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- What determines whether a fungus is considered microfungi or macrofungi?
- How would you differentiate between an ascomycete and basidiomycete? Which features would be most helpful in making this determination?
- Fungi can form many different types of symbiotic relationships with plants. Compare and contrast parasitic and mutualistic symbioses.
- What is a lichen? How would you classify this in the tree of life and why?
- How do lichens obtain food? Are they autotrophic or heterotrophic? Explain your reasoning.
- Label the structures present in the diagram on the next page and identify the group of fungi that each of these is from. Choose a different color to represent haploid, diploid, and dikaryotic tissues.
Idaho State Department of Education
The Idaho Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) Comprehensive Assessment System consists of Interim Assessments which are optional tests given during the school year to help monitor student progress year-end Summative Assessment and access to Tools for Teachers which provides resources to teachers to use to improve student learning. Each of these are part of a coherent and comprehensive system of assessment designed to be used together to improve teaching and learning.
Tools for Teachers
Formative assessment is an intentional ongoing process – not a single test. It describes feedback discussions between teachers and students, and students and their peers that happens during instruction. It’s a deliberate process that is used to provide specific insight into student learning and allow for educators to adjust teaching strategies accordingly. Just as a microscope can allow observations of finite details, the formative assessment process allows educators to observe specific evidence, providing the richest information to improve student learning.
The Tools for Teachers is a critical component of the Smarter Balanced system of assessment and provides formative instructional resources, tools, and professional learning opportunities for educators. The Tools for Teachers Connections Playlists align classroom resources with Interim Assessment Block performance levels, thus tying together all components of the system.
State Leadership Team and State Network of Educators
The Tools for Teachers provides nearly 3000 instructional resources that are aligned to the standards, and can be integrated into daily classroom teaching. These tasks and activities are used formatively to gauge day to day understanding along a learning continuum. They contribute evidence that students are on a path to end of year mastery.
Interim assessments are typically used to determine whether students are on track toward proficiency of the content standards. Interim assessments may be selected by teachers in the classroom to meet several instructional purposes, or administered after sufficient teaching and learning has occurred. They are likened here to binoculars, as the results are still connected to the student but in a view that provides landscape details where patterns are noticeable.
Why Interim Assessments?
- Providing meaningful information to help determine student progress toward mastery of the Idaho Content Standards as measured by the ISAT Summative Assessment
- Serving as an efficient source of items and performance tasks for assessing the Idaho Content Standards at strategic points during the school year
- Yielding data on student skills and understanding in relevant areas of interest
- Supporting teaching and learning by providing data that will inform instruction
The application of evidence-centered design (ECD) helps ensure that each item or task clearly produces student responses that support the evidence statements and are aligned to the claims and standards. This linkage of items and tasks to claims through evidence statements underscores the strength of the chain that ties assessment results to the claims.
Most items are scored by the Smarter Balanced test-delivery engine. The scoring of human-scored aspects of constructed-response items and performance tasks is a local or state responsibility. Both provide results that teachers and administrators can examine in relation to the Idaho Content Standards and then adjust instruction accordingly.
The Smarter Balanced Tools for Teachers offers guidance on how and when to use each type of assessment, how to evaluate students' responses, and how to interpret results. The full range of capabilities that are ultimately offered by the ISAT Interim Assessment System will depend on the ability to fully engage the computer-adaptive technology and ongoing enhancements of the system's technology.
In the initial phase, schools and districts can use both the Interim Comprehensive Assessment and the Interim Assessment Blocks.
Summative assessments are administered at the end of the year and designed to provide systems level information for state, district, and school decision making on an annual basis. Summative assessments, which can be compared to a telescope, are useful for looking at large systems from afar and identifying patterns that might not be visible without that specific lens.
These tests are administered to provide ongoing monitoring of individual, school, district, and state progress. Academic proficiency is more than scores. Competency in all academic areas is the goal for every child. This once a year (summative) test is an important component of the statewide student assessment system as stated in IDAPA 08.02.03.111.06.
