How do legs of tiny insects/spiders like mosquito/Opiliones work?

How do legs of tiny insects/spiders like mosquito/Opiliones work?

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I think I understand how legs of humans work. We have bones to which muscles are attached. Muscles can only contract / relax. By the combination of many different muscles we can make complex movements:

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Arthropods use basically the same system to operate their legs. Yes their legs are tiny, but so are their muscles.(Is it so hard to imagine everything is downscaled? Their digestive system is also much smaller, but they don't need to eat the same amount as we do either… ) In general it's just a kind of smaller-sized mechanism that is based on the same principles: use a muscle to create tension over a joint, and so move the appendages. The big difference is off course that in mammals the muscles work against an internal skeleton, and in arthropods the muscles attach to the inner surface of an external skeleton.

Well the subject of how insects move their limbs is a bit more complicated than suggested by Kasper.

Insects do have flexors and extensors muscles to move their legs. But there are other options too.

Spider legs work by hydraulic fluid. The spider has flexor… but extension is done by pumping hemolymph into the leg.

Also it has been discovered that certain movements of insect legs is due to the chitin skeleton flexing and join structure. ie energy is stored in the chitin, and the structure of the joint cause the legs to return to the rest position.

Small Biting Insect might be Thrips

Subject: Biting Bugs
Location: Cedar Rapids, Iowa
August 8, 2012 12:38 pm
I live in Iowa and I was just outside(it rained earlier today) and I kept feeling little bites all over my hands and arms. At first I couldn’t see anything but if I looked very close I saw a TINY, no bigger than a dot of a pen, orange bug possibly a little blackish brown on it’s bottom with 6(?)legs crawling on me. And there wasn’t just one, they were everywhere and they all were bitting me. I didn’t sit in the grass or touch anything so I have no idea how they got on me or if they even came from the outside. Help!
Signature: Melissa

Hi Melissa,
Based on your detailed description, we believe you might have had an encounter with insects from the order Thysanoptera, commonly called Thrips. There is not enough detail in your photograph for any definitive identification, but the photograph does support our supposition. According to BugGuide, Thrips are small: 𔄘.5-14 mm (typically 1-2 mm, NA species under 5 mm)” and they are described as: “Some are wingless where present, the wings are narrow with few or no veins and fringed with long hairs. Mouthparts asymmetrical (no right mandible), suitable for piercing and sucking. Antennae relatively short, 4- to 9-segmented tarsi 1-2-segmented, with 1-2 claws and are bladder-like at the end.” This is the BugGuide statement that supports our identification: “Thrips can often be found on flowers, they are especially visible on light colored flowers like daisies. Be aware that though they are very tiny, they can give a slightly painful bite.”

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22 Responses to Small Biting Insect might be Thrips

Yes these are the thrips larvae and boy do they hurt! They are attracted to light/bright colored clothing. I was attacked by these little boogers tonight at my son’s baseball game. I’m the team mom and was in charge of taking care of both team’s scores/runs/outs etc, and I was being attacked by them. Trying to swat these things and pay attention to the game was extremely difficult! LOL
It is almost 5am now, and I have been up all night trying to figure out what these things were.

In my research, I have found that:
1.) Peppermint/spearmint type of oils are a deterrent for these bugs. (At least it smells good!)
2.) Off or other sprays AREN’T effective and seem to attract them. (Stuff stinks anyway LOL)
3.) They are attracted to light/bright colored clothing (Great…I’m a girl and love light/bright colors)
4.) Often are found near weeds, bright colored flowers, and wood (Ughh)
5.) If they are near your home, they can get through your screens and invade your home. (ACKKK. )
6.) Lady Bugs don’t like them and kill/eat them (Lady Bugs are cool anyway!)
7.) Often found on the underside of leaves in your garden…and if found you can spray a heavy stream of your water hose for several straight minutes to get them off (drown them boogers!)

That’s what I’ve learned so far in the past 12 hours of research…other than the fact that I am tired.
Hope this helps!

