube.
  • Poor oral care is associated with infection from aspiration of bacteria in the oral cavity.

Bloating home remedies: Bloating can lead to several discomforts as well as pain. Here are some home remedies that can help you get rid of bloating soon!

This one is definitely the best home remedy for respiratory tract infections. All you need to do is boil one litre of water and add a piece of camphor to it. Now inhale this steam for 10 to 15 minutes. It will help in clearing blocked respiratory tracts by melting mucus membranes. It is a natural treatment for nasal congestion which relieves and lubricates your respiratory tract. However, it is not recommended for kids, pregnant women or any person with high blood pressure.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections : Try steam therapy
Photo Credit: iStock

2. Salt water gargle

Gargling every morning with warm salt water can be beneficial for your respiratory tract. It is an effective home remedy for relieving an irritated nose and throat. It helps in thinning the mucus, thereby making it easier for you to expel it. All you need to do is take a glass of lukewarm water and add one teaspoon of salt to it. Now dissolve the salt in this and gargle with this every morning. You could also try preparing this solution, putting it into your nostrils and passing it through your nose every day to clear the nasal passages.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections : Salt water gargle can be helpful
Photo Credit: iStock

You name the ailment and ginger is the solution. And for respiratory problems, it is one of the most effective home remedies. Antiviral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of ginger effectively fight the root cause of the respiratory tract infection. You can chew a few slices of ginger every day with some salt. You could also drink ginger tea by boiling a few slices of ginger in water.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections : Drink ginger tea
Photo Credit: iStock

Kids who are suffering from a respiratory tract infection can get relief by consuming honey. Steam therapy is not recommended for such kids but honey's antibacterial properties can help in killing the infection-causing bacteria. You can give honey to your kids in many ways. Add a lemon's juice to a glass of warm water with some honey and give them this drink twice or thrice a day. You could also give them two spoons of honey in a glass of milk for the same effect.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections : Give your kids some honey with milk
Photo Credit: iStock

Take some early morning sunlight for relief. Sometimes, a vitamin D deficiency could also lead to such infections. Sit in the sun for a few minutes to get enough vitamin D. Just be sure to sit in the early morning sunlight as it is not as strong and harsh as the rest of the day. You may even take vitamin D supplements but only when your doctor recommends it to you.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections : Sit in the early morning sun
Photo Credit: iStock

6. Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus could also help in providing relief. Boil a few eucalyptus leaves in some water and inhale its steam. You could also try sniffing some eucalyptus oil for clearing nasal congestion.

Home remedies for respiratory tract infections: Try eucalyptus oil for relief
Photo Credit: iStock

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Differential diagnosis

  • General points:
    • Few tests are particularly useful or required.
    • The most useful tests give quick and meaningful results.
    • White cell count is often elevated. Although this may be very noteworthy in certain infections (like pneumococcal pneumonia), it is useful only as a general guide to the presence of infection.
    • It is important in very ill children who may be immunocompromised.
    • Rarely indicated or of help in general practice.
    • Blood cultures are seldom positive in pneumonia (fewer than 10% are bacteraemic in pneumococcal disease).
    • Blood and sputum cultures should generally be reserved for atypical or very ill patients (particularly those who may be immunocompromised).
    • CXR is not routinely indicated in outpatient management.
    • CXR cannot differentiate reliably between bacterial and viral infections.
    • Tuberculin skin testing if tuberculosis is suspected.
    • Cold agglutinins when mycoplasmal infection is suspected (but only 50% sensitive and specific).
    • Urine latex agglutination tests may ultimately diagnose certain organisms but the tests take time and are rarely of use acutely.
    • Drainage and culture of pleural effusions may relieve symptoms and identify the infection.

    Although pulse oximetry and blood CRP may be useful to assess whether a child presenting with a cough may have a serious LRTI, there is no strong evidence for these or any other specific indicators having a significant influence on prognosis in children with acute cough and respiratory tract infection in primary care [6] .

    What are the signs of an upper respiratory infection?

    An upper respiratory infection affects the nasal passages and throat. The treatment is usually simple unless the person also has a chronic respiratory condition, such as asthma.

    An upper respiratory infection (URI) occurs when a virus or bacteria enters the body, usually through the mouth or nose. The infection may pass to another person through touch or a sneeze or cough.

    Enclosed spaces where people gather, such as classrooms, offices, and homes, can be high-risk areas for the spread of URIs.