The Assessment Main Objectives:
- To give an indication of both student achievement and growth of student learning as part of program evaluation and school, district, and the state accountability system
- To provide a valid, reliable, and fair measures of students’ progress toward, and the attainment of the knowledge and skills required to be college and career ready
- To capitalize on the strengths of computer-adaptive testing — efficient and precise measurement across the full range of achievement with quick turnaround of results
Contact your District Test Coordinator, if you need an account to access the portals.
ISAT Score Report
Below are documents to assist you as your review and discuss your student’s performance:
Each school district will provide the score report within four weeks of obtaining all scores for their district. Parents and families throughout Idaho may receive this information at slightly different times. For additional information, please refer to the Resource Tabs below.
Note: if you have questions about your individual student’s score report, contact your local school district.
SA2 BIOLOGY/Science Answers Key Sheet 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Class
SUMMATIVE2/SA2/SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT 2 Biology /Biological Sciences/BS/GENERAL SCIENCE Answers Key Sheet 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, Biology Summative 2 Answers for 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Class. AP SCERT release AS 2 Physics Class wise Telugu Medium ( TM ) and English Medium Answers. NS Summative 2 SCERT official Principles of Evaluation. Summative 2 Biology Paper 1 and Paper 2 Class wise Answers Download for 10th, 9th, 8th, 7th and 6th Class General Science Answers. AP Summative II Biology Part B Answers Download. 10th Class SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Principles of Evaluation, SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Biology/Biological Sciences/BS Answers Key Sheet 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Class SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Principles of Evaluation of SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Biology/Biological Sciences/BS and General Science Answers for 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Class biological science SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Principles of Evaluation. CCE SUMMATIVE2 /SA2 Biology/Biological Sciences/BS 9th Paper 1 and 10th Biology/Biological Sciences/BS Paper 2 Class wise Answers Download for 10th, 9th and 8th Class and 6th, 7th Class General Science Key Sheet Download.
30 Questions You'd Need to Ace to Pass 6th Grade Geography
Of all the stuff you learned in middle school, geography is what you most likely forget first. As you move through years of schooling, English turns into literature. Math turns into geometry and calculus. Science turns into biology and chemistry and physics. Geography, meanwhile, turns into… well, nothing.
What we're trying to say is that, if you walked up to your average sixth grader and challenged them to a geography bee, you'd get smoked. It wouldn't be a fair fight at all. Don't believe us? Read on and give it a try. Below, we've rounded up 30 straight from the geography classrooms of American middle schools. Some should be no-brainers. But others are certain to leave you utterly flummoxed. And once you've tested your mental mettle on these, give a go at the 30 Questions You'd Need to Ace to Pass 6th Grade Math.
Latitude and longitude are constants that allow you to identify any location on Earth on a map.
Some people remember the difference by noting that lines of latitude run horizontally, just like the rungs of a ladder.
Hint: it's not photography of shopping carts.
Google Earth is an important tool for modern-day cartographers, but it can't replace them. Mapmakers must think about who the map is for, how much detail they want to include, and what the map will be used for.
There is no universal definition for a mountain. Though all mountains have high elevations and steep slopes, to know whether something is a mountain or a hill, you may have to ask what the locals call it.
Volcanic mountains appear when one tectonic plate pushes underneath another, but fold mountains are created when two plates simply collide. (A third major type—block mountains—are caused by two plates pushing past each other in a horizontal direction.) And for more amazing info about how the world works, check out these 30 Craziest Facts About Planet Earth You Never Knew.
Hint: the smallest country in Europe is also the smallest country in the whole world.
As the name implies, the entire country of Vatican City is a single city. At only 110 acres in area (not even half a square kilometer), you could walk around the whole thing in approximately 40 minutes. Completely surrounded by Italy, the tiny country was formally created in 1929 as an attempt to separate the Pope from the international politics of Italy. Why Are There Walls Around the Vatican?
Demographics is the study of the human population in a given area.
As of 2016, the average global birth rate was 18.5 per 1,000 people. That's about 256 new babies every minute!
The top layers of a healthy rainforest absorb so much sunlight that the forest floor exists in near darkness.