Thanks for all the helpful information. It is easy to see how twelve hours of time can be consumed doing internet research, but if we did that with each request, we would only be able to post a few inquiries per week, so our editorial staff is very grateful for your dedication as well as your thoughtfulness in reporting your findings.

What I have been dealing with is after a rain if I go outside no matter what I wear I have been getting bit like crazy but not my husband,so I went out and let them bite me so that I could prove it to him.
I brought out a piece of tape with me and caught some to tape on white paper,I got a magnifying glass To prove I was getting ate up.
They were a tiny orange dot size bug and I could see they would crawl through my clothing to get to my skin to bite me,I shook my hair over the paper and they were even in my hair but they have never bitten my head….it is crazy…what is it,I threw the paper away ?….

I am searching the web like a mad person trying to find answers for this exact insect and ran across this post. I’m narrowing down to an Eastern Thrip. Not a no see um as I believed was the name of it.

Flies and mosquitoes beware, here comes the slingshot spider

A slingshot spider is ready to launch its cone-shaped web at a flying insect. To do so, the spider will release a bundle of silk, allowing the tension line to release and catapult both the spider and the web. Credit: Lawrence E. Reeves

Running into an unseen spiderweb in the woods can be scary enough, but what if you had to worry about a spiderweb—and the spider—being catapulted at you? That's what happens to insects in the Amazon rain forests of Peru, where a tiny slingshot spider launches a web—and itself—to catch unsuspecting flies and mosquitoes.

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have produced what may be the first kinematic study of how this amazing arachnid stores enough energy to produce acceleration of 1,300 meters/second 2 —100 times the acceleration of a cheetah. That acceleration produces velocities of 4 meters per second and subjects the spider to forces of approximately 130 Gs, more than 10 times what fighter pilots can withstand without blacking out.

The Peruvian spider and its cousins stand out among arachnids for their ability to make external tools—in this case, their webs—and use them as springs to create ultrafast motion. Their ability to hold a ready-to-launch spring for hours while waiting for an approaching mosquito suggests yet another amazing tool: a latch mechanism to release the spring.

"Unlike frogs, crickets, or grasshoppers, the slingshot spider is not relying on its muscles to jump really quickly," said Saad Bhamla, an assistant professor in Georgia Tech's School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering who studies ultrafast organisms. "When it weaves a new web every night, the spider creates a complex, three-dimensional spring. If you compare this natural silk spring to carbon nanotubes or other human-made materials in terms of power density or energy density, it is orders of magnitude more powerful."

The study, supported by the National Science Foundation and National Geographic Society Foundation, was published August 17 in the journal Current Biology. Understanding how web silk stores energy could potentially provide new sources of power for tiny robots and other devices, and lead to new applications for the robust material, the researchers say.

Georgia Tech researchers studied slingshot spiders in the Amazon rainforest of Peru. Shown are Jaime Navarro, a Peruvian field guide Johanna Johnson, a Peruvian student and project volunteer and Symone Alexander, a Georgia Tech postdoctoral researcher. Credit: Geoff Gallice

Slingshot spiders, known by the scientific genus name Theridiosomatid, build three-dimensional conical webs with a tension line attached to the center. The Peruvian member of that spider family, which is about 1 millimeter in length, pulls the tension line with its front legs to stretch the structure while holding on to the web with its rear legs. When it senses a meal within range, the spider launches the web and itself toward a fly or mosquito.

If the launch is successful, the spider quickly wraps its meal in silk. If the spider misses, it simply pulls the tension line to reset the web for the next opportunity.

"We think this approach probably gives the spider the advantage of speed and surprise, and perhaps even the effect of stunning the prey," noted Symone Alexander, a postdoctoral researcher in Bhamla's lab. "The spiders are tiny, and they are going after fast-flying insects that are larger than they are. To catch one, you must be much, much faster than they are."