    Typically, a URI lasts 7–10 days , and sometimes up to three weeks. In some cases, these infections develop into more serious issues, such as sinus infections or pneumonia.

    In this article, we explore ways to identify a URI, the possible causes, and the available treatments.

    A URI is an infection of the upper air passages. These include :

    • the larynx, the muscular organ containing the vocal cords
    • the nasal cavity, the space above and behind the nose
    • the nasal passages, or the nostrils
    • the pharynx, the cavity behind the nose and mouth

    Adults tend to get between two and three URIs per year. Children, especially young children, may have more of these infections because their immune systems are still developing.

    Also, children who spend lots of time around other kids may be more prone to these infections because children are less likely than adults to wash their hands after sneezing or wipe their noses when they need to.

    A person may be more likely to develop a URI during “cold season,” in the fall and winter.

    While different types of URI can cause different symptoms, some common symptoms include:

    • coughing
    • discomfort in the nasal passages
    • a mild fever
    • excess mucus
    • nasal congestion
    • pain or pressure within the face
    • a runny nose
    • a scratchy or sore throat
    • sneezing

    Other symptoms can include:

    Types of URI

    There are several types, and doctors classify them according to the part of the respiratory tract that they mainly affect. Types of URI include:

    The common cold

    Many viruses can cause a cold. Symptoms may include:

    • a blocked or runny nose
    • a sore throat
    • headaches
    • muscle aches
    • coughing and sneezing
    • changes in taste and smell
    • a fever
    • pressure in the ears and face

    The symptoms usually go away with home treatment after 1–2 weeks.

    Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses, and it may stem from an infection in another part of the respiratory system.

    The inflammation can lead to increased mucus production and blocked sinuses, due to difficulty draining.

    Some symptoms of sinusitis are:

    • pain around the eyes, cheeks, or forehead
    • sinus pressure and tenderness
    • nasal discharge
    • a blocked nose
    • a reduced sense of smell
    • a fever
    • bad breath

    The symptoms usually last 2–3 weeks and resolve without treatment.

    This is inflammation of the vocal cords, or larynx.

    • a hoarse voice or loss of voice
    • a persistent cough and irritation in the throat
    • a sore throat

    The symptoms usually disappear after 1–2 weeks.


    Pharyngitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the pharynx, or back of the throat. It often occurs with URIs.

    Upper Respiratory Infection Symptoms

    • Runny, stuffy nose
    • Sneezing
    • Itchy, watery eyes
    • Sore throat
    • Cough
    • Muscle pain or weakness
    • Fatigue
    • Headache

    Fever is a rare symptom of the common cold in adults but may be more likely in children.

    Symptoms of an upper respiratory infection can last up to two weeks but usually peak at around three days and are gone within seven. Upper respiratory infections should clear up on their own without needing interventions from your doctor.

    But complications of colds can occur, including:

    • Sinusitis: An infection in your sinuses causing pain and congestion
    • Otitis media: An ear infection causing pain
    • Pharyngitis: A sore throat, which might be strep throat
    • Epiglottitis: An infection and resulting swelling of the epiglottis, a flap of tissue that covers your windpipe, which can interfere with breathing
    • Laryngotracheitis: Infection of the larynx (which holds the vocal cords), trachea, or bronchi

    Some of these complications may require treatment with antibiotics.

    Port d'Entrée for Respiratory Infections - Does the Influenza A Virus Pave the Way for Bacteria?

    Bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract are life-threatening and present a global burden to the global community. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes are frequent colonizers of the upper respiratory tract. Imbalances through acquisition of seasonal viruses, e.g., Influenza A virus, can lead to bacterial dissemination to the lower respiratory tract, which in turn can result in severe pneumonia. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract and focus on potential experimental models suitable for mimicking this disease. Transmission of IAV and pneumonia is mainly modeled by mouse infection. Few studies utilizing ferrets, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and non-human primates are also available. The knowledge gained from these studies led to important discoveries and advances in understanding these infectious diseases. Nevertheless, mouse and other infection models have limitations, especially in translation of the discoveries to humans. Here, we suggest the use of human engineered lung tissue, human ex vivo lung tissue, and porcine models to study respiratory co-infections, which might contribute to a greater translation of the results to humans and improve both, animal and human health.

    Keywords: Gram-positive bacteria Influenza A virus Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenes animal models co-infections pneumonia.