Only the tallest rainforest trees poke up into the emergent layer out of the denser canopy beneath. These trees get plenty of sunlight, but they aren't protected from wind or extreme temperatures like the lower layers are.
Japan comprises a collection of 6,852 islands in total, but most Japanese residents live on four main islands and two smaller island chains. And to take a look at some more non-landlocked destinations, don't miss these 30 Most Magical Islands on the Planet.
The Pacific is the world's largest ocean, containing about 46 percent of the Earth's total amount of water. It is larger than all the surface area of the land combined.
These native people call their country Aotearoa, which means "the land of the long white cloud."
Around the time of the Middle Ages in Europe, some adventurous native Australians set sail and found New Zealand. They came to call themselves the Maori, and their culture is still influential and visible in New Zealand today.
Demographers use this measure as a way to compare world economies.
There are a number of ways to calculate a country's GDP, but you essentially add up the monetary value of goods and services produced within a country's borders and subtract out the cost of supplies and materials. It doesn't give the whole picture of a country's economy, but it's a place to start.
The world's largest river contains the same amount of water as the next seven largest rivers combined.
Although the Nile is very close in length—and, depending on how you measure it, sometimes claimed to be slightly longer—the Amazon is by far the largest river in the world, dumping about 209,000 cubic meters of water into the ocean every second.
The continent of Africa contains 54 sovereign countries.
The fourth-largest island in the world, Madagascar is home to many rare animals, including over 100 different species of lemur.
Hint: of all of America's state capitals, this one is the first alphabetically.
Although New York City is its largest city, New York's state capital is located in Albany. The town has been around longer and is closer to the center of the state than NYC.
This is why you might hear French spoken in Vietnam or Sierra Leone or see English street names in the Congo or India.
For centuries, the most powerful countries in the world decided they would simply own other countries, taking control of their resources and products. Fortunately, we are slowly becoming a world where countries can govern themselves, doing what is best for their own people.
Fjords—narrow rivers ensconced by steep cliffsides—are created by glaciers.
As glaciers push down toward the sea, some cut U-shaped valleys in the surrounding rock to form majestic fjords. The fjords in Scandinavia are perhaps the most famous, but they can also be found in Scotland, New Zealand, Canada, and even Washington state.
The top of a modern map is usually north—but there's no good reason why it must be. Some ancient Japanese cartographers always put the imperial palace at the top of the map to emphasize the importance of the emperor.
Maps often include a compass rose to show the orientation of the four cardinal directions. Compass roses aren't just featured on maps. They're so helpful for getting your bearings that they even appear on GPS systems.
Between its tropical lowlands, hills, and forested highlands, only 20 percent of the land here is flat enough to farm.
The capital city, Hanoi (pictured above), is the country's second-largest city, with a population of 7.58 million.
Tourism combines demographics (the study of human populations) with Earth's landscapes and thus falls under the heading of geography.
Kenya, a country in eastern Africa, attracts over a million visitors a year, mostly to one or more of its 60 national parks and game reserves. This tourism has boosted the economy and encouraged some eco-friendly practices, but has also contributed to erosion and deforestation. If you want to visit Kenya, do so responsibly!
This line runs through England and chops Africa in two.
While a number of different meridians have been called "prime" throughout history, when people today reference the Prime Meridian, they are talking about the IERS Reference Meridian that is also used to set Greenwich Mean Time. The Royal Greenwich Observatory (above) marks the exact location of the Prime Meridian.
Hint: the country's Olympian football team won gold in both Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008.
The vibrant colors of the legendary Caminito—in the La Boca neighborhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina's capital—are like an Instagram photo come to life.
The area where two or more bodies of water meet is called a confluence.
A tributary is a smaller river that flows into a larger one, whereas a distributary is a smaller river that branches away from a larger one. Distributaries are most common where rivers flow into a sea or lake. At that point, a river will often branch out multiple times, creating a delta.
Urbanization happens when large parts of a population move from rural areas into cities and towns.
Cities actually provide some stability to the economy because their output isn't as dependent on the climate as farming is. Urbanization can benefit a population in a number of ways—including increased job opportunities, flourishing of culture, and social mobility—but there are serious drawbacks as well.