Slingshot spiders were described in a 1932 publication, and more recently by Jonathan Coddington, now a senior research entomologist at the Smithsonian Institution. Bhamla has an interest in fast-moving but small organisms, so he and Alexander arranged a trip to study the catapulting creature using ultrafast cameras to measure and record the movement.

"We wanted to understand these ultrafast movements because they can force our perspective to change from thinking about cheetahs and falcons as the only fast animals," Bhamla said. "There are many very small invertebrates that can achieve fast movement through unusual structures. We really wanted to understand how these spiders achieve that amazing acceleration."

The researchers traveled six hours by boat from Puerto Maldonado to the Tambopata Research Center. There is no electricity in the area, so nights are very dark. "We looked up and saw a tiny red dot," Bhamla recalled. "We were so far away from the nearest light that the dot turned out to be the planet Mars. We could also see the Milky Way so clearly."

The intense darkness raises the question of how the spider senses its prey and determines where to aim itself. Bhamla believes it must be using an acoustic sensing technique, a theory supported by the way the researchers tricked the spider into launching its web: They simply snapped their fingers.

Beyond sensing in the dark, the researchers also wondered how the spider triggers release of the web. "If an insect gets within range, the spider releases a small bundle of silk that it has created by crawling along the tension line," Alexander said. "Releasing the bundle controls how far the web flies. Both the spider and web are moving backward."

Another mystery is how the spider patiently holds the web while waiting for food to fly by. Alexander and Bhamla estimated that stretching the web requires at least 200 dynes, a tremendous amount of energy for a tiny spider to generate. Holding that for hours could waste a lot of energy.

"Generating 200 dynes would produce tremendous forces on the tiny legs of the spider," Bhamla said. "If the reward is a mosquito at the end of three hours, is that worth it? We think the spider must be using some kind of trick to lock its muscles like a latch so it doesn't need to consume energy while waiting for hours."

Researchers Saad Bhamla and Symone Alexander adjust portable lighting equipment in preparation for studying slingshot spiders in the Amazon rainforest of Peru. Credit: Saad Bhamla, Georgia Tech

Beyond curiosity, why travel to Peru to study the creature? "The slingshot spider offers an example of active hunting instead of the passive, wait for an insect to collide into the web strategy, revealing a further new functionality of spider silk," Bhamla said. "Before this, we hadn't thought about using silk as a really powerful spring."

Another unintended benefit is changing attitudes toward spiders. Prior to the study, Alexander admits she had a fear of spiders. Being surrounded by slingshot spiders in the Peruvian jungle—and seeing the amazing things they do—changed that.

"In the rainforest at night, if you shine your flashlight, you quickly see that you are completely surrounded by spiders," she said. "In my house, we don't kill spiders anymore. If they happen to be scary and in in the wrong place, we safely move them to another location."

Alexander and Bhamla had hoped to return to Peru this summer, but those plans were cut short by the coronavirus. They're eager to continue learning from the spider.

"Nature does a lot of things better than humans can do, and nature has been doing them for much longer," she said. "Being out in the field gives you a different perspective, not only about what nature is doing, but also why that is necessary."

Daddy Longlegs Aren't (Necessarily) Spiders So What Are They?

Here's one you might've heard before. Urban legend has it that daddy longlegs carry the most toxic venom of any known spider — but supposedly, their little fangs can't penetrate human skin. How convenient.

This belief has no basis in fact. Besides, "daddy longlegs" is just a colloquial name that's been applied to a wide range of unrelated animals. Most don't even qualify as spiders.

"Common names are troublesome," Rick Vetter tells us via email. A biologist and author, Vetter is an arachnid expert who's confronted plenty of misconceptions about spiders and their kin.

Classification Station

"Red-backed salamander," "shortleaf pine tree" and "pygmy sperm whale" are all examples of common names. They're the catchy, popular labels most of us use when we talk about living things in an informal setting.

Sometimes, they're region-specific. When you're above the Mason-Dixon Line, saying "crawdad" instead of "crayfish" might raise a few eyebrows. Likewise, the American woodcock is variously called the "timberdoodle," the "Labrador twister" and the "bogsucker."