    Potential models to study bacterial…

    Potential models to study bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract. S.…

    The interplay between IAV, bacteria,…

    The interplay between IAV, bacteria, and the human host. The epithelial damage due…

    Respiratory infections (also called respiratory illnesses) are common. These infections affect your lungs, nose, sinuses, and throat, especially when you have asthma. They can cause a runny nose, cough, fever, or sore throat. Respiratory infections are a main asthma trigger and can cause severe symptoms (an asthma episode or attack).
    Common respiratory infections include:

    You can have more than one respiratory infection at the same time.

    Respiratory illnesses are a common asthma trigger, especially in children.

    What Do I Do If I Have a Respiratory Illness?

    • Talk with your doctor about your symptoms. Ask if you can take over-the-counter medicines to reduce some of your symptoms. Be sure your Asthma Action Plan tells you what to do if you get sick. If it doesn’t, call your doctor to ask if you should change how you take your prescribed asthma medicine while you are sick. If you get symptoms of flu or COVID-19, or any symptoms that concern you, contact your doctor right away.
    • Keep your quick-relief asthma medicine with you at all times to treat asthma symptoms.
    • Call 911 immediately if you have any of these danger signs:
      • Trouble walking or talking due to shortness of breath
      • Blue or gray lips, fingertips or fingernails on light skin tones − the inside of the mouth or gums may be blue or purple on darker skin tones, or fingertips and hands may be whiteish gray (ashen)
      • Fast breathing with chest retractions (when skin sucks in between or around the chest plate and/or rib bones when inhaling)

      How Can I Prevent Respiratory Infections?

      Infections like the flu are a major cause of asthma episodes or attacks. And according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), people with asthma are at higher risk for developing serious complications (like pneumonia) from the flu. Follow these steps to protect yourself and your loved ones from respiratory infections:

      • Wash your hands often with soap and warm water for 20 seconds, especially after touching frequently used surfaces like doorknobs.
      • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth.
      • Get a yearly flu shot.
      • Talk with your doctor about getting the pneumococcal [noo-muh-KOK-uhl] shot. You should only need the shot once and a booster as needed.
      • Stay away from people who are sick. If you have symptoms, stay home.
      • Keep your breathing equipment clean. This includes your asthma inhaler, nebulizer and nebulizer tubing, and mouthpiece.
      • Do not share your breathing equipment or medicines with others.

      While COVID-19 is spreading, also follow these steps:

      • Stay at least 6 feet (2 meters) from other people.
      • Avoid large crowds.
      • Wear a face mask or covering.
      • Travel only if necessary.

      It’s important to always keep your asthma under control. It is very important when you’re sick. If your asthma is well-controlled when you get sick, you reduce your chances of having an asthma attack, having complications, or being hospitalized.

      What Is a Complication?

      A complication is another illness or health problem that is caused by certain illnesses or is more likely to happen when you get a certain illness. For example, you are more likely to get pneumonia – a respiratory infection – when you have the flu.

      Respiratory Illness Resource Center

      Protect Yourself From Respiratory Infections: People with asthma and their caregivers need to know about respiratory infections. They are a major cause of asthma symptoms and attacks. And some illnesses can lead to other serious conditions, like pneumonia. This blog post talks about four common infections, such as the flu, COVID-19, pneumococcal disease, and the common cold.

      Coronavirus (COVID-19): What People With Asthma Need to Know: This blog post gives general information on COVID-19. It helps people with asthma understand risk, prevention, and what to do if you catch it.

      What People With Asthma Need to Know About Face Masks During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Face masks are an important part of protecting ourselves and others against COVID-19. But can people with asthma wear face masks? What are the best options for people with asthma, especially if your job requires them? This blog post addresses many of the questions you may have about asthma and face masks.

      Cleaning Your Hands With Soap and Hand Sanitizer: What Is Best to Protect Yourself From COVID-19 and Other Illnesses?: Keeping your hands clean is one of the easiest ways to reduce the spread of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. It can also help help protect you from colds, flu, and other respiratory infections. Learn the right way to clean your hands with soap and water or hand sanitizer to help reduce the spread of the coronavirus.

      4 Things You Must Know About the Flu If You Have Asthma: People with asthma are at high risk of having serious complications from the flu. Learn how to protect yourself and what to do if you do catch it.

      Flu Facts: Flu Vaccine and Asthma: This blog post answers many of the most common questions people with asthma have about the flu vaccine. Get the facts on why the flu vaccine is the best way to protect yourself from the influenza virus.


  1. Gabar

    Strangely like that

  2. Curtis

    You are absolutely right. There's something about that, and I think it's a great idea.

  3. Ruhdugeard

    Attempt not torture.

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