Hint: these species aren't native to the areas that are mentioned.
A species is considered invasive if it isn't native to a certain area, but once introduced there, it spreads to the extent that it begins to cause harm to the native plants and animals. Sometimes humans introduce a species to a new environment for a specific purpose—for example, cane toads were let loose in Australia in an attempt to keep beetles off of crops—but end up having unexpected, devastating consequences.
A biome is a broad way of describing a type of environment as well as the organisms that live there. Many different habitats make up each biome.
The soil in the Arctic tundra is frozen and it receives limited sunlight, making it impossible for trees to grow. Instead, shrubs, grasses, and mosses feed the resident animals, which include reindeer, musk oxen, and Arctic foxes.
There are many ways to show weather on a map, but you're probably most familiar with the ones used by television weather forecasters.
On a surface weather map, lines of equal atmospheric pressure are called isobars, and lines that show temperature gradient are called isotherms. The letter H on a weather map indicates an area of high pressure, which usually corresponds to good weather. Cloudy or stormy weather, on the other hand, is most likely to appear the areas indicated by an L for low pressure.
While Tolkein admitted that the geography of the Shire (the hobbits' home) was based on that of England, the whole of Middle-earth doesn't correspond to any existing landmarks or countries.
Though many fantasy maps illustrate the geography of a fictional universe, some are abstract works of art or combine real cartographic information with commentary to argue a point.
This process is powerful enough that, given enough time, even the largest of rocks can be broken down into tiny pebbles using nothing but water.
By contrast, erosion refers to the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down and transported by water or wind to other places. Both of these processes can cause drastic changes to a landscape over time.
Nineteen countries have coastline on this sea, and two entire island nations exist in its waters.
Africa is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean is surrounded by so many historically powerful countries that it has played an enormous part in, among other things, the expansion of the Roman Empire the birth of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity and both World Wars.
It's hard to give a short answer to the question "Why are some countries so much poorer than others?" Geography, resources, trade, and racism all play a part.
A country's level of economic development is unrelated to the intelligence of its citizens. However, smart individuals in LEDCs often have fewer opportunities for education, which is why they're usually underrepresented in academic fields.
This region is sometimes referred to as the Middle East, the Near East, or West Asia.
One of the world's oldest civilizations made its home in Iran as far back as 4,000 B.C.E. Historically known as Persia, Iran currently encompasses many ethnic and religious groups.
Projecting a map involves changing it from one shape to another while trying to keep it as accurate as possible.
Lines of latitude and longitude are very important for helping match areas on a flat map with areas on the globe. As accurate as cartographers try to be, projections will necessarily cause some distortion. For example, because of the way it flattens out the poles, Greenland and Antarctica look much, much bigger on the Mercator projection than they actually are. And for more deceptively difficult brain-twisters, check out these 30 Questions You'd Need to Ace to Pass 6th Grade Math.