Scientific names work differently. Under the system of binomial nomenclature, every organism receives a (capitalized) genus name followed by a species name. These two-part names are internationally recognized — and each life form gets a combination that's totally unique.

By the same token, a single organism cannot have multiple scientific names. That's a big no-no. So although the American woodcock collects common names like they're Pokemon cards, it's only got one scientific name: Scolopax minor.

The Harvestman Is Often Called Daddy Longlegs

As common names go, "daddy longlegs" is overused. And it's pretty inconsistent.

Usually when Americans say it, they're referring to one of the 6,000-plus arachnid species within the order Opiliones. Some folks know these critters as the "harvestman."

But whatever you do, don't call them "spiders." Tarantulas, black widows and other genuine spiders belong to a different order altogether.

Look at a spider and you'll see two main body segments that are clearly distinguishable: The cephalothorax (where the head resides) and the abdomen. On harvestmen, these components are fused, giving the body an oval-like appearance. And whereas spiders possess eight eyes apiece, harvestmen only have two.

Unable to produce silk, harvestmen don't build webs. However, as a 2014 study in The Journal of Experimental Biology reported, the species Mitostoma chrysomelas uses natural adhesives on its legs to capture wriggling victims.

"Except for one weird family, all spiders have venom to subdue prey. Harvestmen have no venom," Vetter says. So let the record show they're not dangerous to people. You can breathe easy around these daddy longlegs.

Instead of envenomating other animals, harvestmen rip their meals apart with appendages located near the mouth.

Slugs, springtails and earthworms are just some of the invertebrates these creatures will hunt they're not too picky and don't mind scavenging once in a while.

Some Flies Are Called Daddy Longlegs

Harvestmen may not be spiders, but at least they're arachnids. "In Great Britain," Vetter notes, the name daddy longlegs "refers to . crane flies."

Those happen to be insects. You can tell because whereas spiders, huntsmen and other arachnids walk around on four pairs of legs, crane flies only have three. Coincidentally, all insects possess three main body segments (plus a set of antennae).

Crane flies represent an insect order, the Tipulidae, that's more than 4,400 species strong. People tend to get them mixed up with mosquitoes, but these flies don't suck blood. They spend most of their lives as water- or soil-based larvae. Once that phase ends, the invertebrates mature into two-winged adults.

Brits don't call them "daddy longlegs" for nothing. Just as advertised, mature crane flies do, in fact, have noticeably long legs. Sometimes, these appendages are twice the length of the insect's body. According to the Entomological Society of America, the biggest known crane fly displays a 10-inch (25.4-centimeter) leg-span.

Adults don't tend to have big appetites certain species will stop eating altogether after the larval stage. Nevertheless, crane flies provide an important food source for other animals, including reptiles, birds and spiders.

Cellar Dwellers, Too, Are Called Daddy Longlegs

In a surprise twist, some people reserve the common name "daddy longlegs" for (drumroll!) a group of actual spiders.

Ladies and gentlemen, it's high time we introduced the Pholcidae.

Better known as the "cellar spiders," these arachnids like dark habitats such as empty burrows, rocky crevices and of course, unkempt basements.

One species of European origin now shacks up in human dwellings all over the world. Pholcus phalangioides is a yellowish-brown predator that weaves horizontally oriented webs.

Pholcid fangs are tiny, only about 0.009 inch (0.25 millimeters) long — and they're designed to make physical contact with a corresponding spine to form pincers, not unlike a pair of tweezers.

It's true that pholcids are venomous, but the good news is venoms don't affect all targets equally. When researchers examined the venom of a pholcid called Physocyclus mexicanus in 2019, they found it was extremely hazardous to insects. Yet the creature's bite had an "inconsequential" effect on mammals.

There's simply no evidence that this arachnid — or any of the cellar spiders — is harmful to human beings.

Still, we may be on the cusp of something here. Pholcus phalangioides specializes in killing and devouring other spiders, including members of its own species. Who knows? Maybe those diet preferences gave rise to the nonsense rumors about super-toxic daddy longlegs venom.

Spiders (like harvestmen) naturally occur on every continent except Antarctica. So long as we're busting myths, the oft-repeated claim that "you're never more than 3 feet (0.9 meters) away from a spider" is rubbish.

10 Most Common House Spiders

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Physical characteristics

The body of a daddy longlegs is spherical or ovoid in shape. Its length can range from about 0.6 to 23 mm (0.02 to 0.9 inch), though the bodies of most species are between 3 and 7 mm (0.12 and 0.28 inch). The legs are typically several times as long as the body. Some of the longest legs—in excess of 15 cm (5.9 inches)—are found on certain species in the suborders Eupnoi and Laniatores. Of the four pairs of walking legs, the second pair may be specially adapted for sensory functions. The slender legs break off easily and are sometimes sacrificed in a phenomenon known as leg autotomy, which may be used to escape a predator’s grasp. The lost limb cannot be regenerated, as it can in certain other types of insects, including many species of spiders.

Daddy longlegs typically have two eyes located on a central knob on the front of the body. Some species, however, such as certain members of the suborder Cyphophthalmi, lack eyes or have eyes positioned laterally on the cephalothorax. Extinct Tetrophthalmi possessed four eyes. Daddy longlegs also have scent glands, located near the front of the body. In many species, the glands secrete a foul-smelling fluid through openings known as ozopores. The secretions may serve as a form of defense for certain species. Among predatory species of daddy longlegs, the pedipalps (second pair of appendages on the body) may be modified for grasping.

Daddy Longlegs

A little background on daddy longlegs (also known as harvestmen) — they are not spiders, but they do belong to the class Arachnida along with spiders and many more eight-legged creatures. There are thousands of species of Opiliones around the world on every continent except Antarctica. Some incredibly well-preserved specimens in amber reveal that the Opiliones have remained largely unchanged for around 400 million years.

Unlike spiders they don’t have segmented bodies, they don’t spin webs, and no, they don’t have glands to produce venom or fangs to inject it. Some species of daddy longlegs do, however, secrete chemicals that could be poisonous to small predators – this is not a risk to humans.

In case you missed it, Opiliones recently went viral on the internet for their aggregation behavior. Up to 70,000 have been recorded gathering together in a mass that looks like a ball of hair. The reasons for this behavior are unknown – scientists hypothesize that it could have to do with maintaining humidity or avoiding predation.

Despite their namesake long legs, daddy longlegs don’t run around often. They spend most of their time sitting still in a crevice or under a log – they love shady, humid places, so you might find them in your basement or crawl space. Those legs don’t go to waste though daddy longlegs can breathe through them. That’s right, their spiracles (breathing organs) are found on their fourth pair of legs.

Have you seen a daddy longlegs with a missing leg? They can lose them to avoid predation. In fact, the placement of the spiracles can cause the legs to continue twitching – distracting the would-be predator while the daddy longlegs escapes. However, once an adult loses its legs they don’t grow back.

Daddy longlegs truly are amazing. Far more intriguing than I anticipated when I thought that they were nature’s deadliest weapon, with the ever-present threat that they would evolve longer fangs (arachnophobia can give you weird ideas).

Daddy Longlegs Spider. Pholcidae, commonly known as cellar or vibrating spiders. Photo © alvaroreguly / Flickr through a Creative Commons license

What's the Difference Between Bugs and Insects?

When summer arrives, you can expect to see critters that fly, bite, and scuttle making the most of the warm weather. But whether you tolerate these creepy crawlies or you'd be happy to never see one again, you may ask yourself: Which are bugs and which are insects?

Bugs and insects aren't necessarily the same thing. The two words are used interchangeably, with insects appearing mostly in scientific contexts and bugs being used more casually, but the difference between the terms comes down to more than just semantics. They both describe groups in the animal kingdom recognized by science.