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16.5: Summative Questions - Biology
English 11, University Preparation
- Short Story: The Storyteller, by H. H. Munro
- Short Story: Initiation, by Sylvia Plath
- Poetry: A Narrow Fellow in the Grass, by Emily Dickinson
- Poetry: Out, Out-, by Robert Frost
- Poetry: In Progress, by Christina Rossetti
- Shakespeare and Petrarch - Sonnets of Love
- Sunrise Along the Shore
- Tale of Two Cities
- Unbusinesslike Business
- Compare and Contrast
- Evolution VII
- Journalism In Tennessee
- On Thinking For Oneself
- The Importance Of Being Earnest
- Antonyms and Synonyms
- Grammatical Agreement
- Punctuation and Capitalization
- Sentence Structure
- Parts Of Speech
English 11, College Preparation
- Trouble at Rocky Beach
- Ethan Frome
- A Doll's House
- Synonyms and Antonyms
- Using words in context
- Sentence Structure
- Punctuation and Capitalization
- Parts Of Speech
- Grammatical Agreement
English 11, Workplace Preparation
Math 11, Functions, University Preparation (MCR3U)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 606 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 606 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Characteristics of Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 232 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Exponential Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 80 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Discrete Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 131 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Trigonometric Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 173 overall||Top Scores|
Math 11, Functions and Applications (MCF3M)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 389 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 389 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Quadratic Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 117 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Exponential Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 147 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Trigonometric Functions||10 Questions, randomized from 125 overall||Top Scores|
Math 11, Foundations for College (MBF3C)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 391 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 391 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Mathematical Models||10 Questions, randomized from 54 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Personal Finance||10 Questions, randomized from 129 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Geometry and Trigonometry||10 Questions, randomized from 110 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Data Management||10 Questions, randomized from 98 overall||Top Scores|
Math 11, For Everyday Life (MEL3E)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 242 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 242 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Earning, Paying Taxes, and Purchasing||10 Questions, randomized from 108 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Saving, Investing, and Borrowing||10 Questions, randomized from 102 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Transportation and Travel||10 Questions, randomized from 32 overall||Top Scores|
Science 11, University and College Preparation (SNC3M)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 186 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 186 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Everyday Chemicals and Safe Practice||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Body Input and Body Function||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Waste Management||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Science and Space||10 Questions, randomized from 33 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Technologies in Everyday Life||10 Questions, randomized from 33 overall||Top Scores|
Physics 11, University Preparation (SPH3U)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 158 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 158 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Forces and Motion||10 Questions, randomized from 47 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Energy, Work, and Power||10 Questions, randomized from 25 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Waves and Sound||10 Questions, randomized from 34 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Light and Geometric Optics||10 Questions, randomized from 23 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Electricity and Magnetism||10 Questions, randomized from 29 overall||Top Scores|
Chemistry 11, University Preparation (SCH3U)
|Start Test||Partial Course Review (missing Chemical Reactions unit)||10 Questions, randomized from 295 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Partial Course Review (missing Chemical Reactions unit)||25 Questions, randomized from 295 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Matter, Chemical Trends, and Chemical Bonding||10 Questions, randomized from 89 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Quantities in Chemical Reactions||10 Questions, randomized from 65 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Solutions and Solubility||10 Questions, randomized from 73 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry||10 Questions, randomized from 68 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Elements - Symbols||25 Questions, randomized from 250 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Elements - Periodicity, Properties and Uses||25 Questions, randomized from 57 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Elements - Atomic Structure and Trends||25 Questions, randomized from 64 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Naming Ions and Compounds||25 Questions, randomized from 193 overall||Top Scores|
Biology 11, University Preparation (SBI3U)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 342 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 342 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Diversity of living things||10 Questions, randomized from 61 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Evolution||10 Questions, randomized from 56 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Genetic Processes||10 Questions, randomized from 122 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Animals: Structure and Function||10 Questions, randomized from 57 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Plants: Anatomy, Growth, and Function||10 Questions, randomized from 46 overall||Top Scores|
Biology 11, College Preparation (SBI3C)
|Start Test||Unit 1: Cellular Biology||10 Questions, randomized from 46 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Unit 2: Microbiology||10 Questions, randomized from 21 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Unit 5: Plants in the Natural Environment||10 Questions, randomized from 105 overall||Top Scores|
History 11, World History to the Sixteenth Century (CHW3M)
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 260 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 260 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Introduction to Historical Inquiry & Early Man||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Near East - Egypt||10 Questions, randomized from 50 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Asia||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Americas||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Middle Ages and the Renaissance||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||The Mediterranean - Greece and Rome||10 Questions, randomized from 40 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Islam and Africa||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
World Religions 11, Beliefs and Daily Life (HRF30)
|Start Test||Commonalities, Concepts, Contexts||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Community Within Sacred and Secular Contexts||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Actions||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Sacred Stories and Writings||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Dimensions of the Sacred||10 Questions, randomized from 30 overall||Top Scores|
Catholic Religious Education 11
|Start Test||Entire Course||10 Questions, randomized from 175 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Entire Course||25 Questions, randomized from 175 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Ancient Traditions||10 Questions, randomized from 39 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Judaism||10 Questions, randomized from 25 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Islam||10 Questions, randomized from 20 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Christianity||10 Questions, randomized from 25 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Eastern Traditions||10 Questions, randomized from 38 overall||Top Scores|
|Start Test||Alternativve Beliefs||10 Questions, randomized from 28 overall||Top Scores|
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Promote an engaging learning environment every day in every classroom. Honor students’ unique strengths and needs.