The boundary around insects is clearer than it is around bugs. Insects are a class in the phylum Arthropoda, which also includes arachnids like spiders, myriapods like centipedes, and crustaceans like crawfish. Insects, along with all arthropods, have segmented legs and hard outer layers called exoskeletons. Unlike some other arthropods, insects typically have six legs, two antennae, and a body segmented into three sections (head, thorax, and abdomen). Insects comprise a lot of the creatures you tend to think of as bugs. Ants, grasshoppers, bees, and flies are all insects.

All bugs are insects, but under the technical definition, not all insects are bugs. True bugs belong to an order of insects called Hemiptera. There are a few characteristics that distinguish bugs from other insects: Most bugs have a straw-shaped mouth, or stylet, that they use to either sap juice from plants or blood from animals. They also tend to have long, segmented antennae and wings that are tough and dark where they meet the body and are thin and translucent at the ends. True bugs include stink bugs, bed bugs, water striders, and cicadas. Confusingly, some insects with bug in their name aren't actually true bugs, like ladybugs and June bugs (they're both beetles).

When viewed from a linguistic perspective, the line between bugs and insects gets fuzzy. Most people think of bugs as any small, non-sea creature with more than four legs, which covers everything from spiders to beetles to millipedes. That's why entomologists refer to members of the order Hemiptera as true bugs and not just bugs, because even they're guilty of using the term in a general way.

Difference Between Spiders and Insects


Spiders: Spiders are eight-legged, predatory arachnids, consisting of two body segments: cephalothorax and abdomen.

Insects: Insects are small arthropods who possess six legs and one or two pairs of wings.

Scientific Classification

Spiders: Spiders belong to the class Arachnida under the phylum Arthropoda.

Insects: Insects belong to the class Insecta under the phylum Arthropoda.


Spiders: Spiders are mainly terrestrial.

Insects: Insects are mostly terrestrial. Some insects can be aquatic and parasitic.

Division of the Body

Spiders: The body of spiders is divided into cephalothorax and abdomen.

Insects: The body of insects is divided into head, thorax, and abdomen.


Spiders: Spiders have four pairs of appendages.

Insects: Insects have three pairs of appendages.


Spiders: Spiders do not have wings.

Insects: Many insects have wings.


Spiders: Spiders possess chelicerae.

Insects: Insects possess mandibles, proboscis, and maxilla.


Spiders: Spiders sense through their cuticles.

Insects: Insects have one pair of antenna.

Spiders: Spiders have one to six pairs of simple eyes.

Insects: Insects have compound eyes.


Spiders: Respiration of spiders occurs through trachea and book lungs simultaneously.

Insects: Respiration of insects occurs through the trachea.

Blood Color

Spiders: Spiders have blue color blood.

Insects: Insects have colorless blood.

Spiders: Spiders are mainly predators.

Insects: Insects feed on both plant and animal materials.


Spiders: Spiders undergo incomplete metamorphosis.

Insects: Insects undergo complete metamorphosis.


Spiders: Jumping spider, black widow spider, brown recluse spider, goliath birdeater, and tarantula are examples of spiders.

Insects: Butterfly, beetle, bee, ant, fly, termite, grasshopper, true bugs, and louse are examples of insects.


Spiders and insects are two types of arthropods, containing jointed appendages. The body of spiders is divided into two segments: cephalothorax and abdomen. However, the body of insects is divided into three segments: head, thorax, and abdomen. Spiders have eight legs while insects have six legs. Insects also have wings. Most of the spiders are predators. Insects may feed on both plant and animal materials. Hence, the main difference between spiders and insects is the anatomical structure of the body and diet.


1.“KidZone Spider FactsThe Body of a Spider.” Worksheets for Kids, Available here.
2.“Basic Insect Anatomy.” Insect Identification, Available here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Female Jumping Spider – Phidippus regius – Florida” by Thomas Shahan (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) via Flickr
2. �” (CC0) via Pixabay
3. �” (CC0) via PEXELS

About the Author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things


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  2. Noe

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