Model positive character attributes. Recognize acts of integrity and leadership.
Increase students’ awareness of the global society. Emphasize the individual’s role in the community.
Welcome to the 2019-2020 school year! We are looking forward to a great year.
I would first like to take this opportunity to introduce myself. I have spent the last 12 years serving as a building administrator in the Christina School District, and more specifically the last 3 years as Principal at Christiana High School. I had a wonderful experience working to serve students while at Christiana High School, and am looking forward to developing relationships with the students and families we serve in the Appoquinimink School District. The last few weeks have been spent working to familiarize myself with the systems and practices already established here at Appoquinimink High School, and we are working as a team to prepare for the arrival of students and staff in the coming weeks.
I am also excited to introduce our new Assistant Principal, Mrs. Lynn Streets. She is coming to AHS with a great deal of experience having spent the last 6 years as an Assistant Principal at Middletown High School. Mrs. Streets is eager to begin working with our students and school community to support their academic and social growth. Please introduce yourself to Mrs. Streets when you see her on campus. Mrs. Streets is joining Mr. Chris Beck, Mr. Joe Evans, and Dr. Amanda Conley as our team of administrators here at AHS.
Over the last few weeks, I have learned about the wonderful programs and activities that exist here at Appoquinimink High School. Our students have access to a comprehensive list of courses in all content areas and extra-curricular/after school programs. The time is now. Get involved and participate in the school community at large! For more information regarding these programs, please visit www.Jaguars-sports.com and our building website at www.appohigh.org.
I also want to remind you of our AHS Vision and AHS Core Values:
Developing critical thinkers and effective communicators for a global society.
Our teachers are currently working to develop engaging curricular materials and lessons, which push student thinking and develop their problem solving skills, as we look to prepare them for college and the workforce. As part of the district’s instructional framework, AHS will have a primary focus on Checking for Understanding and Higher Order Questioning. The emphasis on these two aspects of the instructional framework will increase cognitive engagement and extend thinking opportunities.
It goes without saying that communication is one of the primary foundations for success in the academic setting. Weekly communications will be sent each week throughout the school year, and if you need additional assistance or have questions, please don’t hesitate to contact our team!
We are looking forward to having a great year at Appoquinimink High School! Go Jags!
For additional school information please visit our website at: www.appohigh.org
To report bullying, harassment or other suspicious activities, click on the life preserver logo. Families also have the option of contacting the Delaware Department of Justice Bullying Prevention & School Crime Contact at 1-800-220-5414.
What is “Mastery” and Why is It Important?
The idea that learning for mastery was proposed many years ago by Benjamin Bloom. You probably are familiar with the man, and may even have a poster in your class showing “Bloom’s Taxonomy.” Every student in education knows Bloom. His ideas about mastery in learning seem to be making the rounds these days with regard to Common Core Standards, that is the idea is that students should be required to master a topic before moving on to the next one. The idea of mastery can actually be a contentious one, and I’ve had the most heated arguments with other teachers regarding how to grade and how to achieve content mastery. The arguments center around philosophical differences about how a traditional grading scale and the idea of mastery overlap. For example:
- Should students be allowed to retake tests until they have achieved a minimum grade (showing mastery of the concept)?
- Should homework be graded at all or is it just a tool to achieve mastery, which is then measured by a summative assessment?
- Should students be allowed to work at their own pace? If mastery is the goal, then shouldn’t students be given an indefinite amount of time to achieve such mastery?
I have also struggled with these questions, and find many expert opinions that differ. This article by Education Week: “Why Grades Should Reflect Mastery, Not Speed” offered a very scathing criticism for teacher’s grading practices. The author states “I firmly believe the problems of the American education system are not the result of years of poor teaching practices. They are the result of years of poor grading practices.” He follows up to say that the goal of the education system is to help students achieve mastery of the subject and not to sort and rank students using a traditional A-B-C grading scale.
The comments of this article also provide some insights into how people feel about mastery, one student shared his experience in a school that took a mastery based approach. This student said “Students who study and get it right the first time have now basically quit working hard because they know they have 10 chances to retake a test….. When he stopped allowing students to retest for the remainder of the year then students started to ask more questions, turn in their work, participate in class on a more regular basis and summative test scores improved dramatically. ”
This student’s experience mirrors many of the concerns I hear from other teachers when discussing the idea of retaking tests and giving students as much time as they need to master a topic. There are worries that students will stop doing homework if they don’t get a grade, they will stop studying for tests if they know they can retake it until they get an A, and that in general they will not work as hard.
While I do agree with some of his claims about grading and assessments, I think the real trouble lies in defining the idea of “mastery.” What actually constitutes mastery of a subject? I think that answer would be different for each teacher, even for each subject. I can refer to my AP Biology course description from the college board, which is a 193 page document that outlines every topic, lab, and skill students should know. Realistically, students are not going to achieve mastery on every single topic. In fact, I would contend it would take a lifetime of study in biology to master all of the learning goals.
For example, take Learning Objective 4.5 – The Student is able to construct explanations based on scientific evidence as to how interactions of subcellular structures provide essential functions.
To achieve this goal, we construct models of cells, learn the functions of organelles, we even do a case study about mitochondrial and lysosomal disorders. At the end of the unit, I feel confident my students have achieved this goal, but I wouldn’t be comfortable saying that they have mastered it.
This digital model of the cell was created by an AP Biology student.
This doesn’t mean it is impossible to achieve the learning goals, I just object to the idea that a high school student with a limited amount of time can master all of biology. I have a degree in biology but do not consider myself a master, in fact, I may never be a master. I will never stop trying to improve upon my knowledge of biology and my methods of teaching, and every year of experience and learning gets me closer to the goal of mastery, but never achieving it. This, of course, is a philosophical position regarding the nature of learning and mastery. I wonder if Charles Darwin considered himself a master of naturalistic sciences?
I don’t think the idea of mastery is going away anytime soon, as it continues to be the buzzword in education. Perhaps, it works better in other subjects, but I just don’t see it being a good fit for biology. Even the common core standards focus more on being able to read and interpret data and less focus on discrete bits of information. Grading practices will need to be reformed to better reflect a student’s progress toward achieving standards, but I don’t think we’ll ever go to a system where we just have a checklist that says whether a student has mastered this or that. We’d first have to agree on what constitutes mastery and we are a long way from that.
Science Photo Library/Getty Images
The skin is composed of a layer of epithelial tissue (epidermis) that is supported by a layer of connective tissue (dermis) and an underlying subcutaneous layer. The outermost layer of the skin is composed of flat, squamous epithelial cells that are closely packed together. The skin covers a wide range of roles. It protects internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, acts as a barrier against germs, stores fat, and produces vitamins and hormones.
Act 158: Pathways to Graduation Toolkit
Act 158 of 2018 (Act 158) provides alternatives to Pennsylvania’s statewide requirement of attaining proficiency on the three end-of-course Keystone Exams (Algebra I, Literature, and Biology) in order for a student to achieve statewide graduation requirements. Effective with the graduating class of 2023, students have the option to demonstrate postsecondary preparedness through one of four additional pathways that more fully illustrate college, career, and community readiness.
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GET WaTeR: Guiding Educators Through Watershed Teaching Resources (Face-to-Face Outdoors)
GET WaTeR (Guiding Educators Through Watershed Teaching Resources) is desig.
Congressional Medal of Honor Society Back to School: New Lessons and Resources for Your Classroom!
On Tuesday, July 20th at 4:30 pm, the Congressional Medal of Honor Society .
Go Wild! A Virtual, Live, Animal Demonstration on Saturday, July 17, at 10:00am
“Go Wild!” brings together experts from the Lehigh Valley Zoo, the Philadel.
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